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Lat. aquus

but of a more extensive and specific relief, 2 P. exhibited, to which an answer is put in, and, a Wms. 156; as by setting aside fraudulent deeds, decree being obtained, a master in chancery is to decreeing re-conveyances, or directing an abso- certify what is due for principal, interest, and lute conveyance merely to stand as a security, costs, which are to be prefixed by the decree, 1 Vern. 32. 1 P. Wms. 239. 1 Vern. 237. 2 Vern. whereupon the premises are to be re-conveyed to 84; and thus, lastly, for the sake of a more bene- the mortgagor; or, in default of payment, the ficial and complete relief, by decreeing a sale of mortgagor is ordered to be foreclosed from all lands, a court of equity holds plea of all debts, equity of redemption, and to convey the premises incumbrances, and charges that may affect it, or absolutely to the mortgagee. Law of Securities, issue thereout. 1 Eq. Ca. Ab. 337.

p. 129, 133. By stat. 7 Geo. II. cap. 20, after As to the construction of securities for money payment or tender by the mortgagor of principal, lent; when courts of equity held the penalty of interest, and costs, the mortgagee can maintain a bond to be the form, and that in substance it no ejectment, but may be compelled to re-assign was only as a pledge to secure the repayment of his securities. the sum bona fide advanced, with a proper com Equity, in mythology, sometimes confounded pensation for the use, they laid the foundation of with Justice, a goddess among the Greeks and a regular series of determinations, which have Romans, represented with a sword in one hand settled the doctrine of personal pledges or securi- and a balance in the other. ties, and are equally applicable to mortgages of EQUIVALENCE, n. s. & v.a. real property. The mortgagor continues owner


and valeo, of the land, the mortgagee of the money lent upon Equiv'alent, n. s. & adj. to prevail. it: but this ownership is mutually transferred, Equality of power or value; to equiponderate ; and the mortgagor is barred from redemption, if, to be equal to. An equivalent is any thing when called upon by the mortgagee, he does not equal in any quality or excellence expressed or redeem within a time limited by the court : or he implied. may, when out of possession, be barred, by length The consideration of public utility is, by very good of time, by analogy to the statute of limitations.

advice, judged at the least the equivalent to the easier The form of a trust, or second use, gives the kind of necessity.

Hooker. courts of equity an exclusive jurisdiction, as to Must the servant of God be assured that which he the subject matter of all settlements and devises nightly prays for shall be granted? Yes, either forin that form, and of all the long terms created in mally or by way of equivalence, either that or some

Наттоnd. , the present complicated mode of conveyancing. thing better. This is a very ample source of jurisdiction : but Whether the transgression of Eve seducing did not the trust is governed by very nearly the same

exceed Adam seduced, or whether the resistibility rules as would govern the estate in a court of of his reason did not cquivalence the facility of her

Broure. law, if no trustee was interposed; 2 P. Wms. seduction, we shall refer to schoolmen. 645, 668, 669. And by a regular positive system, Equivalent to angels, walked their streets,

The dread of Israel's foes, who, with a strength established in the courts of equity, the doctrine

None offering fight.

Milton's Agonistes. of trusts is now reduced to as great a certainty as

No fair to thine that of legal estates in the courts of common law.' See 3 Comm. 436--440. See CHANCERY and

Equivalent or second! which compelled

All thus, though importure perhaps, to come Law.

and worship thee.

Milton. EQUITY OF REDEMPTION, on mortgages, is the The slave without a ransom shall be sent : right which a man has of redeeming his estate It rests for you to make the equivalent. Dryden. upon payment of the money borrowed. This en

The use of the word minister is brought down to ables a mortgagor to call on the mortgagee who the literal signification of it, a servant ; for now to has possession of his estate to deliver it back,

serve and to minister, servile and ministerial, are and account for the rents and profits received, terms equivalent.

