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the justice of nis own imprisonment. To all the Mary and Elizabeth, who were appointed by articles but this, he agreed to subscribe; but Henry's will to succeed, in failure of direct heirs, that did not give satisfaction. He was then to the crown, had both been declared illegiticommitted to close custody; his books and papers mate by parliament; that the queen of Scots his were seized; all company was denied him, and aunt stood excluded by the king's will; and he was not even permitted the use of pen and being an alien also, lost all right of succeeding. ink. The bishops of Chichester, Worcester, and The three princesses being thus excluded, the Exeter, were in like manner deprived of their succession naturally devolved to the marchioness offices ; those of Landaff, Salisbury, and Coven- of Dorset, eldest daughter of the French queen, try, only escaped by sacrificing the most con- Henry's sister, who had married the earl of siderable of their revenues. The libraries of Suffolk after her first husband's death. The heir Westminster and Oxford were ordered to be of this lady was lady Jane Grey, universally ransacked and purged of the Romish legends, respected, both on account of the charms of her missals, and other superstitious volumes; in person, and the virtues and endowments of her which search, great devastation was made even mind. The king, who was accustomed to sub in useful literature. Many volumes clasped in mit to the political views of this minister, agreed silver were destroyed for the sake of their rich to have the succession submitted to his council, bindings; many of geometry and astronomy where Northumberland hoped to secure an easy were supposed to be magical, and destroyed on concurrence. The judges, however, who were that account; while the members of the univer- appointed to draw up the king's letters patent for sity, trembling for their own safety, in vain this purpose, warmly objected to the measure, opposed themselves to these Vandal ravages. A and gave their reasons. They begged that a parcommission was next granted to the primate and liament might be summoned, both to give it others, to search after all anabaptists, heretics, or force, and to free its partisans from danger; they contemners of the new liturgy. Among the num said that the form was invalid, and would not bers who were found guilty on this occasion was only subject the judges who drew it, but every one Joan Boucher, commonly called Joan of counsellor who signed it, to the pains of treason. Kent; who was so obstinate in pestilential errors Northumberland could not brook their demurs; that the commissioners could make no impres- he threatened them with his authority, called one sion upon her. She maintained an abstruse of them a traitor, and said he would fight with metaphysical sentiment, that Christ, as man, was any man in his shirt in such a just cause as that of a sinful man; but, as the Word, he was free lady Jane's succession. A method was therefore from sin, and could be subject to none of the found of screening the judges from danger, by frailties of the flesh with which he was clothed. granting them the king's pardon for what they For maintaining this doctrine she was condemned should draw up; and at length the patent for to be burnt as a heretic. The young king, who, changing the succession was completed, the it seems, had more humanity than his teachers, princesses Mary and Elizabeth were set aside, refused at first to sign the death-warrant : but at and the crown settled on the heirs of the duchess last, overcome by the importunities of Cranmer, of Suffolk; she herself being contented to forego he reluctantly complied ; declaring, that if he her claim. For some time the king had landid wrong, the sin should be on the head of guished in a consumption. After this settlement those who had persuaded bim to it. The pri- of the crown, his health visibly declined every mate, after making another unsuccessful effort day, and little hopes were entertained of his reto reclaim the woman from her opinions, com covery. His physicians were now dismissed by mitted her to the flames. Some time after, Van an order of council; and he was put into the Paris, a Dutchman, was condemned to death for hands of an ignorant old woman, who undertook Arianism. He suffered with great intrepidity, to restore him to health. After the use of her and is said to have hugged the faggots that were medicines, all his bad symptoms greatly inconsuming him. The rest of this reign affords creased. He felt a difficulty of speech and only a history of intrigues and cabals. The pron breathing; his pulse failed, his legs swelled, his tector was first opposed by his own brother color became livid. He expired at Greenwich, admiral Sir Thomas Seymour, who had married on the 6th of July, 1553, in the sixteenth of his Catharine Parr the late king's widow. She died age, and seventh of his reign. soon after the marriage; and he then made his After the death of Edward, very little regard addresses to the princess Elizabeth, who is said was paid to the new patent by which lady