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resources, describing the staff-year and cost requirements for each project? Dr. KINNEY. While there have been essentially no new initiatives on sugarbeet research during this last year, SEA-AR has active research programs at East Lansing Michigan; Fargo, North Dakota; Ft. Collins, Colorado; Kimberly, Idaho; Logan, Utah; Sidney, Montana; and Salinas and Albany, California. The major thrust areas for these research programs are breeding for improved yield and disease resistance, cultural studies on ways to increase production efficiency, physiological and microbiological factors associated with sugarbeet losses during storage, studies on how to improve energy efficiency during processing, sugarbeet propagation and preservation of germplasm, and improved methods of insect and disease control. All of these areas are important and would be further emphasized if additional research funds were available. We would prefer to continue with these areas of research previously identified as having a high national priority rather than initiate new areas of research. Similarly, there have been essentially no increases in dry bean research during this last year. We have active research programs at East Lansing, Michigan; Prosser, Washington; Kimberly, Idaho; Albany, California; and Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. The emphasis of these research programs is on breeding of improved varieties with emphasis on yield and disease resistance, cultural studies on ways to increase production efficiency, improved methods of insect and disease control, and basic research on digestibility of beans. If additional funds were appropriated for dry bean research, we would first provide additional support to these existing projects. Our first priority for new research would be to expand the collection of tropical bean germplasm so that we could increase the export potential of dry beans. Mr. TRAxleR. Do you find that as a result of efforts to reduce federal involvement in many areas that you might have to depend more on SEA-CR to get these projects done? Dr. KINNEY. The Agricultural Research component of SEA will, as all agencies in this government, share in the President's Economic Recovery Program. However, the federal responsibility to meet critical issues facing this country's producers and consumers, as I outlined in my testimony, will not be compromised. Secretary Block in his appearance before your Committee has reaffirmed the need for Agricultural Research to maintain the leadership role in addressing agricultural problems having broad regional, national and international implications and in responding to emergency situations. Agricultural Research maintains the same core level of scientists and technicians as we have had in the last decade. The extramural program, involving both land grant and non-land grant institutions, has been used to supplement Agricultural Research's capabilities and will continue to be an integral part of the total operation. REAGAN BUDGET
Mr. TRAXLER. Can you tell us if there were any projects that were funded in the Carter budget that have now lost their funding
in the revised budget, or if there are any projects in your budget as of today that were not included in the Carter budget?
Dr. KINNEY. This Administration's budget includes an increase of $5,479,000 over the Carter budget. The increase consists of $1,779,000 for agricultural processing efficiency research, an increase of $1,500,000 for animal reproduction research, an increase of $1,200,000 for additional germplasm research, and an increase of $1,000,000 for research on improved water use efficiency for agricultural crops. There is a general reduction of $6,070,000 in the present budget relating to the impact of the hiring freeze, travel reductions, equipment reductions, and the freeze on consultants which will offset these increases. Additionally, the present Administration's budget reflects a transfer of $279,000 from EPA for pesticides evaluation.
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RESEARCH UTILIZATION Mr. TRAXLER. You know that I am a firm believer in the fact that all sectors of agriculture will make use of the results of agricultural research. Producers, processors, shippers, wholesalers, retailers, and consumers through the use of Agriculture bulletins and other sources all use the results of your research. Can you describe the type of inquiries you received this year, indicating the usual source of those inquiries?
Dr. KINNEY. Within any year we respond at the Washington level alone to many thousands of written inquiries and numerous telephone inquiries relating to the areas of natural resources; crop production and protection; animal production and protection; alternative energy systems; food and fiber processing, handling and distribution; and food safety and nutrition. Many more written and telephone requests are also received and responded to at the regional and area locations within SEA-AR. The types of inquiries cover a vast range of issues that represent the concerns of the total agricultural sector. A cross-section of the topics addressed and the source of the inquiries will be submitted for the record. [The information follows:]
TOPICS OF INQUIRIES
Pesticide use and alternative strategies for effective pest management-biocontrol.
Animal production/protection system-including the consequences of feeding.
Production and value of new crops such as guayule and jojoba.
Technologies for small farmers-animals/crops production and disease control in animals.
Technologies for alternative methods for energy production.
Storage methodologies to prevent deterioration in quality and safety, e.g. aflatoxin.
Technologies for marketing fruits and vegetables. Technologies for controlling post harvest insects and pests. Methods and machinery to perform specialized functions in processing of fruits, vegetables, oilseeds, nuts, grains, forages and meats.
Technologies to preserve commodities—freezing, drying, irradiation. Methods for detection of deleterious components. Technologies to extend shelf-life. Technologies to utilize byproducts. Alternative sources of energy (solar) in post harvest systems. Consumers and students seeking information on: Safety of the use of chemicals in the production of crops and animals. Identification of insect pests/diseases/weeds and methods for their control. Home food preparation and preservation methods—home canning and dehydration.
Safety of post harvest treatments of commodities, e.g., wax coating of fruits and vegetables.
"New" food ingredients and concepts-sourdough bread starter, rice bread for wheat allergies, bean chips, brown riceflour, and soybean tofu.
Sweeteners-natural and artificial.
LOWER FOOD COSTS THROUGH RESEARCH Mr. TRAXLER. Do you have any information which would indicate how much money consumers have saved on their food bills in each of the past five years as a result of your efforts in research?