South. on payment of his whole debt and interest :

A man of wit, genius, learning, is apt to think it thereby turning the mortuum into a kind of something hard, that men of no wit, no genius, no vivum vadium. But, on the other hand, the learning, should have a greater share of wealth and mortgagee may either compel the sale of the honours ; not considering that their own accomplishestate in order to get the whole of bis money ment ought to be reckoned to them as their equivalent. immediately, or else call upon the mortgagor to It is no reason that a person worth five thousand redeem his estate, or, in default thereof, to be pounds, should, on that account, have a claim to for ever foreclosed from redeeming the same, twenty.

Shenstone. that is, to lose his equity of redemption without That there is any equivalence or parity of worth possibility of recall. And also in some cases of betwixt the good we do to our brother, and the good fraudulent mortgages (stat. 4 & 5 W. & M.c. 16.), we hope for from God, all good Protestants do deuy.

Sinalridge, the fraudulent mortgagor forfeits all equity of redemption whatsoever. This is done by pro

Civil causes are equivalent unto criminal causes, ceedings in the court of chancery. But the but this equivalency only respects the careful and dili

Ayliffe's Parergon. chancery cannot shorten the time of payment of gent admission of proofs.

Things the mortgage money, where it is limited by ex

Well nigh equivalent, and neighbouring value, press covenant, though it may lengthen it; and By lot are parted ; but the value, high heaven, thy then, upon non-payment, the practice is to fore

share, close the equity of redemption of the mortgagor. In equal balance laid with earth and hell, 2 Vent. 364.

Flings up the adverse scale and shuns proportion. To foreclose the equity, a bill in chancery is


And gaze,

cus; of


Fancy a regular obedience to one law will be a full Here's an equivocator, that would swear equivalent for their breach of another. Rogers. the scales against either scale; yet could not equiva. The characteristic style of the Hebrew poets, who cate to Heaven.

Shakspeare delight in subjoining to one proposition a correspond Reproof is easily misapplied, and through equivocaing clause which has an equivalent or opposito sense,

tion, wrested. affords frequent explanations of obscure passages by I pull in resolution, and begin the parallelism.

Archbp. Newcome. To doubt the equirocation of the fiend There is probably no country so barbarous that

That lies like truth. Shakspeare. Macbeth. would not disclose all it know, if it received from the

Who sees not how no place can be left for truth, travellor equivalent information.

where there is full room given to equivocation ?

Bp. Hall, EQUIVALENT Terms are where several words

Not only Jesuits can equivocate ? Dryden. that differ in sound have yet one and the same My soul disdained a promise;siçnification; as every body was there, and no -But yet your false equivocuting tongue, body was absent; nihil non, and omne.

Your looks, your eyes, your every motion promised : EQUIVALENT Things are either moral, physi- But you are ripe in frauds, and learned in falsehoods. cal, or statical. 1. Moral; e. g. the command

Smith. ing or advising a murder is a guilt equivalent to EQUULEUS, or Ecculeus, in antiquity, a that of the murderer. 2. Physical; a man who kind of rack used for extorting a confession, at has the strength of two men is said to be equiva- first chiefly practised on slaves, but afterwards lent to two men. 3. Statical; a less weight be- made use of against the Christians. The equucomes equivalent in force with a greater, by leus was made of wood, having holes at certain having its distance from the centre increased. distances, with a screw, by which the criminal

EQUIVALENTS. See CHEMISTRY, Appendix. was stretched to the third, sometimes to the fourth, EQUIVOCAL, adj. & n. s. Lat. æquivo- or fifth holes, his arms and his legs being fastened EQUIV'OCALLY, adv.

@quus. on the equuleus with cords; and thus was hoisted EquiV'OCALNESS, n. s.


VOCO, aloft, and extended in such a manner, that all his speak. Of doubtful meaning; standing for dif- bones were dislocated. In this state red-hot plates ferent notions, or things : uncertain; irregular. were applied to his body, and he was goaded in These sentences to sugar or to gall,

the sides with an instrument called ungula. Being strong on both sides, are equivocal.