Jane not to have been averse to the match. His Grey had been declared heir to the throne. The brother the duke, being informed of his ambiti- undoubted title of Mary, notwithstanding the ous projects, caused him to be attainted of high- scandalous behaviour of her father and his sertreason, and at last condemned and executed, vile parliaments, was generally acknowledged by Somerset himself was sometime afterwards de- the nation. Northumberland, however, was prived of his office by Dudley, duke of Northum- resolved to put the late king's will in execution. berland; and was in his turn accused of treason, He therefore carefully concealed the death of the and beheaded. Not satisfied with the office of king, in hope of securing the person of Mary, protector, which he assumed on the death of who, by an order of council, had been required Somerset, this ambitious nobleman formed a to attend her brother during his illness; but she, scheme of engrossing the sovereign power alto being informed of his death, immediately pregether. He represented to Edward, who was pared to assert her rights. Northumberland then, Dow in a declining state of alth, that his sisters accompanied by the duke of Suffolk, the earl of

Pembroke, and some other noblemen, saluted administration should be entirely in the queen ; lady Jane Grey queen of England. She was that no foreigner should be capable of holding with difficulty, however, brought into the mea any office in the kingdom; nor should any indosure of accepting the crown, and reluctantly vation be made in the laws, customs, and privisuffered herself to be conveyed to the tower, leges of the people: that Philip should not carry where it was then usual for the sovereigns of the queen abroad without her consent, or any of England to pass some days after their accession. her children without the consent of the nobility. Mary, who had retired to Kenning-hall, in Nor- £60,000 a-year were to be settled upon her as a folk, found herself, in a very few days, at the jointure ; and the male issue of this marriage were head of 40,000 men; and lady Jane, after an in- to inherit Burgundy and the Low Countries as effectual attempt of her friends to raise a mili- well as the crown of England : in case of the tary force, resigned, in ten days, the sovereignty. death of Don Carlos, Philip's son by his former marNorthumberland, finding his affairs desperate, at- riage, without any heir, the queen's issue should tempted to quit the kingdom. But he was inherit all the rest of the Spanish dominions also. stopped by the band of pensioner guards ; sur- It is but justice to Guardini, who drew these arrendered himself to Mary; and was, soon after, ticles, to observe, that when Elizabeth afterwards tried and executed for treason, with Sir John contemplated a foreign marriage, she referred to Gates and Sir Thomas Palmer, two of his politi- this treaty as the most satisfactory precedent that cal tools. Sentence was also pronounced against · could be found. All these concessions, however, lady Jane Grey and her husband lord Guildford. were not sufficient to quiet the popular appreMary entered London July 31st, in company hensions : they were considered merely as words with her sister the princess Elizabeth, and was of course, which might be retracted at pleasure; at once peaceably settled on the throne. Soon, and the whole nation murmured against a transhowever, her people found reason to repent their action which was considered dangerous to its inattachment to her. Though she had at first dependence. An insurrection was raised by Sir solemnly promised to defend the religion and Thomas Wyatt, a Roman catholic, at the head of laws of her predecessor, her authority no sooner 4000 men, who marched out of Kent towards became firmly established, than she resolved to London, publishing a declaration against the restore the old religion. Gardiner, Bonner, and Spanish match and the queen's evil counsellors. the other bishops whu had been imprisoned or Having advanced as far as Southwark, he redeprived during the last reign, were taken from quired that the queen should put the Tower of prison and reinstated in their sees. On pretence London into his hands; that she should deliver of discouraging controversy, the queen, by her four counsellors as hostages; and, to ensure the prerogative, silenced all preachers throughout liberty of the nation, should marry an EnglishEngland, except such as should obtain a particu- man. But his force was by far too small to suplar license, and this she was resolved to give port such demands; and he wasted so much time only to those of her own persuasion. The greater without attempting any thing of importance, that part of the foreign protestants left the kingdom. the popular ferment subsided, his men abandoned Soon after, the queen called a parliament, which him gradually, and he was at last obliged to surseemed willing to concur in all her ineasures. render himself. His followers were promptly They at once repealed the statutes with regard to brought to justice; fifty of the Londoners, who religion, that had passed during the reign of Ed- had joined the