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and honey combs from the damage caused by the wax moth. A label, based largely on our research, is now pending. We continue to screen promising agents as replacements or supplements for the relatively expensive chemical that is used to prevent and control nosema disease. Twenty-three agents were evaluated this past year. None compared favorably with fumagillin, the chemical presently being use.
A project to develop technical information on the efficacy of sodium sulfathiazole for the prevention and control of American foulbrood disease is continuing. We are presently sponsoring research in Tunisia under the auspices of the Public Law 480 program. One of the principal objectives is to develop methods and discover agents to prevent and control chalkbrood disease.
Personnel at the Bioenvironmental Laboratory provide a valuable bee disease and pest diagnostic service. Beekeepers, State Bee Inspectors, and Extension Specialists submitted almost 3,000 samples for diagnosis, an increase of 30 percent over the previous year. The threat of the two species of exotic honey bee mites being introduced into the country is presently taxing our diagnostic facilities.
Funds for chalkbrood disease research in leafcutter bees were recently allocated to the Western Region to study the biology of the pathogen and different candidate control chemicals. An effective method to decontaminate chalkbrood infected equipment is being tested at the Carl Hayden Bee Research Center, Tucson, Arizona.
REMOTE SENSING Mr. ROBINSON. Could you describe the relationship between the World Food and Agriculture Outlook Board and the SEA in the AGRISTARS program?
Dr. KINNEY. The Science and Education Administration-SEAresearch in remote sensing is designed to meet the expressed needs of the Foreign Agricultural Service-FAS—and the Economics and Statistics Service-ESS—to improve commodity forecasting and the ability to monitor crop conditions. As SEA research is implemented into operational programs by FAS and ESS, their improved forecasts and outlooks are provided to the USDA's World Food and Agriculture Outlook Board, which coordinates commodity outlook and forecasting programs.
POTATO RESEARCH Mr. ROBINSON. Do you plan to fund any research for potatoes in fiscal year 1982? Has there been any further varietal research on the development of a Mid-Atlantic variety that would grow in Virginia, North Carolina, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania on a competitive basis with Western varieties?
Dr. BERTRAND. We plan to continue our potato research program at Beltsville, Maryland, which involves developing new potato varieties for the Mid-Atlantic States. The level of funding for this research in fiscal year 1982 is $737,000, an increase of $29,000 over fiscal year 1981. The level of funding for all potato research for fiscal year 1982 is $4,325,000 which is an increase of $344,000 over last yo-r. The BelRus variety was introduced in 1978 but is only
marginally adapted to the Mid-Atlantic production area. There are several new russet selections, however, that have potential promise for the States of Virginia, North Carolina, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, and these are currently under test.
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ORGANIC FARMING Mr. ROBINSON. Has there been any research done on organic farming?
Dr. KINNEY. We do not have a research program in SEA-AR specifically on organic farming but many of our current programs relate to organic farming and the organic content of our soils. These include rather extensive programs on the effects of nitrogen fixation on crop production, the use of municipal organic wastes on crop lands, the effects of soil fertility and soil tilth on the production of economic crops, the relationship of organic matter content in the soil to soil moisture retention and soil erosion, the use of animal manures as a source of plant nutrients, and the use of crop rotation and crop management systems as a way to improve crop production efficiency. Mr. TRAXLER. I recognize Mr. Akaka. Mr. AKAKA. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Dr. Bertrand, I am happy to see in your statement on agricultural research the national challenges you are addressing. I also take note the expansions in programs and new programs you are proposing.
STATUS OF BUDGET PROPOSAL May I ask you this? Can you say that your proposed budget is a Reagan proposal or is it a Carter proposal?
Dr. BERTRAND. I am sorry; I did not hear the question.
Mr. AKAKA. What budget proposal is this? Is this Reagan or Carter?
Dr. BERTRAND. This is the current Administration's budget building on the previous Administration's budget. We are presenting today the revised budget as revised by the Reagan Administration.
