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undivided wing-sheaths, which at their extremi- ornament in different parts of their head-dress ties project a little beyond the abdomen; and during the evening hours. the insect is totally destitute of real, or under The common or wingless glow-worm may be wings. It is usually found in dark neglected very successfully kept, if properly supplied with places, beneath boards, in cellars, &c., and, moist turf, grass, moss, &c., for a considerable if handled, especially if crushed, diffuses a very length of time; and, as soon as the evening comunpleasant smell. Pliny represents this beetle, mences, will regularly exhibit its beautiful effulwhen applied with oil extracted from the cedar
, gence, illuminating every object within a small as an infallible remedy for otherwise incurable space around it, and sometimes the light is so vivid ulcers
as to be perceived through the box in which it is Genus 8. Lampyris.-Antennæ filiform; feelers kept. This insect deposits its eggs, which are four; wing-cases flexible; thorar flat semi-orbicu- small and yellowish, on the leaves of grass, &c. lar; head concealed under the thorax; abdomen · Authors who have noticed the luminous sides having papillary folds, the females mostly parts of the common female glow-worm,' says destitute of wings, and resembling larvæ. Mr. Kirby, having usually contented them
The lampyris noctiluca, or glow-worm, is a selves with stating that the light issues from highly curious and interesting animal. It is seen the three last ventral segments of the abdoduring the summer months as late as the close men, I shall give you the result of some obof August, if the season be mild, on dry banks, servations I once made upon this subject. One about woods, pastures, and hedgeways, exhibit- evening, in the beginning of July, meeting with ing, as soon as the dusk of the evening com two of these insects, I placed them on my hand. merces, the most vivid and beautiful phosphoric At first their light was exceedingly brilliant, so splendor, in form of a round spot of considerable as to appear even at the junctions of the upper size. The animal itself, which is the female or dorsal segments of the abdomen. Soon after insect, measures about three-quarters of an inch I had taken them, one withdrew its light altogein length, and is of a dull earthy-brown color on ther, but the other continued to shine. While it the upper parts, and beneath more or less tinged did this it was laid upon its back, the abdomen with rose-color; with the two or three last joints forming an angle with the rest of its body, and of the body of a pale, or whitish-sulphur color. the last or anal segment being kept in constant It is from these parts that the phosphoric light motion. This segment was distinguished by above-mentioned proceeds, which is of a yellow two round and vivid spots of light, which, in the color, with a very slight cast of green: the body, specimen that had ceased to shine, were the last exclusive of the thorax, consists of ten joints or that disappeared, and they seem to be the first divisions. The larva, pupa, and complete female parts that become luminous when the animal is insect scarcely differ perceptibly from each other disposed to yield its light. The penultimate in general appearance, but the phosphoric light and ante-penúltimate segments, each exhibited a is strongest in the complete animal." The glow. transverse band of yellow radiance, terminated worm is a slow-moving insect, and in its manner towards the trunk by an obtusely-dentated line, of walking frequently seems to drag itself on by a greener and fainter light being emitted by the starts, or slight efforts as it were. The male is rest of the segment.' smaller than the female, and is provided both Though many of the females of the different with wings and wing-sheaths: it is but rarely species of lampyris are without wings and even seen, and it seems, even at present, not very elytra (in which circumstance they differ from all clearly determined whether it be luminous or other apterous coleoptera) this is not the case not. The general idea among naturalists has with all. The female of L. Italica, a species combeen that the splendor exhibited by the female mon in Italy, is winged ; and when a number of in this species is ordained for the purpose of these moving stars are seen to dart through the attracting the male. This circumstance is ele air, in a dark night, nothing can have a more gantly expressed in the lines of Mr. Gilbert beautiful effect White, in his History of Selburne :
With respect to the remote cause of the lumi- . The chilling night-dews fall; away, retire. nous property of insects, continues this interestFor sec, the glow-worm lights ber amorous fire! ing writer, philosophers are considerably divided Thus, ere night's veil had half obscured the sky, in opinion. The disciples of modern chemistry The impatient damsel hung her lamp on high : have in general, with Dr. Darwin, referred it to True to the signal, by love's meteor led,
the slow combination of phosphorus secreted Lcander hastened to his Hero's bed.
