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That is what I was saying. Do you know how they are working with that in very practical terms?
Dr. PURCHASE. Yes, I do. We cannot distinguish between the immunity produced by the vaccine and that produced by the organism. That is the problem. We are working on that extensively. We have a number of avenues of approach.
RESEARCH AT EXPERIMENT STATIONS
Mr. WATKINs. We are paying $87 million a year, but we are working on it very extensively with $1.6 million. Where is most of the research being done? College Station and where else?
Dr. PURCHASE. The major portion of the research is done in-house at the SEA National Animal Disease Center. We have about ten different locations where we have cooperative programs with state agricultural experimental stations.
Mr. WATKINs. Do you have any with Oklahoma? I do not think SO. Dr. PURCHASE. May I provide that for the record? Mr. WATKINs. Yes, I would appreciate it. Mr. TRAxleR. Without objection, so ordered. [The information follows:]
Brucellosis cooperative programs with State Agricultural Experiment Stations— fiscal year 1980
Texas A. & M. University................................................................................... $100,000
University of Wisconsin 80,000 University of Minnesota...................................................................................... 60,000 Louisiana State University --- 40,000 University of Florida........................................................................................... 40,000 University of California................... 30,000 University of Missouri...................... 30,000 University of Tennessee... 25,000 Auburn University 25,000 Virginia Polytechnic Institute............................................................... 22,000 Montana State University....... ---- -- 20,000 Iowa State --- --- --- 20,000 University of Alaska............................. 15,000 Colorado State................ 12,500 University of Vermont 8,000
Mr. WATKINs. We are about to have a range war in my part of the country. They say if you have one positive reactor you cannot move the whole herd. You have to hold them 120 days. They lose weight and money.
We are spending $87 million on factors which I think are important, but we need to try to get after the necessary research to solve the problem. It is costly to the people of this country.
We could move some of the research into the hot counties, the hot areas and not do it 1,000 miles off somewhere. The cattlemen there do not like the mental or financial strain of this.
It is a deep concern of mine. You lose everything you have invested.
The only thing I am trying to point out is this. This is costing us over 50 percent of the entire APHIS budget on the animal side. We are only putting $1.6 million into research.
I think I could get some private dollars that would help in trying to solve this problem. Perhaps we could get some matching money, Mr. Chairman. This is something we have to stop.
I would like to think we might have a breakthrough in some vaccine that would allow us to vaccinate and we could go on and move our cattle.
If we vaccinate and one turns up positive, we have to quarantine, we have not made much headway at all because the cattlemen are still being bankrupt by this.
I want you to know I am very patient, but I have a deep concern about it. The first question I asked Secretary Block was about brucellosis. It probably will be the last one I will be asking him.
But hopefully we will have a breakthrough at least during the time we are here.
HONEY BEE RESEARCH
I would like to talk about something sweeter now—the honey bee.
We have very little research being done. I think you are doing some research at Cornell and perhaps at Iowa and perhaps in Illinois, and certain other areas dealing with the honey bee.
In my alma mater we are trying to do some work on pollination using bees, alfalfa and even cotton, which is quite extensive.
We are interested in trying to place a stronger emphasis on that by maybe having a pollination center. I would not want to call it a honey bee center, but it could deal with crop pollination or a center dealing with honey bees.
We have one individual who is actively working in this area. I do not think we are talking about too much money. I would like to see what we could do on this.
This would be a two-sided benefit. We have a strong honey bee industry in our state and also with the cross-pollination dealing with various crops-alfalfas, clovers, cotton, and many other areas—it is benefitting that industry.
Do you think there is any potential in that area that we might look at?
Dr. BERTRAND. Mr. Watkins, this problem of bee management is a problem all over the country. We have problems all over the country which need answers. There is no question but that this is an area which could be researched and researched very fruitfully,
You are aware that we do have an individual at Stillwater who is working on pollination, principally on alfalfa and some on cotton. I am not prepared to give you details. But Dr. Klassen is here and could describe the work in more detail.
Mr. 'WATKINS. I am very interested in that and would be interested in having a center designated to do some additional work at that land grant college at Oklahoma State University.
I would like to have just a brief moment spent on that.
Dr. KLASSEN. Sir, if you do not mind, I would prefer to do an analysis and provide it for the record.
Mr. WATKINs. That would be all right. I know it is a small
program there. It is something I am concerned about.
Pollination RESEARCH IN Oklahoma
Dr. J. O. Moffett is part of a research team studying alfalfa seed production problems. His assignment relates specifically to injurious insect control and pollination. Because of Dr. Moffett's previous work assignment in Arizona, he has also been involved in pollination research for hybrid cotton seed. The long range goal is to conduct bee research at this location on alfalfa pollination, and other legumes, and in management of bees to overcome and avoid pesticide damage. This has been a major problem to beekeepers and those benefitting from the pollinating activities of bees. Dr. KINNEY. We have a bee specialist who is out sick today. Dr. Klassen, with due respect to him, was trying to fill in that area. Otherwise, you might have had a 15 minute dissertation on the merits of the bee. If Dr. Levin were here, you would hear the enthusiasm in this field.