Mr. AKAKA. I see. There seems to be some difficulty in understanding where some of the budgets are coming from.
PESTICIDES IN AGRICULTURE
I am glad to see the focus of your program and also your aim of improving our national environment. I see you are asking for an increase of $500,000 for integrated pest management and $400,000 for pesticide impact assessment. What pesticides are involved in this?
Dr. BERTRAND. I would like to turn, if I may, for the answer to that question to Dr. Fertig who answered our question relative to mirex a moment ago, and supervises our pesticide impact assessment. He may also wish to involve Dr. Ross who heads our minor uses of pesticides work.
Mr. AKAKA. Before he answers, I want to commend you on your statement that biological control is the cornerstone of the IPM program. I hope someday we will get close to eliminating the use of pesticides and do it by biological control.
Dr. BERTRAND. Our aim in all of our IPM work is to minimize the use of pesticides through good management.
Dr. FERTIG. The compounds involved in the pesticide program are those which have been issued a rebuttable presumption against registration by EPA.
Since 1976 there have been some 31 compounds RPAR’d. Completion of RPAR has taken a considerable amount of time. We probably at the moment have some eight or nine decisions on those 30 or so compounds. The regulatory options which they have proposed or decided upon would vary from restricted use to protective clothing and these types of things. We are working very closely with EPA and the states in developing the biological and economical aspects of the use of pesticides in agriculture.
Does that answer your question?
Dr. BERTRAND. Dr. Ross is here if you have questions specifically about the minor use pesticide area.
TROPICAL-SUBTROPICAL PROGRAMS Mr. AKAKA. Let me move on.
I also want to note that I am happy to see one of your challenges is to improve the nutrition and wellbeing of the American people. That leads me to the tropical and subtropical agriculture programs that are in place now.
I am glad to see that you are proposing $1.1 million for tropical and subtropical research and that you are strengthening existing programs in Puerto Rico and the Caribbean and are looking towards initiating programs in American Samoa, Micronesia, Guam, Northern Marianas, and the Pacific.
In doing so, so far as Micronesia and Northern Marianas are concerned, have you considered the future status of that particular area and whether this will be included in the agreements for that
Dr. BERTRAND. Yes, sir; we have. This tropical-subtropical program we have has been centered in the Caribbean, as you pointed out and in the Pacific largely cooperating with the Universities of Hawaii and Guam.
We are anticipating extending that activity in American Samoa. We are mindful of the fact that their status is changing. We will be aiming our research program and our education program towards helping them produce more food locally.
We anticipate that all of this work will be done on a cooperative: basis involving the Universities of Hawaii and Guam.
Mr. AKAKA. I want you to be aware of my strong support for the Public Law 480 section 406 program in tropical agricultural research. I would like to see this approved and continued.
There was a question that was stated by my colleague from New York that had to do with nutrition. There have been some discussions about nutrition being removed.
My question to you is: Do you anticipate any changes in the nutrition portion of the Public Law 406 program?
Dr. BERTRAND. No, I do not anticipate any major changes in the sectior-16 program. It will remain about as it is now.
SEA BIOMASS RESEARCH Mr. AKAKA. Dr. Kinney, I note on page 3 of the testimony, under the heading of “McIntire-Stennis Act” that SEA states “These programs are of increasing importance as we must look to biomass to supplement our energy needs." I strongly support your research in this area. However, the Reagan Administration has proposed the termination of alcohol fuels and biomass programs administered by the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Energy. Does this reduction affect your research programs?
Dr. KINNEY. In fiscal year 1981, the Science and Education Administration received $8.7 million in pass-through funds from the Department of Energy for research and development of alcohol and biomass. This is greater than the direct appropriation to the Science and Education Administration of $6.8 million in these same areas. Replacement of the Department of Energy funds has not been budgeted. Their loss would represent a serious reduction in the Science and Education Administration agricultural energy research effort. Mr. AKAKA. Thank you very much. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. Mr. TRAXLER. I recognize the distinguished gentleman from Oklahoma, Mr. Watkins. Mr. WATKINS. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
I am deeply concerned about some areas of agriculture. I feel like the prodigal son who has come home. Agriculture has been very much a part of my life.