EQUULEUS, EQUICULUS, or Equus Minoe, in

Shakspeare. astronomy, the horse's head; a constellation of Words of different significations, taken in general, the northern hemisphere. See AstroNOMY. are of an equivocal sense ; but being considered with EQUUS, in zoology, a genus of quadrupeds all their particular circumstances, they have their belonging to the order of belluæ. They have six sense restrained.


fleet. erect and parallel fore teeth in the upper jaw, and Prejudice is an equivocal term; and may as well mean six somewhat prominent ones in the under jaw; right opinions taken upon trust, and deeply rooted in one short tusk on each side of both jaws, at a the mind, as false and absurd opinions so derived, considerable distance from the other teeth; and aud grown into it.


the feet consist of an undivided hoof. This genus There is no such thing as equivocal or spontancous is the only race of quadrupeds, in which the generation; but all animals are geuerated by animal parents of the same species with themselves. Ray.

mammæ are wanting on the males. Mr. Kerr Words abstracted from their proper sense and

enumerates six species.

I. Eotus Asinus, the ass, has long slouching signification, lose the nature of words, and are only cquirocally so called.


ears, solid hoofs, short mane, and tail covered Distinguish the equivocalness or lassitude of the with long hairs at the end. The body is usually word, and then point out that determinate part which of an ash color, with a dusky cross on the shoulis the ground of my demonstration.


ders. Gmelin describes two varieties, besides No insect or animal did ever proceed equivocally hybrids or mules, viz. from putrefaction, unless in miraculous cases; as in

1. Equus Asinus Domesticus, the tame or Egypt by the divine judgments.


domestic ass, is an humble, patient, and quiet aniEquivocal generation is the production of plants mal. He submits with firmness to strokes and without seed, or of insects or animals without chastisement; he is temperate both as to the parents, in the natural way of coition between male quantity and quality of his food; he contents und female ; which is now believed never to hap: himself with the rigid and disagreeable herbage pen but that all bodies are unequivocally produced.

which the horse and other animals leave to him

Harris. and disdain to eat; he is more delicate with regard The greater number of those who held this were to his drink, never using water unless it be permisguided by equivocal terms.

Swift. fectly pure. As his master does not take the trouShall two or three wretched equivocals have the ble of combing him, he often rolls himself on the force to corrupt us?

Dennie. turf among thistles, ferns, &c. Without regarding Those half-learned witlings, numerous in our isle

what he is carrying, he lies down to roll as often As half-formed insects on the Banks of Nile;

as he can, seeming to reproach his masters with Untinished things, one knows not what to call, Their generation's so equivocal.

neglect and want of attention. When very young, Pope.

the ass is a gay, sprightly, nimble, and gentle EQUIV'OCATE, v. n. 7 Lat. æquivocatio; animal. But he soon loses these qualities, probaEQUIVOCATION, n. s. equus and voco. See bly by the had usage he meets with; and becomes

EQUIVOCA’TOR, n. S. S EQUIVOCAL. To use lazy, untractable, and stubborn. When under ambiguous expressions, or words of double mean- the influence of love, he becomes perfectly furious. ing; to mean one thing and express another. The affection of the female for her young is

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strong. Pliny assures us, that when an experi- large; with remarkably long ears; but they are ment was made to discover the strength of ma- both used to carry burdens. In America there ternal affection in a she ass, she ran through the were originally no asses, but they were carried flames in order to come at her colt. Although thither first by the Spaniards, and afterwards by the ass be generally ill used, he discovers a great other nations, where they multiplied greatly; inattachment to his master; he smells him at a dis- somuch, that, in some places, there are whole tance, searches the places and roads he used to droves of them that run wild, and are not easily frequent, and easily distinguishes him from other caught. Asses in general carry the heaviest bur

