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in small scales, which appear like the fragments at last becomes of a transparent yellow. Thus of small hollow spheres. Enamel painters mix the color really produced by calx of iron comthis flux with a little nitre and borax. This mat- bined with glass is a yellow color, but which ter, which produces a very good effect, was em- being accumulated becomes so dark, that it apployed without attempting to decompose it. It pears black. In the process above given for inay be a very fusible common white enamel making the red color, oxide of iron does not which has been blown into that form. It is to fuse; and this is the essential point; for, if this be remarked, that purple will not bear a strong color is carried in the fire to vitrification, it beheat; and the color is always more beautiful if comes black or yellowish, and disappears if the the precipitate is ground with the flux before it coat be thin, and the oxide of iron present be has become dry.
only in a small quantity, RED.-We have no metallic oxide capable of YELLOW.—Though yellow may be obtained giving directly a fused red; that is to say, we in a direct manner, compound yellows are prehave no metallic calces which, entering into ferred because they are more certain in effect, fusion and combining, under the form of tran- and more easily applied, than the yellow which sparent glass, with fluxes or glass, give directly a may be directly obtained from silver. The red color. To obtain this color, it must be com- compound yellows are obtained in consequence pounded different ways, as follows: -Take two of the same principles as the red color of iron. parts, or two parts and a half (you may, how- For this purpose we employ metallic oxides, the ever, take only one part) of sulphate of iron and vitrification of which must be prevented by mixof sulphate of alumine, fuse them together in ing with them other substances, such as refractheir water of crystallisation, and take care to tory earths or metallic oxides difficult to be mix them well together. Continue to heat them fused. The metallic calces which form the basis to complete dryness, then increase the fire so as of the yellow colors are generally those of lead; to bring the mixture to a red heat. The last as minium, the white calx of lead, or litharge, operation must be performed in a reverberating the white calx of antimony, called diaphoretic furnace. Keep the mixture red until it has every antimony; that called crocus metallorum is also where assumed a beautiful red color, which you employed. This regulus pulverised, and mixed may ascertain by taking out a little of it from with white oxide, gives likewise a yellow. The time to time, and suffering it to cool in the air. following are the different compositions used : one You may then see whether the matter is suffi- part of the white oxide of antimony, one part of ciently red : to judge of this it must be left to the white oxide of lead, or two or three; these cool, because while hot it appears black. The doses are exceedingly variable ; one part of alum red oxides of iron give a red color; but this co- and one of sal-ammoniac. When these matters lor is exceedingly fugitive; for, as soon as the have been all pulverised and mixed well togeoxide of iron enters into fusion, the portion of ther they are put in a vessel over a fire sufficient oxygen, which gives it its red color, leaves it, to sublimate and decompose the sal-ammoniac; and it becomes black, yellow, or greenish. To and when the matter has assumed a yellow copreserve, therefore, the red color of this oxide in lor the operation is finished. The calces of lead the fire, it must be prevented from vitrifying and mixed in a small quantity either with silex or aluabandoning its oxygen. I have tried (says M. mine, also with the pure calx of tin, exceedingly Clouet) a variety of different substances to give white, gives likewise yellows. One part of the it this fixity, but none of them succeeded except oxide of lead is added to two, three, or four of alum. The doses of alum and sulphate of iron the other substances above mentioned. In these may be varied. The more alum you add the different compositions for yellow you may use paler will be the color. Three parts of alum to also oxide of iron, either pure or that kind which one of sulphate of iron give a color which ap- has been prepared with alum and vitriol of iron; proaches a flesh-color. It is alum also which you will then obtain different shades of yellow. gives this color the property of becoming fixed From what has been said, you may vary these at a very strong heat. This color may be em- compositions of yellow as much as you please. ployed on raw enamel; it has much more fixity Yellows require so little Hux that one or two than the purple, but not so much as the blue of parts, in general, to one of the color are sufficient. cobalt