I went off to college and majored in agriculture and studied agriculture and worked at it.
We have a tremendous problem with brucellosis. I understand that the little you are involved in the brucellosis research is in your integrated reproduction management program; is that correct?
Dr. BERTRAND. Mr. Watkins, that is not a part of our integrated reproductive management package that we are putting forward this year.
The brucellosis control program is under the leadership of APHIS. We have developed vaccines and diagnostic procedures to carry out that. We have an ongoing program with regard to the development of vaccines and diagnostic procedures.
Dr. Graham Purchase is here. He can amplify on that more.
Mr. WATKINS. Would you bring me up to date on how much money you are spending and how much money is being spent for brucellosis research on Strain 19 or whatever it is? Can you give me what information you have?
Dr. PURCHASE. I believe Mr. Victor would be able to provide you with the dollar amount.
Mr. VICTOR. It is roughly $1.6 million in brucellosis research. I do not have-Mr. WATKINS. Is that what you are using or-Mr. VICTOR. That is what SEA is using for agricultural research. Mr. WATKINS. That is the total?
Mr. VICTOR. We do not have the APHIS figure with us.
VACCINE RESEARCH Mr. WATKINS. Before I forget this point, I would like the staff and the members to realize this. We are only spending $1.6 million on a disease that is requiring over 50 percent of the entire animal health budget-$87 million is what we are paying out.
We only spent $1.6 million on trying to develop a vaccine. The disease has been in existence since 1934. Where are we? Do we put this on the back burner until it drops off the stove? Do we say it is not a problem?
It is causing range wars in my part of the country. I want to point out to the staff and to my colleagues that brucellosis has taken over 50 percent of the entire animal health budget—the indemnities, the control, trying to get a hold of it.
We only used $1.6 million for research on vaccines and prevention to try to come up with something new. I do not think we are serious about trying to solve the problem.
Dr. BERTRAND. Mr. Watkins, we do have the vaccine. It is my understanding that it is successful. Dr. Purchase, would you amplify on that?
Dr. PURCHASE. Yes, sir; we are working very closely with APHIS that has the $87 million program. They are part of the committee which selects the research projects to be studied. They assist us greatly in conveying to us our research needs.
Mr. WATKINS. You say successful. Can you tell me how APHIS utilizes your research?
Dr. PURCHASE. One of the things we have done recently is to test out the use of a low dose of Strain 19 vaccine. We were able to create an immunity with approximately one ten-thousandth of the dose that usually is used for Strain 19 vaccine. We are very hopeful that with this low dose we can maintain a continuous immunity. At the present time we are testing the duration of immunity.
Mr. WATKINS. Can you tell me how much APHIS feels the credibility is?
Dr. PURCHASE. It is not ready for use yet, sir. We are testing it. Mr. WATKINS. On the present Strain 19? Dr. PURCHASE. I do not understand your question. Mr. WATKINS. The point I am trying to make is this. You say it is successful. I would like the Committee to know that if you have a positive reaction to brucellosis, according to the regulations they are writing today to implement in 1982—if you have a positive reactor you have to retest. If you get a positive reactor the second time, you have to wait 120 days before you can ever move an animal. Your herd has been quarantined.
I would like my colleagues to realize that it does not matter if you have vaccinated all those cattle or not. If you have one positive reactor out of 100, and all 100 of them have been vaccinated, they will not let you move the other 99.
What they are saying is: We do not have a system we can rely on yet. Therefore, with this vaccination we cannot really say it has done the job. You have to hold your 99 negative reactors along with the one positive reactor. That breaks the cattle people.