BEE RESEARCH IN OKLAHOMA
Mr. WATKINs. I am wondering what procedures would be necessary to designate a federal laboratory for studying crop pollination from bees. The center could also study the unique problems with insecticides that southern bee producers must face. Could you submit for the record what procedures would be necessary for establishing such a laboratory? What costs would be involved in such a task? Officials with the American Honey Producers Association have indicated that a minimum of funds would be necessary since an individual at Oklahoma State University is already conducting bee research. OSU officials have also indicated their support for such a program which would allow them to utilize their facilities even more effectively. Private sources of funding would also be available. The USDA has bee research laboratories at Cornell University, Iowa State University, and Illinois. However, there is not any research laboratory in the southwest United States. I think such a laboratory at Stillwater, Oklahoma, would be very beneficial to the entire industry. Dr. BERTRAND. Establishment of federal laboratories such as the one you suggest at Oklahoma State University for research on pollination and bee/pesticide problems have been established through Congressional mandate through the appropriation process. In some instances, Congress has requested feasibility studies if the situation warranted. In the final analysis, the recommended need for such a laboratory would rest on the merit of the proposal, justifiable alternatives and the availability of resources. Science and Education Administration-Agricultural Research now has bees and pollination-related research at six locations other than the one-man project at Oklahoma State University. These are: Carl Hayden Bee Research Center, Tucson, Arizona; Bee Breeding and Stock Center Laboratory, Baton Rouge, Louisiana; Bioenvironmental Bee Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland; Wild Bee Biology and Systematics Laboratory, Logan, Utah; Bee Management Research,
Madison, Wisconsin; and Honey Bee Pesticides/Diseases Research Laboratory, Laramie, Wyoming.
A research laboratory with the two missions you have identified would require a minimum of four research scientists with supporting personnel and operating funds to be truly productive. We estimate that $500,000 would be required annually to fund these scientists at an effective level, assuming the Oklahoma State University has facilities to house them. An additional $100,000 would be required if we would have to furnish facilities as well.
A federal bee research laboratory at Oklahoma State University could make contributions to the hybrid cotton and alfalfa pollination problems and to problems with pesticides that southern beekeepers face. However, we did not request funding for this because of the many higher priority research needs of the food and agriculture sector in consideration of fiscal and manpower constraints of which we are confronted.
Mr. WATKINS. We are trying to find a good byproduct.
I would like to ask a question about peanuts on the herbicides and how much work we have been doing. Are we solving any of those problems?
A lot of my farmers are hollering at me. I am sorry I did not ask for any details to be sent to me.
Dr. BERTRAND. Mr. Watkins, we have a vigorous program on herbicide use on peanuts and the control of weeds. Dr. Shaw is our specialist. I will call on him.
Dr. SHAW. When we start our approach to weed control in peanuts, number one we try to develop technology that is practical, economical, and safe for harvest.
I grew up on a peanut farm. My brother still makes an excellent living.
Let me tell you the practices we develop we also use on our farm. He does it one way by controlling the weeds in peanuts. He vertillates a herbicide that is so selective that you can disc it into the soil. You get most of the weeds controlled in that practice. If you do not, there are several others that can be applied such as ground cracker, when the peanuts begin to emerge through the soil.
If the weeds emerge above the peanuts, we use the rope wick applicator.
The whole idea is you use that rope wick over the rows, the weeds, such as cockle burrs that tend to overtop the peanuts, can be controlled. Those are the ones that are now becoming very difficult.
I think we do have some very satisfactory selective methods for controlling weeds. Again, as in the case of soybeans, if you move those rows in from 30 inches to about 20 inches, and increase the density of planting the rows, this is a very helpful method of producing a growth early in the season to help shade the weeds and reduce them.
But we use cultural practices, seed preparation, some cultivation. We use pre-emergence and post-emergence herbicides. And those that are not controlled in that way, we should be able to take them out with that rope wick.
Mr. WATKINS. Let me mention this. Peanuts are the biggest cash crop in my part of the country. I have spent a lot of time working peanuts myself.
It was very disturbing to me to realize that Oklahoma State University has had quite an extensive program in peanuts, but in my counties, the little experimental program we had with peanuts has been dismissed. It was one of the best learning tools for farmers.
We probably have over five acres to eight acres. I have been out there a couple times myself. I think there is nowhere else in my district where they have a little experimental crop. I am very interested in Oklahoma State University being involved.
Peanuts are the biggest cash crop in my 25 counties.
I would like to see experimental work done in Southeast Oklahoma. I had to go off to college to find something new and innovative.
The first combine I ever saw was 250 miles north. What I was hoping was that this huge cash crop and this important cash crop would have some kind of priority placed on them to having some experimental work done where the peanuts are grown and not someplace else. The farmers can come by and see what is going on.
I hope that can be reinforced. I do not think we are talking about any dollars. I think it is a matter of going down there and working it out.
I feel this is so important to that crop. I know you feel it is important if you have been involved in it also.
Dr. Shaw. We do work closely with the Agricultural Experimental Stations. In fact, the Department of Agronomy there has a scientist trained in weed research, Dr. Santelmann.
He is a very effective department head and a very effective weed scientist.
It is our duty to develop every bit of technology that we can, whether we develop it in Tifton, Georgia, or Lubbock, Texas, or wherever.
Our responsibility to work with our federal and state extension services is to see that any useful practice which can be adjusted with minor additional effort be done.
It is our responsibility to see that information is transferred there rapidly whether we are able under each circumstance to have a scientist on the grounds or not. I happen to think that our county agricultural agents of this country are very effective at doing this.
We cannot make something perfect for those 26 counties that probably was not developed there. But it is our responsibility to make it as nearly perfect as we can and to transfer as high a percentage as we can.
Mr. WATKINS. They do not have a perfect Congressman either. But I do my best.
I would like you to relate that information to my alma mater and let them know I am concerned about it. I would also like to invite you to come to my district sometime to demonstrate this little contraption.
Dr. Shaw. I will come and I will get Dr. Santelmann to come down to help.