. It may be washed to carry off the super- Saline fluxes are improper for them, and espefluous saline matter, but it may be employed cially those which contain nitre. They must be also without edulcoration ; in that state it is even used with fluxes composed of enamel-sand, more fixed and more beautiful. It does not re- oxide of lead, and borax, without marine salt. quire much fiux; the flux which appeared to me A yellow may be obtained also directly from to be best suited to it is composed of alum, mini- silver. All these mixtures may be varied, and um, marine salt, and enamel sand. This flux must you may try others. For this purpose you may be compounded in such a manner as to render use sulphate of silver, or any oxide of that metal it sufficiently fusible for its objects : from two mixed with alumine or silex, or even with both or three parts of it are mixed with the color. in equal quantities. The whole must be gently In general three parts of Aux are used for one heated until the yellow color appears, and the of color; but this dose may, and ought to be matter is to be employed with the Auxes pointed varied according to the nature of the color and out for yellow. Yellow of silver, like purple, the shade of it required. Red calx of iron alone, cannot endure a strong heat; a nitric solution of when it enters into fusion with glass, gives a silver may be precipitated by the ammoniacal color which seems to be black ; but if the color phosphate of soda, and you will obtain a yellow be diluted with a sufficient quantity of glass, it piec pitate which may be used to paint in that
color with fluxes, which ought then to be a little must be immediately. worked, for the color does harder. Besides the methods above mentioned, not remain long, and even often disappears while the best manner of employing the oxide of silver working; but it may be restored by heating the is, in my opinion, to employ it pure: in that glass at the flame of a lamp. It is difficult to case you do not paint but stain. It will be suffi- make this color well, but when it succeeds it is cient then to lay a light coating on the place very beautiful, and has a great deal of splendor. which you wish to stain yellow, and to heat the By employing the calx of copper alone, for the article gently to give it the color. You must not processes above mentioned, you will obtain, when employ too strong a heat : the degree will easily you succeed well, a red similar to the most beaube found by practice. When the article has been tiful carmine. The calx of iron changes the red sufficiently heated, you take it from the fire and into vermilion, according to the quantity added. separate the coating of oxide, which will be If we had certain processes for the making of this found reduced to a regulus. You will then ob- color, we should obtain all the shades of red from serve the place which it occupied tinged of a pure red to orange, by using, in different proporbeautiful yellow color without thickness. It is tions, the oxide of copper and that of iron. The chiefly on transparent glass that this process suc calx of copper fuses argil more easily than silex: ceeds best. Very fine silver filings produce the the case is the same with calx of iron. If you same effect: but what seemed to succeed best in fuse two or three parts of argil with one of the this case was sulphate of silver well ground up with oxide of copper, and if the heat be sufficient, you a little water, that it may be extended very smooth. will obtain a very opaque enamel, and of vermiFrom what has been said, it may readily be lion red color. The oxide of copper passes from seen that this yellow must not be employed like red to green, through yellow, so that the enamel other colors; that it must not be applied till the of copper, which becomes red at a strong heat, rest have been fused; for, as it is exceedingly may be yellow with a weaker heat. The same fusible and ready to change, it would be injured effect may be produced by deoxidating copper in by the other colors; and as the coating of silver, different degrees: this will be effected according which is reduced, must be removed, the fluxes as the heat is more or less violent. The above would fix it, and prevent the possibility of its composition might, I think, be employed to give being afterwards separated. Working on glass is a vermilion red color to porcelain. The heat of not attended with this inconvenience, because the the porcelain furnace ought to be of sufficient silver yellow is applied on the opposite side to strength to produce the proper effect. The calx that on which the other colors are laid.
