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enous varieties and land races. Collection of this native diversity is urgently needed.
Wild relatives of potatoes, tomatoes, and peppers in Latin America. In remote regions of a number of countries, such as Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Colombia, Peru, and Chile, there exist wild species related to these three crops that can provide a wealth of useful genetic resources for improving the cultivated forms. As agricultural patterns change and expand, the habitats of these species will rapidly disappear. They must be collected as soon as possible.
Other examples could be provided from the fruit and vegetable crops, the oilseeds, beverage crops, expecially coffee and cacao, and medicinal and industrial crops. The need to rescue germplasm is great and urgent.
Mr. Whitten. Please provide for the record an updated listing of the location and type of each germplasm collection maintained by USDA. Would you also provide the budget for each of these locations for fiscal years 1980, 1981, and 1982?
[The information follows:]
: Germplasm *—”— Location : Collection : 1980 : 1981 : 1982 Phoenix, AZ Cotton $ 33,000 $ 33,000 $ 33,000 Indio, CA Dates (clonal) 41,000 41,000 41,000 Fort Collins, CO All crops; long- 343,803 413,277 413,277 term storage, base collection Canal Point, FL Sugarcane (clonal) -- - 100,000 Miami, FL Tropical-Subtropi- 41,000 41,000 41,000 cal, including avocado (clonal), cacao, coffee, mangos Byron, GA Bamboo (clonal) 5,000 5,000 5,000 Experiment, GA Reg. Introduction 211,000 268,000 293,000 Station (Fed./State), many crops, working collections Urbana, IL Soybeans 82,000 82,000 82,000 Ames, LA Reg. Introduction 229,900 277,900 302,900 Station (Fed. /State), many crops, working collections Lexington, KY Clover 10,000 5,000 5,000 Beltsville, MD Small grains, in- 196,000 285,000 285,000 cluding wheat, barley, oats, rice, rye, triticale Glenn Dale, MD Pome & stone fruits, 70,000 71,000 71,000 woody ornamentals (clonal) Meridian, MS Sweet sorghum 40,000 40,000 40,000 Stoneville, MS Cotton, MS SAES $ 82,600 $ 82,600 $ 82,600 Soybeans Geneva, NY Reg. Introduction 69,300 85,150 110,150
NEW GERMPLASM FACILITIES
Mr. Whitten. Would you also please describe for the Committee new facilities you are planning for fiscal year 1981 and 1982 for germplasm storage? Describe the cost of these facilities, what the facilities would be like, and how you selected the location for the facilities.
Dr. Bertband. The Small Grains Collection of nearly 100,000 accessions of wheat, barley, rice, oats, rye, triticale, and their wild relatives, is the world's best. As a collection it can be improved but cannot be replaced. Present facilities have been renovated but are still inadequate for proper maintenance of the collection for more than a few years. Fiscal year 1981 funds in the amount of $100,000 are being used for planning a new facility for this collection.
Although planning is still in progress, we have in mind a building 60 ft. by 60 ft., two storied with the lower floor for seed storage and the upper floor for laboratory and other work space. The lower floor will be bunkered or below ground for energy efficiency and disaster protection. It is estimated that construction in fiscal year 1983 will cost $2.8 million.
The Small Grains Collection has been located at Beltsville for 30 years and in this time many links have been forged to research programs at Beltsville making use of cereal germplasm. Support facilities such as greenhouses, growth chambers, and introduction, exchange, and quarantine facilities, could be provided elsewhere but at considerable additional cost. These were the reasons behind the decision to locate the new facility at Beltsville.
The National Seed Storage Laboratory is presently located on the campus of Colorado State University. Preliminary planning has been done for a new facility to house this laboratory. The present facility will soon be overcrowded and was not designed for the much lower storage temperatures now indicated by recent research as being optimal for long-term storage of seed. The new facility would have 35-40 thousand square feet of seed storage space and about half that amount for support activities. The seed storage rooms would be below ground to minimize energy costs and natural hazards. Preliminary estimates indicate that it would cost about $4.5 million for the facility in 1983. Construction authority will be requested in fiscal year 1982 and construction funds in the fiscal year 1983 budget.
Further study is needed to determine the best location for this facility.
Mr. Whitten. Would you also respond to why the increase of $1,000,000 is required for research on improved water use efficiency?
Dr. Bertrand. Water supplies for agriculture in arid and semiarid regions are diminishing because of groundwater mining and increasing competition for water. Water costs are rapidly increasing where pumping is involved because of increasing energy costs. The quality of water available for agricultural use is degrading and will continue to degrade with increased use. Irrigation has stabilized crop production because water is the main limiting factor in these regions where much of the high-value fruit, vegetable, and other crops are grown. In humid regions, water stress, due to excess water part of the year and water deficits during the summer, also significantly limit crop production. An increase of $1,000,000 is needed to accelerate the development of new and improved technology to increase crop production per unit of precipitation and irrigation water consumed in agriculture so that production levels can be sustained as water supplies decrease. The 1980 drought in the Great Plains and the Southeast has focused attention to this area of emphasis, and water resources management has been given very high priority by agricultural associations and groups.
NATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAM
Mr. Whitten. According to page 152 of the Notes you say that your research program is categorized into 67 AR national research programs and 8 special research programs. Would you please list for the record each of these 67 research programs plus the 8 special programs and indicate the amount of resources devoted to each? You might spread that table over fiscal years 1980, 1981 and 1982.
Dr. Bertrand. The National Research Programs—NRP's—provide the basic structure for research planning in the Science and Education Administration, Agricultural Research. These NRP's and Special Research Programs—SRP's—each with a national coordinator, integrate the agency's broad array of research objectives into a more manageable number of highly significant programs and objectives. This program structure provides a framework for planning, executing, evaluating, budgeting and reporting research. The Special Research Programs provide a device that utilizes the NRP structure to meet special research planning situations. We will provide these tables for the record.
[The tables follow:]