from their fluids by an appropriate organisation; It is certain however that in some species of and entering into combination with the oxygen his genus, the male as well as the female is supplied in respiration. This opinion is very luminous, as in the L. halica, which is a native plausibly built upon the ascertained existence of of our own country also, though less common phosphoric acid as an animal secretion; the great than in the more sultry countries of the south, resemblance between the light of phosphorus in Aldrovandus describes the winged glow-worm as slow combustion and animal light; the remarkably having its wing-shells of a dusky color, and at large spiracula in glow-worms; and upon the the end of the body two brilliant fiery spots like statement that the light of the glow-worm is ren'he flame of sulphur.
dered more brilliant by the application of heat and In Italy this flying glow-worm is extremely oxygen gas, and is extinguished by cold and hy plentiful; and we are informed by Dr. Smith, hydrogen and carbonic acid gases. From these end other travellers, that it is a very common last facts Spallanzani was led to regard the lumipractice for the ladies to stick them by wa of nous matter as a compound of hydrogen and
carbureted hydrogen gas. Carradori having common electricity, but is so by the Voltaic pile found that the luminous portion of the belly of —and lastly, that the matter is chiefly composed the Italian glow-worm (lampyris Italica) shone in of albumen. vacuo, in oil, in water, and when under other cir Genus 9. Mordella.-- Antenna moniliform; cumstances where the presence of oxygen gas thorar round; palpi four; when frightened it was precluded, with Brugnatelli ascribed the draws its head under the thorax; elytra narrower property in question to the imbibition of light towards their point, slightly curved, and before scparated from the food or air taken into the the thighs is a plate at the base of the abdomen. body, and afterwards secreted in a sensible form. M. aculeata is the most common of the British Lastly, Mr. Macartney having ascertained, by ex. species, measuring from a quarter to half an inch periment, that the light of a glow-worm is not in length: color entirely black; surface smooth: diminished by immersion in water, or increased the abdomen compressed, and terminating in a by the application of heat; that the substance sharp spine, extending beyond the wing-sheaths: affording it, though poetically employed for the legs are rather long, and the insect, when lighting the fairies' tapers, is capable of inflam- disturbed, has the power of leaping or springing mation if applied to the flame of a candle or red to a small distance. It is usually found on hot iron; and when separated from the body ex- plants, in gardens and fields. It is observed to hibits no sensible heat on the thermometer's vary occasionally in color, having the wingbeing applied to it-rejects the preceding hypo- sheaths sometimes marked by two transverse, theses as unsatisfactory, but without substituting cinereous, bars. any other explanation; suggesting, however, that Genus 10. Staphylinus.-Antenna moniliforma; the facts he observed are more favorable to the feelers four; elytra half as long as the body; supposition of light being a quality of matter wings folded up under the elytra ; tuil not armed than a substance.
with a forceps, furnished with two exsertile vesiSome experiments made by the Rev. R. Shep- cles. The insects of this genus are extremely rapard on the glow-worm are worthy of being re- pacious, devouring not only the insects of other corded. One of the receptacles being extracted genera, but frequently each other. Many of them, with a pen-knife continued luminous; but on when attempted to be caught, turn up the tail. being immersed in camphorated spirit of wine, The jaws are very strong, with which they bite became immediately extinct. The animal, with and pinch very hard : most of them are found in one of its receptacles uninjured, being plunged damp moist places, and a few upon flowers. A into the same spirit, became apparently lifeless well-known species is the black soldier, or S. in less than a minute; but the receptacle murinus, the color of which is cinereous; abdomen continued luminous for five minutes, the light and legs deep black. It is found in this country, gradually disappearing. Having extracted the among decayed carcases and dung. The shells luminous matter from the receptacles, in two are blue, and polished beneath. The larva is sixdays they were healed, and filled with lu- footed, naked, and of a pale hue. The head and minous matter as before. He found this matter three first segments of the abdomen chestnutto lose its luminous property, and become dry brown; tail with two jointed bristles, and a cyand glossy like gum, in about two minutes; but lindrical tubercle beneath. The great rove-beetle, it recovered it again on being moistened with sa- S. olens, presents a striking and rather terrific apliva, and again lost it when dried. When the pearance, when, with its large jaws expanded, matter was extracted from two or three glow- and its abdomen turned over its head like a worms, and covered with liquid gum-arabic, it scorpion, it menaces its enemies, and thus precontinued luminous for upwards of a quarter of serves itself from numerous attacks. an hour.'