Dr. KINNEY. Though information on the consumer benefit from SEA-AR research is not available, an analysis of the total federal/ state agricultural research has shown that consumers do indeed benefit from agricultural food research through expanded quantity and lower prices, and by improved nutrition and safety of food products. Research that improves the safety and nutritional content of food benefits consumers through improved health. However, impacts of agricultural food research differ among consumers by income levels. Estimates of the benefits, discounted to present values, accruing to income levels in the U.S.A. as a result of agricultural food research ranged from $16.20 for the lowest income group, less than $5,000 annually, to $30.74 for the highest income category, greater than $20,000. Though the absolute level of consumer benefits for the highest income group was twice that for the lowest income group, the ratio of benefits to income was almost 4 times higher for the lowest income class than for the highest income class; thus benefits from agricultural food research have the greatest relative impact on low income households.
Research in the agricultural food sector leads to new products and technology which increase both agricultural productivity and national income. The contribution of agricultural productivity to national income in 1979 was estimated to be $177.2 billion, or 9.2 percent greater than it would have been without the increases in agricultural productivity, and can be largely attributed to agricultural food research. This information was developed by economists Fred White, B. R. Eddleman, and J. C. Purcell for the IR-6 Project for National Agricultural Research, Planning and Evaluation.
Professors White, J. Havilcek and D. Otto in a separate study have shown that for every dollar increase or decrease in expenditures for research and extension, an opposite response of $6.14 in 1977 dollars can be expected in the consumer's food bill which would he $4.59 in discounted dollars for the period of 1980–1990. Mr. TRAXLER. What new food products were developed in the past year as a result of your research?
Dr. KINNEY. Although our laboratories do not engage in product development per se, we are confident that much of the scientific information developed in our laboratories provides the basis for industrial development of new and improved products. For example, we expect that the food industry will utilize the recently developed explosion puff drying principle for making a variety of new dehydrated food products, and our studies on food fermentation systems for processing whole soybeans are expected to result in a variety of new fermented food products.
Mr. TRAXLER. For the past few years, we have also discussed the use of remote sensing in estimating crop yields. Last year, Dr. Kinney, you seemed to be quite proud of your efforts, and excited about your cooperative agreements. As you remember, however, members of this Committee were also interested in how the system could be used immediately, rather than simply as a research project. You had a rather brief section on aerospace technology in your prepared remarks. Could you expand at this point your accomplishments and problems with this project in the past year?
Dr. KINNEY. The SEA remote sensing program is a research effort designed to better understand the application of remote sensing technology for providing information on agricultural systems and the environment. Selected examples of accomplishments are as follows:
Based on research by SEA-AR scientists, and in cooperation with the Foreign Agricultural Service-FAS—a model was developed that indicates areas where extremely cold weather could have caused a significant killing of winter wheat seedlings. This system is now being used operationally by FAS to help their analysts determine areas where potential problems in wheat production could occur.
SEA-AR scientists cooperated with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-NOAA-scientists in the development of the capability using NOAA satellites estimating solar radiation. This system is now being tested operationally in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. Solar radiation information is critical for the understanding of crop growth and is useful in many other applications, such as estimating water evaporation, irrigation scheduling, and energy use.
SEA-AŘ scientists, in cooperation with other USDA, NOAA, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration-NASA-scientists, have developed the operational capability to extract and display spectral data from NOAA satellites. This system will be implemented by FAS to provide another source of data for their analysts to use in analyzing crop conditions worldwide.
SEA-AR scientists have shown that water stress in crops can be detected by measuring crop canopy temperature using either handheld instruments or satellites. The scientists demonstrated that these data could be used to schedule applications of irrigation water. This technique was tested last year by a farmer in California using hand-held instruments. The farmer plans to use the
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technique again. Farmers in Kansas and Nebraska have expressed interest in this approach to irrigation scheduling.
A corn stress model developed by an SEA-AR scientists was tested on the 1980 corn crop by FAS analysts and SEA scientists. The model provides information on potential problems in corn production to aid FAS analysts.
Mr. TRAXLER. Has the cooperation from other agencies been sufficient?
Dr. KINNEY. SEA scientists have had good cooperation with other USDA, NOAA, and NASA scientists in their research effort on the application of remote sensing technology to agricultural systems. SEA scientists are providing basic information on agricultural systems; other USDA agencies are providing an understanding of operational systems, and NASA and NOAA scientists are providing an understanding of satellite and sensor systems.
Mr. TRAXLER. Is this project in any jeopardy as a result of proposed budget changes of the past month?
Dr. KINNEY. The increase requested for fiscal 1982 has not been changed.
Mr. TRAXLER. If you could do what you believe is best with this project, thinking as a scientist and not a budget officer, how would you modify or utilize this project, including the information you have gained from it to date?
Dr. KINNEY. The SEA remote sensing research program on detection of stress in agricultural systems, on the development of better crop growth in models, on the assessment of pollution and the effectiveness of conservation practices, and on the use of remotely sensed data for input to hydrology, soil moisture, conservation, pollution, and crop models is providing a basic understanding of the application of remote sensing technology to provide data on agricultural systems. We feel that this is a sound scientific approach to meeting the needs of agriculture and the country.
PICKLE, ONION AND CARROT RESEARCH Mr. TRAXLER. Are you proposing any changes in the funding levels for pickle, onion, and carrot research, either at the Wisconsin or North Carolina facilities? We had some confusion last year as to whether or not these projects were being fully funded, and I want to avoid any similar misunderstanding this year.
Dr. KINNEY. We are proposing no changes in funding levels for pickle, onion, and carrot research in Wisconsin or North Carolina, other than what may be mandated by general funding reductions imposed on our agency.
DAIRY FORAGE RESEARCH CENTERS Mr. TRAXLER. I believe that you now have your cluster locations for the dairy forage research center, including the location at Michigan State University, in operation. Can you describe for us the type of work to be done at each location, and the amount of funds and number of personnel associated with each location?
Dr. KINNEY. In addition to $922,000 at the Center in Madison, the cluster locations and the type of work, funding and number of perso l for each location will be submitted for the record.