rebels, were hung in various parts ward VI., and the national religion was placed of the metropolis; eight or ten suffered in Kent; on the footing on which it stood at the death of 400 more were conducted with ropes about their Henry VIII. To strengthen the cause of the necks into the queen's presence, and there recatholics, and give the queen more power to ceived their pardon. Wyatt himself was conestablish the religion to which she was attached, demned and executed. This rebellion had alınost a proper match was to be sought for her. Her proved fatal to the princess Elizabeth, who for affections were said to be engaged to Courtenay, some time past had been treated with neglect: earl of Devonshire; but he was thought to be at- and a letter of advice to her was produced on the tached to the princess Elizabeth, and received the trial of Wyatt. An important letter written by attention of the queen with indifference. The her to the king of France (whose ambassador next person proposed as a match for her was Noailles had warmly encouraged the late insurreccardinal Pole; but he was now in the decline of tion) was also placed in the hands of the queen ; life, and Mary declined to open any negociation and Elizabeth seems at least to have wavered on the subject. At last, Philip II. of Spain, son in her allegiance to her sister. Mary had never to the emperor Charles V., was considered eligible forgotten the quarrel between their mothers; by the queen and her friends. He was then in and the declaration made after her own accession, the twenty-seventh year of his age : but when her recognizing Catharine's marriage as legal, necesintentions with regard to him became known, sarily pronounced Elizabeth illegitimate. She the greatest alarm took place throughout the na was likewise obnoxious on account of her retion, and the commons presented so strong a re- ligion, which Elizabeth at first had not prudence monstrance against a foreign alliance, that the to conceal. She was now committed to the queen dissolved the parliament. To obviate Tower, and underwent a strict examination beclamor, however, the articles of marriage were fore the council ; but Wyatt declared her innodrawn up with the most careful consideration cence on the scaffold, and, after a short confineof the interests of England. It was agreed, that ment, the queen found herself under a necessity though Philip should have the title of king, tie of releasing her. To get rid of so troutiesome a

rival, however, she was offered in marriage to the want of affection for the queen. He passed most duke of Savoy; and Elizabeth declining the of his time at a distance from her in the Low proposal, she was committed close prisoner to Countries; and seldom wrote to her except when Woodstock. The rebellion proved fatal to many he wanted money. persons of distinction. The Tower and prisons The enemies of the state being supposed to be were filled with nobility and gentry, who be- suppressed, those of the Catholic faith were next came objects of royal vengeance on account persecuted, and the old sanguinary laws were of their credit and interest with the people. Sir revived. Orders were given that the priests and Nicholas Throgmorton was tried in Guildhall; bishops who had married should be ejected; but as no satisfactory evidence appeared against that the mass should be restored; the pope's him, the jury gave their verdict in his favor. The authority re-established; and that the church queen was so much enraged, that she re-com- and its privileges, all but their goods and estates, mitted him to the Tower, summoned the jury should be put on the same footing on which they before the council, and at last sent them all to were before the commencement of the Reformaprison, fining them afterwards, some £1000, and tion. Several of the gentry and nobility, howothers £2000 each. Sir John Throgmorton, ever, having already possessed themselves of the brother to Sir Nicholas, was condemned and ex- church lands, it was found inconvenient, and, ecuted, upon evidence which had been already indeed impossible, to make restoration of them. rejected as insufficient. But of all those who The persons who chiefly promoted these measures perished on this occasion, none excited such uni- were Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, and carversal compassion as the unfortunate lady Jane dinal Pole, a kinsman of Henry VIII., who had Grey, and her husband, lord Guildford Dudley. now returned from Italy. The latter was for They had already received sentence of death, tolerating the Protestants ; but the former, perand two days after the execution of Wyatt, orders ceiving that rigorous measures would be most were sent them to prepare for eternity. Lady agreeable to the king and queen, declared himJane, who had long been in expectation of this, self against it. That he might not, however, received the news with heroic resolution. The appear in person at the head of the persecution, place intended at first for their execution was he consigned that office to Bonner, bishop of Tower-hill; but the council dreading the effects London, a man of a sanguinary disposition. The of the people's compassion for their youth, bloody scene began by the execution of Hooper, beauty, and innocence, ordered lady Jane to be bishop of Gloucester, and Rogers, prebendary of beheaded within the Tower. The duke of Suf- St. Paul's