Mr. Murray remarks that, in a box in which Class III.-- Antenna setaceous, or growing graglow-worms were kept, five luminous specks were
dually thinner from base to point. found secreted by the animal, 'which seemed to Genus 1. Cerumbyr.--Antenna setaceous; palpi glow, and were of a different tinge of light. One four; thorar either spinous or gibbous; wing-cases put into olive-oil at eleven, P. M. continued to linear. This is a numerous genus, it has thereyield a steady and uninterrupted light until five fore been divided into several genera by later o'clock the following morning, and then seemed, writers. The larvæ mostly live in wood, which like the stars, to be only absorbed by superior they perforate and consume, and are the favorite effulgence. Thc luminous spherical matter of food of the woodpecker. The antennæ of several the glow-worm is evidently enveloped in a sac or of this genus are four times their length. In the capsule perfectly diaphanous, which when rup- larva state they are sometimes eaten; in the West tured discloses it in a liquid form, of the consis. Indies these larvæ are collected by the negroes tency of cream. M. Macaire, he observes, in the as an article of luxury for the tables of their Bibliotheque Universelle, draws the following owners, and are in great esteem. Many of these conclusions from experiments made on the lu- insects possess a powerful odoriferous smell, minous matter of this animal : that a certain de- similar to that of the European species moschatus. gree of heat is necessary to their voluntary A well-known British species is the C. moschatus. phosphorescence—that it is excited by a degree Color, shining green; antenna of a moderate size of heat superior to the first, and inevitably and blue; thorar spinous. This insect is found destroyed by a higher—that bodies which coagn on the willow in European countries, and is genelate albumen take away the power—that phos- rally known in England by the name of goa -phorescence cannot take place but in a gas con chafer, or musk-beetle, which last it merits partaining no oxygen--that it is not excited by ticularly, the insect emitting a powerful smell of
musk when alive. Length, including the antennæ, pears adorned with four brilliant gems of the about three inches.
most beautiful golden-blue lustre: in fact, the Genus 2. Leptura.-Antenne setaceous; palpi whole body is full of light, which shines out befour, filiform; wing-cases sloping off to a point; tween the abdominal segments when stretched. thorar somewhat cylindrical. Most of the leptura The light emitted by the two thoracic tubercles genus are furnished with legs of considerable alone is so considerable, that the smallest print length, and run with much speed and activity; may be read by moving one of the insects along they are found on flowers. A common British the lines; and in the West India islands, parspecies is the L. aquatica, of a tine golden-green ticularly in St. Domingo, where they are very color, with the posterior thighs clavated and den- common, the natives were formerly accustomed tated; the antennæ blackish, with a pale testaceous to employ these living lamps, which they called tint at the joints; head with a line down the cucuy, instead of candles, in performing their middle; thorax grooved ; body beneath downy; evening household occupations. In travelling at legs obscure, testaceous. Common in Britain, night they used to tie one to each great toe; and, and other parts of Europe, on aquatic plants, in fishing and hunting, required no other famparticularly the nymphæa.
beau. And, according to P. Martire, many Genus 3. Cantharis.—Antenna filiform; wing- wanton wilde fellowes' rub their faces with the cases flexible; abdomen sides having papillary flesh of a killed cucuius, as boys with us use folds; thorax generally marginated. This is an phosphorus, ' with purpose to meet their neighextremely rapacious tribe, preying even on its bours with a flaming countenance,' and derive own kind. Č. biguttata is a handsome insect, amusement from their fright. and is furnished with two red vesicles at the Genus 5. Cicindella.- Antenna setaceous, base of the abdomen, and two at the base of the palpi six, filiform; the posterior ones hairy : thorax, which are raised or depressed alternately: mandibles projecting with many dents; eyes proIt is common on various plants in the woods of minent ; thorar rounded and marginated. Britain in the months of May and June.