of iron fused also with argil, in the same proporGreen.-Green is obtained directly from the tions as the calx of copper, gives a very beautiful oxide of copper. All the oxides of copper are black. These porportions may, however, be good; they require little flux, which even must varied. not be too fusible: one part or two of the flux BLUE.- Blue is obtained from the oxide of will be sufficient for one oxide. This color cobalt. It is the most fixed of all colors, and agrees with all the fluxes, the saline as well as the becomes equally
beautiful with a weak as with metallic, which tends to vary a little the shades. a strong heat. The blue produced by cobalt is A mixture of yellow and blue is also used to more beautiful the purer it is, and the more it is produce greens. Those who paint figures or oxidated. Arsenic does not hurt it. The saline portraits employ glass composed in this manner; fluxes which contain nitre are those best suited but those who paint glazed vessels, either earth- to it: you add a little also when you employ enware or porcelain, employ, in general, copper that flux which contains a little calcined borax, green. Independently of the beautiful green co or glass of borax, though you may employ lor produced by oxidated copper, it produces it also with that Aux alone. But the Aux which, also a very beautiful red color. This beautiful according to my experiments, gives to cobaltred color produced by copper, is exceeding fugi- blue the greatest splendor and beauty is that tive. The oxide of copper gives red only when composed of white glass, which contains no me it contains very little oxygen, and approaches tallic calx, of borax, nitre, and diaphoretic antinear to the state of a regulus. Notwithstanding mony well washed. When this glass is made for the difficulty of employing this oxide for a red the purpose of being employed as a flux for blue, color, a method has been found to stain transpa- you may add less of the white oxide of antimony: rent glass with different shades of a very beautiful a sixth of the whole will be sufficient. red color by means of calx of copper. The pro VIOLET.-Black calx of manganese, employed cess is as follows: you do not employ the calx with white fluxes, gives a very beautiful violet. copper pure, but add to it calx of iron, which, for By varying the fluxes the shade of the color may that purpose, must not be too much calcined; also be varied. It is very fixed as long as it reyou add also a very small quantity of calx of tains its oxygen. The oxide of manganese may copper to the mass of glass which you are desirous produce different colors; but for that purpose it of tinging. The glass at first must have only a very will be necessary that we should be able to fix its slight tinge of green, inclining to yellow. When oxygen in it in different proportions. How to the glass has that color you make it pass to red, effect this has, perhaps, never yet been discovered. and even a very dark red, by mixing with it red These are all the colors obtained from metals. tartar in powder, or even tallow. You must mix From this it is evident that something still rethis matter well in the glass, and it will assume a mains to be discovered. We do not know what very dark red color. The glass swells up very might be produced from the oxides of platina, much by this addition. Before it is worked it tungsten, molybdena, and nickel : all these oxides must be suffered to settle, and become compact; are still to be tried; each of them must produce but as soon as it has fully assumed the color it a color, and perhaps red, which is obtained
neither directly nor with facility from any of the ble that the whole may evaporate completely in metallic substances formerly known and hitherto a moderate heat, and leave no carbonaceous employed
matter in contact with the color when red-hot, Having laid before the English artists the re which might affect its degree of oxidation, and sult of M. Clouet's Researches, as they were thence the shade of color which it is intended to presented to the French National Institute, of. produce. As the color of some of the vitrified which he was an associate, we add a few general metallic oxides, such as that of gold, will stand observations taken from those of our own coun-' only at a moderate heat, while others will bear trymen, who have made the subject of enamel- and even require a higher temperature to be ling their study and employment. The most properly fixed, it forms a great part of the beautiful and expensive color known in this technical skill of the artist to apply different branch of the art is an exquisitely fine, rich, and colors in their proper order; fixing first those purplish tinge, given by the salts and oxides of shades which are produced by the colors that gold, especially the purple precipitate formed will endure the highest degree of heat. The by tin in one form or other, and the nitro- outline of the design is first traced on the enamel muriate of gold, and also by fulminating gold. ground, and burnt in; after which the parts are This fine color, however, requires much skill in filled up gradually with repeated burnings to the the artist to be fully brought out. Other and last and finest touches of the tenderest enamel.' commoner reds are given by the oxides of iron, Those who paint on enamel, on earthenware, but this requires the mixture of alumine, or some porcelain, &c., must regulate the fusibility of the other substance refractory in the fire; otherwise colors by the most tender of those employed, as, What would, under proper circumstances, be a for example, the purple. When the degree full red will degenerate into a black.