. These were quickly followed by folk, whose ambition had been the cause of his others, of whom the principal were archbishop daughter's unhappy fate, was soon after tried, Cranmer, Ridley, bishop of London, and Laticondemned, and executed. Sir Thomas Greymer, bishop of Worcester. (See those articles.) also lost his life on the same account : but the These persecutions becoming at last odious to the cruel spirit of Mary was still unsatisfied; and to nation, the perpetrators of them wished to throw disable the people from further resistance, general the blame upon others. Philip endeavored to musters were ordered, and commissioners seized fasten the whole reproach upon Bonner; but that their arms. Notwithstanding Mary's unpopu- bishop retorted on the court. A bold step was larity, however, the rebellion of Wyatt so mate now taken to introduce a court similar to the rially strengthened the hands of government at Spanish inquisition, that should be empowered last, that a parliament was assembled, for the to try heretics, and to condemn them by its own purpose of gratifying the queen's wishes in regard authority. But even this was thought a method to her marriage with Philip. The emperor too dilatory in the present exigence of affairs. A Charles V., to facilitate this object, sent over to proclamation was issued against books of heresy, England 400,000 crowns, to be distributed among treason, and sedition, declaring, that whosoever the members in bribes and pensions; a practice had such books in his possession, and did not of which there had hitherto been no example in burn them without reading, should suffer as a England. The queen, notwithstanding her rebel. This was attended with the execution of bigotry, now resumed the title of Supreme Head such numbers, that at last the magistrates, who had of the Church, which she had dropped three been instrumental in these cruelties, refused to months before; and Gardiner made a speech, in give their assistance any longer. It was comwhich he proposed that they should invest her puted, that during this persecution, 277 persons with a legal power to dispose of the crown, and suffered by fire, besides those punished by imappoint her successor. But the parliament, how- prisonments, fines, and confiscations. Among ever obsequious in other respects, did not choose those who were burnt were one archbishop, four to grat fy their sovereign in a measure by which bishops, twenty-one other clergymen, eight lay the kingdom of England might become a province gentlemen, eighty-four tradesmen, 100 husbandof the Spanish monarchy. They would not even men, fifty-five women, and four children. The declare it treason to imagine or attempt the death only remarkable transaction of this reign with of the queen's husband during her life-time, regard to civil affairs was the loss of Calais, though they agreed to ratify the articles of mar- which had been in the possession of the English riage: and, previous to his arrival, it was thought for upwards of 200 years. See Calais. This proper to dismiss both houses. Soon after this the loss filled the whole kingdom with complaints, marriage of Philip and Mary was solemnised; and the queen is said to have been excessively but as the former had espoused her merely with grieved at it. She was heard to say, that, when a view to become king of England, he no sooner dead, the name of Calais would be found found this an empty title, than he showed a total engraved on her heart. She died in 1558 of a

lingering illuess, after a reign of five years, four parative for regaining his authority over the Nemonths, and eleven days.

therlands, the revolted provinces having been On the death of Mary, the princess Elizabeth strongly supported by Elizabeth. The fleet presucceeded without opposition. She was at Hat- pared at this time was superior to any thing then exfield when news of her sister's death arrived'; isting in the world; and no doubt being entertained upon which she hastened to London, where she of its success, it was ostentatiously stiled the Inwas received with unusual joy. Her qualifica- vincible Armada. The miserable issue of this tions for government were never exceeded in her expedition, and the total failure of the mighty own sex, and have been rarely equalled in the hopes of Philip, are related under the article other. While her superior judgment led her to ARMADA.. The spirit and courage of the English choose proper ministers, she ever exhibited au were now excited to attempt invasions in their thority enough to keep her subjects in awe. turn; which they executed in numerous descents The restraints also to which she had been sub- on the Spanish coast. The frequent advantages jected during her sister's reign, had taught her so they obtained by sea it would be tedious to rewell to conceal her sentiments, that she had be- late ; but they gradually formed the