These insects are alike noted for their beauty Genus 4. Elater.-- Antenne filiform; feelers and rapacity, preying, with ravenous ferocity, on four, hatchet shaped ; mandibles notched or bifid all smaller insects that fall in their way. The at their extremities. These animals having very larva is soft and white, and commonly lurks in a short legs, when laid upon their backs, says Mr. hole, drawing in whatever prey may come near. Kirby, cannot, by their means, recover a prone Species C. campestris green, the elytra having position. To supply this seeming defect in their five dots, white. Inhabiting sand-pits. structure, Providence has furnished them with an Genus 6. Buprestis.-Antenna serrated, and instrument which, when they are so circum- the length of the thorax; feelers four, filiform, with stanced, enables them to spring into the air and the last joint obtuse and truncated; head partly recover their standing. If you examine the drawn under the thorax. Of a!! the coleopterous breast (pectus) of one of these insects, you will genera there is none the species of which are so observe between the base of the anterior pair of generally rich, resplendent, and beautiful, as legs a short and rather blunt process, the point those of buprestis; and these, in their first state, of which is towards the anus. Opposite to this derive their nutriment from the produce of the point, and a little before the base of the inter- forest, in which they sometimes remain for many mediate legs, you will discover in the after years before they assume the perfect state, as if, breast (postpectus) a rather deep cavity, in which says Mr. Kirby, nature required more time than the point is often sheathed. This simple appa- usual to decorate these lovely insects. The prinratus is all that the insect wants to effect the cipal species is B. gigantea, the grub of which is above purpose. When laid upon its back, in ascertained to have existed in the wood of a your hand if you please, it will first bend back, deal table more than twenty years. so as to form a very obtuse angle with each other, Genus 7. Dytiscus. — Antenna setaceous; palpi the head and trunk, and abdomen and metathorax, six, filiform; hind feet swimmers, with minute by which motion the mucro is quite liberated claws. The insects of this genus may be taken from its sheath; and then, bending them in a con- in ponds, ditches, &c., at every season of the trary direction, the mucro enters it again, and, year ; they are therefore very numerous, and dethe former attitude being briskly and suddenly serving of considerable attention. The larvæ of resumed, the mucro flies out with a spring, and most are furnished with anal appendages or the insect rising, sometimes an inch or two, into swimmers, but some, not being possessed of such the air, regains its legs, and moves off.
organs, never rise from the bottom. See our The antennæ are lodged in a cavity, scooped article Dytiscus. From this is derived the genus out of the under side of the head and thorax, to hydrophilus, which is thus described :--Antenne. preserve them from injury when the insect falls clavated; club perfoliate; hind feet formed for after its singular leap. The larvæ reside in de- swimming, as the above dytiscus genus. The cayed wood. The elater noctilucus, or fire-fly larvæ of this genus are the crocodiles of the of St. Domingo, is a most remarkable creature. ponds, killing not only insects, but small dace, This insect, continues Mr. Kirby, which is an minnows, &c. The principal species is the hyinch long, and about one-third of an inch broad, drophilus piceus, the color of which is black, the gives out its principal light from two transparent sternum channelled and spiny. The only insects eye-like tubercles placed upon the thorax; but certainly known to spin an egg-pouch, like the there are also two luminous patches concealed spiders, are the hydrophili. That of the great under the elytra, which are not visible except water-beetle (hydrophilus piceus) was long ago when the insect is Aying, at which time it ap- described and figured by Lyonnet; and a more
detailed account of it has since been given by wings. This genus is generally found in woods, M. Miger, which we extract from Messrs. Kirby in their perfect form; but the larvæ are unknown. and Spence. In form it somewhat resembles a In some the thorax is black, in others yellow; turnip when reversed, since it consists of a pouch the elytra are generally black, and lighter toof the shape of an oblate spheroid, the great wards the middle, which often contains a yellow, diameter of which is three-quarters of an inch; or lemon-colored spot. and the small half an inch, from which rises a Genus 10. Forficula.