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cational programs are to inform the users of individual water supplies what constitutes a safe supply and how to achieve it. The Resources Conservation Act provides the mechanism for conducting a continuing appraisal of the status and condition of our soil, water, and related resources. The Department of Agriculture can use the appraisal as a basis for evaluating its soil and water conservation programs and policies. This evaluation may enable USDA to institute better management and planning that will help farmers to maintain a high quality and productive supply of natural resources. Extension's involvement relating to the objectives of the Clean Air Act and the Toxic Substances Control Act is indirectly carried out, at this time, through its cooperators as they address related issues of pollution programs.
SOLAR ENERGY Mr. WHITTEN. You are requesting $324,000 for your solar energy regional centers at Tifton and Peoria. Please describe what these centers do with respect to energy.
Dr. BERTRAND. These regional agricultural energy centers were established under provisions of the 1977 Farm Bill to concentrate and intensify research and educational efforts relative to agricultural energy problems. The major portion of the effort is directed toward research. The $324,000 request is in support of the Extension education program or technology transfer from these two regional centers. This amount of money will support two Extension specialists and provide funds to State Extension personnel and others on the latest research findings and will provide funds for development and printing of publications relative to agricultural energy.
Mr. WHITTEN. Can you please cite specific examples of their accomplishments?
Dr. BERTRAND. The Extension specialists have only been on board in these centers for less than a year. However, in that time they have developed a series of training meetings to improve the expertise of State Extension specialists, FmHA staff, SCS staff, and other interested professionals in all aspects of alcohol production, alcohol and vegetable oil use as a fuel and how to troubleshoot an alcohol production plant. The State Cooperative Extension Services will use the material from these workshops to train the country Extension staffs so that this expertise will be available to farmers at the local level.
They have organized a committee of USDA, university, and engine manufacturers to develop a standard engine test for vegetable oils. With standardized test procedures for oils and engine performance, research being done by different parties at different times can be correlated and compared.
Another accomplishment to date is the development of a solar heating of livestock buildings handbook. The Midwest Plan Service is doing the development on this handbook and it is expected to be available to the public this fall. The handbook will be a reference volume for livestock producers and designers who are designing and installing solar heating systems on the livestock buildings.
The Extension specialists in these centers have even in this shor time been able to relay research needs from the field back to the
research counterparts at the centers. One such item is the incompatibility of vegetable oil as a fuel with the lubricant oil in diesel tractors. Since this problem has been brought to the attention of the researchers at the Northern Regional Agricultural Energy Center studies have been started to address the problem.
EXPANDED FOOD AND NUTRITION EDUCATION PROGRAM Mr. WHITTEN. You are requesting an increase of $5.3 million for the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program. Will these funds be sufficient to provide for any real growth in the program, or will they be used solely to cover inflationary costs?
Dr. BERTRAND. The increase of $5.3 million dollars for the EFNEP program will be used to cover the increased cost of maintaining the present program based on a 9 percent inflation rate. Since 1971, the employment of the paraprofessional aides has been reduced by half, which has reduced the number of persons who can be served by the EFNEP program. I would like to submit for the record a table that reflects these data.
[The information follows:]
* Missing December 1969 monthly Jata
in FY 1978, 20 percent is varmarked for 4-1.
Constant dollars were figured in terms of PY 1971 dollars; source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.
d Dala unavallable at this time.
EFNEP PILOT PROJECTS Mr. WHITTEN. You currently have underway 16 pilot projects which are exploring ways of increasing food stamp families participation in EFNEP. Please describe these 16 pilot projects and indicate where they are located.
Dr. BERTRAND. Over 4,000 persons participated in 16 EFNEP/ Food Stamp pilot projects funded in fiscal year 1980. In all cases effectiveness of new approaches was measured by dietary practice change and improved food buying skills. Project summaries will be provided for the record.
[The information follows:]
Alaska.-A comparison of newsletters, newspapers and radio public service announcements as recruitment methods were made in one urban and one rural Alaska setting. The use of demonstrations in supermarkets as a method to improve nutrition knowledge and dietary practices and improve the efficiency of program delivery was also tested.
California.-An evaluation of the effectiveness of a Spanish language TV series to reach and teach Mexican-Americans in two counties in the California Central Valley was undertaken. Group comparisons in the alteration of food habits will be made between those who received the: (1) TV series only; (2) traditional one-to-one EFNEP instruction; (3) a combination of TV and individual instruction; and (4) no instruction.
Georgia. -Fifteen counties tested six recruitment and six educational methods for providing nutrition education. Recruitment methods included: (1) 8 mm film loops; (2) posters; (3) radio public service announcements; (4) TV public service announcements; (5) promotional flyers mailed with information of food stamp; and (6) minidemonstrations in food stamp certification centers. Educational strategies included: (1) one-to-one instruction using print media on an irregular schedule; (2) one-to-one instruction using print media teaching on a specific schedule of home visits; (3) small group instruction (10 or fewer persons) using print media; (4) small group instruction (10 or fewer persons) using audiovisual materials; and (5) weekly educational television series with programmed study workbook. The alteration of the dietary practices of participants in each group will be compared/contrasted.