character, come a mistress of dissimulation; which, how- and laid the foundation of all the subsequent ever it must qualify our moral estimate of her triumphs, of the British navy: it will suffice to character, proved occasionally of great service to observe, that the naval commanders of this reign her government. She completed the reforma- are still considered as some of the boldest and most tion, and placed the religion of England upon enterprising men England ever produced. Elizathe plan on which it at present subsists. This beth reigned with increasing glory till 1603; but was accomplished with little difficulty; for the her personal passions and the government of her persecutions of Mary's reign had much increased court became the sources of extreme misery to the aversion of the people to popery. In the her for some time before her death. She had time of Edward VI. they had been compelled to caused her favorite and lover, the earl of Esembrace the protestant religion, and their fears sex, to be accused of high treason. See Esinduced them to conform ; but almost the whole sex. And though his execution could not be nation had now become protestants from choice. called unjust, the queen's affection after his The reformation was confirmed by act of parlia- death is said to have returned to such a dement in 1559; being the fourth change of the gree, that she thenceforth gave herself entirely established religion in England in thirty-two over to despair. She refused food and susteyears. While the queen and her counsellors nance; continued silent and gloomy;, and lay were employed in settling the religious affairs of the for ten days and nights upon a carpet, leaning on nation, negociations were carried on for a peace cushions. Her vexation was doubtless also inbetween England and France : this was at last creased by perceiving the attentions of her courconcluded on the following terms, viz. that Henry tiers gradually transferred from herself to James should restore Calais at the expiration of eight her expected successor. Tormented with perpetual years; that in case of failure he should pay heat in her stomach, attended with unquenchable 500,000 crowns, and Elizabeth's title to Calais thirst, she drank without ceasing, but refused the still remain; that for the payment of this sum assistance of her physicians. As her death evihe should tind the security of eight foreign mer- dently approached, Cecil and the lord admiral chants, not natives of France; and until that desired to know her sentiments with regard to security was prepared he should deliver five the succession. To this she replied, that as the hostages. If during this interval Elizabeth crown of England had always been held by should break the peace with France or Scotland, kings, it must devolve upon ‘no rascal : a king she should forfeit all title to Calais; but if should succeed her, and who could that be but Henry made war on Elizabeth, he should be her cousin of Scotland ?' Being then advised obliged to restore the fortress immediately. This by the archbishop of Canterbury to fix her pacification was soon followed by an irrecon- thoughts on God, she replied that her thoughts cileable quarrel with Mary queen of Scots ; a did not in the least wander from him. Her quarrel not extinguished but by the death of the voice soon after left her; she fell into a lethargic Scottish princess; and connected with circum- slumber, which continued some hours; and she stances of treachery, hypocrisy, and dissimula- expired gently without a groan, on the 24th of tion, on the part of Elizabeth, which stain her March, 1602-3, in the seventieth year of her age, memory with indelible disgrace. See the articles and forty-fifth of her reign. Mary and SCOTLAND. Elizabeth having at last The kingdoms of Scotland and England, or the disposed of her rival, began in 1587 to make whole of Great Britain, now fell under the dopreparations for resisting a Spanish invasion, minion of one sovereign, by the accession of which was now threatened. Hearing that Philip James VI. of Scotland to the throne of Engwas secretly fitting our a navy to attack her, she land. He derived his title from being the grandsent sir Francis Drake with a feet to pillage his son of Margaret eldest daughter of Henry VII. coasts and destroy his shipping. (See the article and, on the failure of all the male line, his right DRAKE). But though this retarded the intended in- was become incontestable. Although the legislavasion of England for a whole twelvemonth, it hy tive union of the two countries did not immedino means induced Philip to abandon his design. ately take place; they have, ever since this period, During that interval he continued his preparations been governed by one sovereign: we therefore with the greatest assiduity, more especially as the shall resume and conclude the history of both invasion of England seemed to be a necessary pre- under the article Great Britain.

ENGLAND, a small island in the Pacific, near ENGLAND, New, a country of North America, the north coast of New Guinea. Long. 131° thus first named by captain Smith in 1614, forms 36' E., lat. 0° 48' N.

