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WHEAT AND SMALL GRAINS STUDIES Mr. WATKINS. Also, could you tell me your plans for wheat and small grains studies relating to pest research? We have a number of extremely important greenbug research studies going on at Oklahoma State University in conjunction with federal research that will need your continued support. What are your plans for allocation of personnel for the project? OSU officials indicate that at least 3 researchers are needed to work on the project. However, one individual was transferred from OSU and apparently will not be replaced. Can you submit for the record what the plans will be?

Dr. BERTRAND. SEA-AR presently has four entomologists developing technology to control insect pests of small grain crops in the (reat Plains. In consultation with officials and scientists at universities and agricultural experiment stations in Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota and North Dakota, the SEA-AR National Programs Staff established that a team of at least seven entomologists is needed to adequately meet these research needs. This team would include the four entomologists presently assigned, plus three additional scientists. This seven-member team would develop ecologically-based tactics to suppress aphid populations throughout the Great Plains, cooperate with plant breeders to develop high-yielding varieties with multiple insect pest resistance, and develop integrated pest management systems for insect pests such as chinch bugs, cutworms and armyworms which intermittently are very serious pests of small grains. This research team will be established as resources become available.

In 1979, the level of funding for research on control of cereal crop insects was inadequate to support the three scientists assigned to the unit at Stillwater, Oklahoma, and one entomologist was transferred to another high priority, funded position. We do plan to continue the SEA-AR research program on control of insect pests of small grains and will pursue all opportunities for strengthening this research.

LEATHER TANNING INDUSTRY Mr. WATKINS. Can you submit for the record what research is being conducted at the USDA Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, laboratory concerning the leather tanning industry? What is the anticipated level of allocations and projects to be conducted in the future of the hide tanning/preparation industry?

Dr. KINNEY. Current research being conducted at the USDA Eastern Regional Research Center-ERRC-contributes technology to strengthen the leather and tanning industry and thus will improve demand for U.S. cattle hides domestically. This research includes projects for reducing pollution and increasing efficiency by continuous processing in preparation for tanning, basic studies on the mechanical properties and structure of experimentally prepared leather, new concepts in post-tanning processes, development of comprehensive theories of leather composite properties, and new and advanced waste treatment processes specific to tannery needs.

In addition, work is conducted on contract with Oklahoma State University on modeling of crust leather manufacture, food uses of r zen, and irradiation treatment for preservation of hides. All of these efforts are integrated into technology for the "tannery of the 1980's.”

Additionally, work is underway to improve the use of pigskin for leather in U.Š. tanneries.

The planned program in tannery and leather research in fiscal 1981 is $2.2 million and is expected to continue at this level in fiscal 1982.

Mr. WATKINS. Thank you. Mr. TRAXLER. Thank you very much, we appreciate your appearance here today.

(CLERK'S NOTE.—Material previously introduced into the record appears on the following pages:

(Statement of Dr. Bertrand, 154 through 160.]
(Statement of Dr. Kinney, 162 through 170.]
[List of completed research projects, 171 through 204.]
Explanatory Notes, Agricultural Research, 205 through 276.]

SCIENCE AND EDUCATION ADMINISTRATION

Statement of Dr. Anson R. Bertrand, Director, Science and Education
Administration, before the House Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural
Development and Related Agencies.

Mr. Chairman, I appreciate the opportunity to appear before the

Subcommittee to discuss the proposed FY 1982 budget for the Science and

Education Administration. I have with me today the administrators of our major

program units within SEA---Terry Kinney, Agricultural Research; Walter Thomas,

Cooperative Research; Mary Nell Greenwood, Extension; Mark Hegsted, Human

Nutrition; Richard Farley, Technical Information Systems; and Lark Carter,

Higher Education. They will follow me in making formal presentations of the

programs and responsibilities under their administration. Also joining us is

John Victor, Budget Officer for SEA. Together with some of our program

directors and specialists seated at the back, we will attempt to respond to the

questions the Coramittee may have about our FY 1982 Budget proposals or about any

of our current programs.

At the outset, let me express my sincere appreciation for the guidance and

support of this Committee to the programs and activities of the Science and

Education Administration. I believe that our successful American Agricultural

system owes much to the long-term support of agricultural research and education

by you and your colleagues.

.SEA MISSION Mr. Chairman, the central mission of SEA remains unchanged, that is---to discover and develop new knowledge in the food and agricultural sciences and to disseminate and apply both new and currently available research information

into practical use by our farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural producers

and industries. These tasks are accomplished through efforts involving the U.S.

Department of Agriculture, the Land-Grant and non-Land-Grant Universities,

business and industries, and private foundations. The results directly benefit

all users and consumers of agricultural products.

As you have often mentioned in the past, less than 4% of this country's

population produces and provides the food and fiber needs of this country and

the needs of numerous foreign countries. It is apparent that this imbalance of

effort can only be made possible by the consistent success of America's food and

agriculture system through the years, Clearly, outlays in food and agricultural

science and education is one of the wisest public investments today. Studies

show that returns on investments in production oriented agricultural research

and education activities are consistently estimated at over 30 to 40 percent

annually. Through superior efforts in the past, abundant, nutritious, healthful

and safe foods are available to the citizens of this country at less cost than

anywhere else in the world. Additionally, as Secretary Block testified to this Committee the other day, net agricultural exports are expected to reach $28-30

billion in fiscal year 1981. The Secretary also added that were it not for agricultural exports the uns, would have had an estimated foreign trade deficit

in 1980 of $50 billion.

This feat is unparalled in the world!!!

Appropriations made available in FY 1981 provided additional resources to bolster our food and agricultural productivity. Examples of specific Congressional authorization included resources for additional efforts in

integrated pest management, plant germplasm, animal diseases, land and water

resources, aquaculture, byssinosis, human nutrition etc. for both the Federal

in-house and the State Cooperative programs. You can be assured that SEA is

implementing these additional programs and responsibilities. Again, the support

and guidance of this Committee is very much appreciated.

SUSTAINED EXCELLENCE

To sustain this excellence in agriculture we must include in our research

agenda, new ways of maintaining and improving our technologies in agricultural

production, processing, and marketing and distribution of products. I believe

we can continue to produce an abundance of agricultural products and retain our

position as principal contributors to world trade, without depleting our natural

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0 Enhancement of traditional methods used by geneticists coupled with gene

manipulation (use of recombitant DNA and gene splicing), will result in

development of new vaccines; improved plant and animal germplasm;

faster development of new and more resistant varieties; and overcoming biological barriers to increase production efficiency of farm animals.

A little better understanding of the basic processes that govern

growth and reproduction will result in rapidly increasing plant and

animal productivity.

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