Hawaii. -As part of a program to improve participants proper use of food stamps, and to improve food stamp workers knowledge of EFNEP, food stamp workers received a slide tape presentation about EFNEP. The cost effectiveness and dietary practice improvement for families who received a six month intensive one-to-one lesson series was compared with families receiving less concentrated instruction.
Kansas.—The use of public service announcements and mail to inform food stamp users about EFNEP was evaluated in two counties. Eight weeks of group instruction for adults and children will be evaluated through measurement of changes in food purchase and dietary practices.
Kentucky.-Mobile units and drop-in centers were tested as alternative educational strategies.
Michigan.-Seven educational strategies were tested. The promotional methods included: (1) posters; (2) flyers mailed; (3) TV public service announcements; (4) radio public service announcements; (5) mailed grocery shopping cards; (6) distribution of promotional material by food stamp caseworkers; and (7) mini-demonstration in food stamp offices. Michigan also tested the effectiveness of a six-week intensive lesson series compared with the traditional EFNEP approach.
Massachusetts/Rhode Island.-Seven recruitment and seven educational strategies were tested in the two States. Educational methods included: (1) material about EFNEP included in food stamp mailing to food stamp participants; (2) agency referral; (3) newspaper and radio announcements; (4) referral through aide; (5) posters; (6) brochures; and (7) home delivered material. The following teaching strategies were tested: (1) local radio and news spots; (2) radio and newspaper spots and small group meetings; (3) radio and newspaper spots and individual instruction biweekly; (4) radio and newspaper spots and a 13 lession correspondence course; (5) small groups; (6) individual instruction; and (7) correspondence course only.
Minnesota.-Recruitment and instruction methods were varied in three EFNEP sites as follows: (1) use of EFNEP graduates to recruit and instruct families; (2) nutrition demonstration in urban food stamp offices; and (3) mail correspondence coupled with occasional telephone and home visits by EFNEP aides.
New Hampshire.—Telephone recruitment of food stamp families with young children in one rural county and one urban city was combined with a one month radio correspondence course on food buying skills. A novel soap opera format radio program was utilized.
New Jersey.-Agency referral, TV public service announcements, posters, pamphlets, and individual mailings were recruitment techniques used to attract Hispanic homemakers in two urban areas to attend ten group meetings featuring food shopping skills.
New York.-Three counties evaluated use of former program homemakers as volunteers and their ability to lead small groups using prepared food and nutrition taped messages with discussion and support activities.
North Dakota.-A variation of home sale promotional parties was used to recruit families to participate in the EFNEP program. Aides conducted forty-five group nutrition sessions.
Oklahoma.-Printed materials at the food stamp office, flyers mailed with food stamp coupons, slide-tape presentation at the food stamp office and TV spots were used to inform American-Indian families about EFNEP.
South Dakota.-Use of taped phone messages and demonstrations at local food stamp offices were tested as alternative educational methods to improve the diets of low-income families.
Vermont-Nevada.-One rural Vermont site and one urban Nevada site tested three six-month nutrition education programs. Television and mail, with and without telephone instruction by EFNEP aides, was compared with traditional EFNEP instruction.
Mr. WHITTEN. The Comptroller General has recently completed a report on EFNEP, which included a number of recommendations to the Secretary of Agriculture. Would you please comment on what you are doing to carry out these recommendations?
Dr. BERTRAND. While the GAO report was based on a sample of only four of the 1,000 cities and counties which receive federal EFNEP funds, it nonetheless contributed useful insights to the Department's ongoing efforts to provide administration and management for the operation of EFNEP. I will provide information for the record on concerns identified in the GAO study and subsequent actions taken by SEA-Extension in response to the concerns.
[The information follows:]
1. Concern: Need to Develop New Methodology to Reach More Low-Income Families
SEA-Extension, in cooperation with the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), initiated sixteen projects designed to recruit and teach more food stamp families. All projects tested alternative methods to improve EFNEP efficiency while not sacrificing effectiveness. Delivery methods being compared with the traditional one-to-one instruction include mass media, telephone instruction, self-instruction devices, and group meetings. Conclusions will be drawn as to the costs and benefits of the various alternative strategies. Promising alternative recruitment and delivery mechanisms will be further tested in fiscal year 1981 using a representative group of states.
2. Concern: Need for Improved Standards and Evaluation Tools to Measure the Program's Success
SEA-Extension has been cooperating with SEA Joint Planning and Evaluation to study and develop objectives and measurable standards for judging the effectiveness of EFNEP as a part of the Senate Mandated EFNEP Evaluation. Evaluation and feedback tools were developed to measure program performance against these standards. An assessment of these evaluation tools will be a basis for recommending appropriate changes in the national EFNEP reporting system.
SEA-Extension works with nutrition researchers at land-grant universities and SEA-Human Nutrition on an ongoing basis to remain knowledgeable of the latest dietary practices measurement techniques appropriate for field use. These will be reviewed for possible use in EFNEP.
3. Concern: Need to Improve Administrative Practices
A national workshop was conducted in November 1979 which included training for state staff on supervision of local EFNEP units. As a part of the followup to this workshop, states were asked to provide information related to utilization of the training. This feedback information provides a basis for continued guidance and