which is best suited to purple has been found, Yellow is either given by the oxide of silver the other less fusible colors may be so regulated alone, or by the oxides of lead and antimony, (by additions of flux), when it is necessary to with similar mixtures to those required with fuse all the colors at the same time, and at the iron. The silver is as tender a color as gold, same degree of heat. You may paint also in and as readily injured or lost in a high heat. enamel without fux; but all the colors do not Green is given by the oxide of copper, or it may equally stand the heat which must be employed. also be produced by a mixture of yellow colors. If the enamel, however, on which you paint be Blue is given by cobalt, and this seems the most very fusible, they may all penetrate it. This certain of all enamel colors, and as easy to be manner of painting gives no thickness of color; managed. Black is produced by a mixture of on the contrary, the colors sink into the enamel cobalt and manganese. The reader,' says Mr. at the places where the tints are strongest. To Aikin in his Chemical Dictionary, may con make them penetrate, and give them lustre, a ceive how much the difficulties of this nice art pretty strong fire will be necessary to soften the are increased, when the object is not merely to enamel, and bring it to a state of fusion. This lay a uniform colored glazing on a metallic sur- method cannot be practised but on enamel comface, but also to paint that surface with figures posed with sand, which is called enamel-sand, and other designs that require extreme delicacy as already mentioned. It may be readily seen, of outline, accuracy of shading, and selection of also, that the colors and enamel capable of encoloring. The enamel painter has to work, not during the greatest heat will be the most solid, with actual colors, but with mixtures which he and the least liable to be changed by the air. knows from experience, will produce certain The following method of filling up engraving colors after the operation of the fire; and to the on silver with a durable black enamel, is praccommon skill of the painter in the arrangement tised in Persia and India :of his pallet, and the choice of his colors, the They take half an ounce of silver, two ounces enameller has to add an infinite quantity of and a half of copper, three ounces and a half of practical knowledge of the chemical operation lead, twelve ounces of sulphur, two ounces and of one metallic oxide on another, the fusibility a half of sal-ammoniac. The metals are melted of his materials, and the utmost degree of heat together, and poured into a crucible, which has at which they will attain not only the accuracy been before filled with pulverised sulphur, made of the figures which he has given, but the precise into a paste by means of water; the crucible is shade of color which he intends to lay on. then immediately covered, that the sulphur may Painting in enamel requires a succession of not take fire, and this regulus is calcined over a firings; first, of the ground which is to receive smelting-fi:e, until the superfluous sulphur be the design, and which itself requires two firings, burned away. This regulus is then coarsely and then of the different parts of the design pounded, and, with a solution of sal-ammoniac, itself. The ground is laid on in the same gene- formed into a paste, which is rubbed into the ral way as the common watch-face enamelling engraving on silver plate. The silver is then already described. The colors are the different wiped clean, and suffered to become so hot metallic oxides melted with some or other vitres- under the muffle, that the substance rubbed into cent mixture, and ground to extreme fineness. the strokes of the engraving melts and adheres to These are worked up with an essential oil, that the metal. The silver is afterwards wetted with of spike is preferred, and next to it the oil of the solution of sal-ammoniac, and again placed lavender, to the proper consistence of oil colors, under the muffle till it becomes red-hot.' The and are laid on with a very fine hair brush. The engraved surface may then be smoothed and Essential oil shouļd be very pure, and by the polished without any danger of the black subuse of this, rather than any fixed oil, it is proba. stance, which is an artificial kind of silver ore,
either dropping out, or decaying. In this man You are very near my brother in his love : he is ner is all the silver-plate brought from Russia enamoured on Hero.
Id. ornamented with black engraved figures.