· the north-east part of the United States, bounded ENGLAND, LITTLE, beyond Wales, in geogra- by Canada on the north, by New Brunswick and phy, is a portion of country lying along the the Atlantic on the east, by the Atlantic and south-western coast of South Wales, remarkable Long Island Sound on the south, and by New for being inhabited by the descendants of a York on the west. It comprises the states of colony of Flemings who came over from Flan- Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts (iaders, and settled here in the reign of king Henry cluding the district of Maine), Rhode Island, and 1. Camden states, that the occasion of their Connecticut. Although each of these states have emigration was an inundation of the sea, which in, and since the union, become important integral overflowed a great part of the Low Countries. portions of the United States of North America, But Dr. Evans and other writers have suggested, and will, in their alphabetical places, receive with more probability, that it was the policy of due attention in this work, there are sufficient that wise monarch to place here a people opposite traces of the distinctive character of New England in their language, manners, and opinions to the still remaining in their history as well as in their Welsh, to assist in his favorite project—the sub- internal polity, to demand some separate conjugation of the country. Another colony from sideration. the same country was incorporated with the The face of the country is uneven, and it may first, in the time of Henry II., to which were be deemed, on the whole, high and hilly, though added numerous Anglo-Normans, and others its mountains are comparatively small. They from the English army. At first these people run nearly north and south, in ridges parallel to were confined to the commot of Rhos, which one another. The westernmost range begins in district still more particularly retains the name the county of Fairfield, and, passing through the of Little England beyond Wales. But their counties of Litchfield and Berks, unites with numbers increasing in the course of time, they the Green mountains at Williamstown, in the spread along the whole coast, from the lordship north-west corner of Massachusetts, being seof Comes to the mouth of the river Tave. This parated only by the narrow valley of Hoosack part of the principality is, to the present day, river. The highest part of this range is Toghdivided into two districts, denominated English- konnuck mountain in Egremont, the south-wesery and Welshery. The latter, occupied by the tern corner of the same state. Over this mounoriginal inhabitants, contains the cantreves of tain, elevated probably more than 3000 feet above Comes, Cilgerran, part of Arberth, and Dew- the ocean, runs the boundary between Massachuisland. The former comprises the remainder of setts, Connecticut, and New York. The second Arberth, and the cantreves of Rhos, Castel-Mar- range is that of the Green mountains. See our tins, and Doughleddy; and is inhabited by the article AMERICA. The third range has the same descenılants of the Flemings. Like their ancestors, commencement with the second at New Haven, they are hardy, industrious, and adventurous. in a delightful eminence called the East rock, The dispositions of the two people are equally and passing through the counties of New Haven, striking and adverse. While the Welsh are hot, Hartford, and Hampshire, extends into Canada. easily irritated, and obstinately tenacious; these The Blue hills in Southington, mount Tom, are not easily provoked, and are averse from which is the principal eminence, mount Holyoke, contention and litigation. Both are distinguish- and mount Toby in Sunderland, are the principal able by their mode of dress, manner of living, summits of this range south of New Hampshire. the style of their buildings, particularly in their This range, which is precipitous and romantic, churches, and the names they respectively give to crosses Connecticut River just below Northampplaces. All these strongly point out the line of ton and Hadley in Massachusetts. There is a demarcation between them. In the Welshery, fact related by Dr. Dwight respecting these not a word of English is heard spoken, while in mountains, which seems to throw some light the next village within the Englishery, not a word upon the nature of those hitherto unexplained of Welsh. The language of the latter district is explosions, that are heard in mountainous counnot much different from the common dialect of tries. Such an explosion, about forty years ago, England, except in some parts of Rhos and was heard by the inhabitants of Kinsdale townCastle-Martin. The two people avoid all com- ship, in New England, from West River Mounmerce as much as possible, mutually considering tain, on the Connecticut. Upon repairing to the each other in a degrading light; and even a place, they discovered that a metallic substance pathway will divide them in the same parish. had been forced from the heart of the mountain, To such an extent was this personal detestation the hole which it had made being about six carried among the lower classes, even in modern inches in diameter. A few trees which stood times, that a matrimonial connexion between near were almost covered with the substance the opposite parties was rare, and considered an which had been ejected, and which consisted unfortunate event. The Flemings, however, chiefly of melted and calcined iron ore, strongly eventually proved a blessing to Wales, as well resembling the scoria of a blacksmith's forge. as England, by their introduction of the woollen The same substance was found upon the rocks manufactures. Aní a work, which proves their and the face of the hill in several places, having industry and improving spirit, is yet visible in evidently been propelled in a liquid or semia road of great extent made by them in this neigh- liquid-state. It appears clear that this explosion bourhood, and still called Fleming's way. Dr. was volcanic. Evans's South Wales.

The south or eastern range begins at Lime Vol. VIII.-PART 2.

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