The ass has a very fine eye, an excellent dens in proportion to their bulk; and, as their scent, and a good ear. When overloaded, he keeping costs little or nothing, it is surprising hangs his head, and s.nks his ears; when too much that they are not put to more uses than they geteased or tormented, he opens his mouth and re- nerally are among us. The flesh of the common tracts his lips in a disagreeable manner. If you ass is never eaten in Europe; though some say, cover his eyes, he will not move another step; if that of their colts is tender, and not disagreeable. you lay kim on his side, and place his head so 2. EQUUS ASINUS FERus, the wild ass, the that one eye rests on the ground, and cover the onager, of Oppian, Pliny, Ray, &c., and the other with a cloth, he will remain in this situation koulan of Mr. Pennant, varies from the tame in without making any attempt to get up. He walks, several respects, and requires a more particular trots, and gallops in the same manner as the description. The forehead is much arched ; the horse, but all his motions are slower. Whatever ears are long and erect, even when the animal is pace he is going at, if pushed, he instantly stops. out of order; sharp-pointed, and lined with whiThe cry of the horse is called neighing; that of tish curling hairs; the irides are of a livid the ass braying, which is a long disagreeable brown; the lips thick; and the end of the nose noise, consisting of alternate discords from sharp sloping steeply down to the upper lip; and the to grave and from grave to sharp; he seldom nostrils are large and oval. It is much higher cries but when pressed with hunger or love; the on its limbs than the tame ass, and its legs are voice of the female is clearer and more piercing much finer, but it again resembles it in the narthan that of the male. The ass is less subject to rowness of its chest and body; it carries its head vermin than other animals covered with hair; he much higher; and its skull is of a surprising thinis never troubled with lice, probably owing to ness. The mane is dusky, about three or four inches the hardness and dryness of his skin; and it is long, composed of soft woolly hair, and extends perhaps for tne same reason that he is less sensi- quite to the shoulders ; the hairs at the end of ble to the whip and spur than the horse. The the tail are coarse, and about a span long. The teeth of the ass fall out and grow at the same color of the hair in general is silvery white; the age and in the same manner as those of the horse; upper part of the face, the sides of the neck, and and he has nearly the same marks in his mouth. body, are of a flaxen color; the hind parts of Asses are capable of propagating when two years the thighs are the same; the fore part divided old. The females are in season in May and June. from the flank by a white line, which extends The milk appears in the dugs ten months after im- round the rump to the tail; the belly and legs pregnation; she brings forth in the twelfth month, are also white; along the very top of the back, and always one at a time. Seven days after the from the mane quite to the tail, runs a stripe of birth, the season of the female returns, and she is bushy waved hairs of a coffee-color, broadest again in a condition to receive the male. The above the hind part, and growing narrower again colt should be taken from her at the end of five or towards the tail; another of the same color crosses six months, that the growth and nourishment of it at the shoulders (of the males only), forming a the fætus may not be obstructed. The stallion mark, such as distinguishes the tame asses; the or jack-ass should be the largest and strongest dorsal band and the mane are bounded on each that can be found: he should be at least three side by a beautiful line of white, well described by years old, and never ought to exceed ten. Mules Oppian, who gives an adınirable account of the are the offspring of the horse and ass, or the jack whole. Its winter coat is very fine, soft, and ass and mare.

See Mule. Mr. Pennant men- silky, much undulated, and likest to the hair o. tions a mule produced between a jack-ass and the camel; greasy to the touch; and the flaxen a female zebra.

color, during that season, more exquisitely bright. The like the horse, continues growing three Its summer coat is very smooth, silky, and even, or four years, and lives till he is twenty-five or with the exception of certain shaded rays that thirty; he sleeps less than the horse, and never lie mark the sides of neck, pointing downwards down but when excessively fatigued. He is more These animals inhabit the dry and mountainous robust, and less subject to disease than the horse. parts of the deserts of Great Tartary, but not Travellers inform us, that there are two sorts of higher than latitude 48o. They are migratory, asses in Persia; one of which is used for bur- and arrive in vast troops to feed, during the sumdens, they being slow and heavy; the other kept mer, in the tracts east and north of lake Aral. like horses for the saddle: for they have smooth About autumn they collect in hundreds, and dihair, carry their head well, and are much quicker rect their course towards the north of India, to in their motion ; but when they ride them, they enjoy a warm retreat during winter. But Persia sit nearer their buttocks than when on a horse'; is their most usual place of retirement; where they are dressed like horses, and are taught to they are found in the mountains of Casbin, some amble like them; but they generally cleave their even at all times of the year. Barboga says, nostrils to give more room for breathing. Dr. they penetrate even into the southern parts of InRussell tells us, that they have two sorts in Syria; dia, to the mountains of Malabar and Golconda. one of which is like ours, and the other very According to Leo Africanus, wild asses of an ash


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