- Antenne setaceous; curved horn, about an inch long and terminating feelers filiform, but unequal; wing-cuses shorter in a point. The animal is furnished with a pair than the abdomen and cut short off at their tips ; of anal spinners, which move from right to left, abdomen armed with forceps. The well known and up and down, with much quickness and earwig (forficula auricularis) belongs to this agility: from these spinners a white and gluti- genus. nous fluid appears to issue, that forms the pouch, The two sexes differ in the shape and bulk of which it takes the animal about three hours to the abdomen, as well as the forceps at the exconstruct. The exterior tissue is produced by tremity of the abdomen. The female is distina kind of liquid and glutinous paste, which, by guished by the superior size of the abdomen. desiccation, becomes a flexible covering, im- The eggs are large, white, and glossy; and permeable to water; the second, which envelopes the larvæ, when hatched, considerable in pro the eggs, is a kind of light down of great white- portion to the magnitude of the egg from ness, and keeps them from injuring each other. which they are excluded. Few of the insect The tissue of the horn is of a silky nature, porous tribe evince more attention to their young than and shining, and greatly resembling the cocoons the females of the forficulæ. They are partiof lepidoptera. This part, contrary to what cularly careful to deposit their eggs in places Lyonnet supposes, appears calculated to admit of security, and are often seen sitting on them the air, the water soon penetrating it when sub- for hours together; and they are also known merged. At its base is the opening prepared to regard the infant brood with tenderness, the for the egress of the larvæ, when hatched, which young remaining in society with the parent some is closed by some threads, that, by means of the time after being produced from the egg. air confined in the cocoon or pouch, hinder the water from getting in. This nidus does not
Order II.—HEMIPTERA. float at liberty in the water till after the eggs Most of the insects of this order are provided are hatched, the parent animal always attaching with a long beak or rostrum, bent inwards toit to some plant. By means of this anomalous wards the chest; their wing-cases are soft, and process for a beetle, which this insect is in-. cross each other with a portion of the anterior structed by providence thus to perfect, the pre- margins. cious contents of its little ark are secured from Genus 1. Blatta.--Antenna setaceous, head the action of the element which is to be the bent inward, feelers unequal, wing-cases flat, wings theatre of their first state of existence, from the flat and coriaceous, thorax Hattish and margined, voracity of fishes, or the more rapacious larvæ feet cursorious, tail having two horns on the top. of its own tribe, until the included eggs are The principal species is the B orientalis, originally hatched, and emerge from their curious cradle. a native of South America, but now too well
The larva lives in still waters and ponds, its known in Europe by the name of the cock-rouch. nead is smooth and of a dark brown color, with It frequents kitchens and all warm parts of a six feet placed on the back and a tapering tail. house, and devours all sorts of vegetable proviIn the month of July it attains to its full size, and sions. It generally conceals itself in the day leaving the water creeps to a heap of dung, and time, and runs quickly if discovered, or a light buries itself in a deep hole underneath, lying is brought near them. See BLATTA. coiled up in a circle, and thus changing to the Genus 2. Gryllus.-- Antenna filiform, head bent chrysalis or pupa state. About the middle of inward and having jaws; palpi filiform; wings four, August the perfect insect makes its appearance. deflected and rolled, under pair folded, hind feet
Genus 8. Carabus.-Antenna filiform; palpi saltatores, and all furnished with two claws. To six last joints thick and truncated; thorar heart, this genus belongs the devouring locust, of which shaped, truncated at the point, and marginated; we have already treated in the introduction to this ring-cases marginated. "Mr. Marsham has de- treatise, we shall therefore only give the following scribed 109 British species of this tribe, which account of their ravages in Transylvania, Wallaare mostly found on the ground, or under stones, chia, Moldavia, Hungary, and Poland, in 1747 &c. The whole of this genus are very voracious, and 1748, from the sixty-fourth number of the preying on all insects they can overcome; when Philosophical Transactions. taken they discharge a brown, fetid, and caustic “The first swarms enterea into Transylvania liqnor; many of them want wings, and their in August, 1747: these were succeeded by others, larvæ reside in putrid wood, mosses, &c. which were so surprisingly numerous that, when
One of the most destructive of this species is they reached the Red Tower, they were full four the C. sycophanta. The grub takes up its sta- hours in their passage over that place: and they tion in the nests of bombyx, and fills itself so full flew so close that they made a sort of noise in that it appears ready to burst.
the air ty the beating of their wings against one Another celebrated insect of this tribe is the another. The width of the swarm was some bombardier, for an account of which, see Ca- hundreds of fathoms, and its height or density
may be easily imagined be more considerable. Genus 9. Necydulis. -- Antenna setaceous: inasmuch as they hid the sun, and darkened the po zipur four, filiform; wing-cases smaller than the skv, even to that degree, when they flew low,