Or should she, confident, The town of Limoges was very celebrated in
As sitting queen adored on beauty's throne, the twelfth and thirteenth centuries for the excel
Descend with all her winning charms begirt,
To enamour, as the zone of Venus once uence of its enamels on various metals. In 1197,
Brought that effect on Jove, so fables tell. tables, vases, basins, tabernacles, candelabra,
Milion. crosiers, &c., enriched with enamels, were called
He, on his side, opus de Limogia, labor Limogiæ, opus Lemo
Leaning half-raised, with looks of cordial love viticum, and are still known to dealers in curi
Hung over her enamoured. osities of this nature as enamels of Limoges.
Id. Paradise Lost. The principal artists who have excelled in this
Your uncle cardinal beautiful department of the fine arts are Prima Is not so far enamoured of a cloyster, ticcio and Maitre Roux, who introduced a pure
But he will thank you for the crown. Dryder. taste in arabesques, and other pictorial orna
Strange fondness of the human heart,
Enamoured of its harm! ments, which were beautifully executed in enamel. Raffaelle and Michel Angiolo also
Strange world, that costs it so much smart,
And still has power to charm. Cooper. gave designs for enamels on porcelain and earth
Various and strange was the long-winded tale; enware, many of which are still called Raffaelle's
And halls, and knights, and feats of arms displayed ; ware, or china. Enamelling on metal is of later
Or merry swains, who quaff the nut-brown ale, invention, and is attributed to the French, par- And sing enamoured of the nut-brown maid. ticularly the smaller and more elegant subjects
Beattie. of history, poetry, and fancy. The first artist
ENARRATION, n. s. Lat. enarro. Explawho distinguished himself in this latter depart- nation; exposition. ment, and, in fact, as its inventor, was Jean
I might further yet confirm this truth by an anato Toutin, a goldsmith at Chateaudun. He was mical enarration of the several compounding parts of succeeded by his disciple Gribelin, who was these limbs.
Smith on Old Age. also an excellent artist and workman. Dubie, a ENARTHROʻSIS, n. s. "Εν and αρθρον. goldsmith, made excellent enamels in the galleries The insertion of one bone into another to form of the Louvre. Morliere, a native of Orleans, a joint. but who practised at Blois, followed soon after ;
Enarthrosis is where a good round head enters into and was much admired for his miniature enamels
a cavity, whether it be a cotyla, or profound cavity ; for rings and watch-cases. He had for a disciple as that of os coxæ, receiving the head of the os feRobert Vauquer of Blois, who surpassed all his moris ; or glene, which is more shallow, as in the predecessors, particularly in his coloring; he scapula, where it receives the humerus. Wiseman. died in 1670. Pierre Chartier, also of Blois, ENARTHROSIS, in anatomy, is a species of Diwas a celebrated enamellist, particularly in arthrosis. See Anatomy. flowers. Jean Petitot, who died in 1691, suc ENA’UNTER, adv. An obsolete word, exceeded as an enamelist of high repute, and prac- plained by Spenser himself, to mean lest that. tised in England, where his works are well
Anger would not let him speak to the tree, known, and deservedly admired. Bordier fol
Enaunter his rage might cooled be, lowed in the same line, and also practised in But to the root bent his sturdy stroke. Spenser. this country; as did Louis Hance and Louis de ENASCENT, adj. From e, and nascent ; Guernier. Zinck, a Swede, has also obtained a ENATE'.
nascens, high reputation for the excellence of his works; rising ; springing or rising forth. as did an artist of the name of Boit, whose cha
The parts appertaining to the bones, which arise out racter as an artist is given in Walpole's Anec- *at a distance from their bodies, are either the adnate dotes of Painters. One of his enamels is there
or enate parts.
Smith on Old Age. mentioned as being of the extraordinary dimen Thus when in holy triumph Aaron trod, sions of twenty-two inches by sixteen; which And offered on the shrine his mystic rod; have, however, beene exceeded by our native First 2 new bark its silken tissue weaves, artists Bone and Muss. We have also to notice, New buds emerging widen into leaves; as eminent practitioners in this art, Schnell,
Fair fruits protrude, enascent flowers expand, who died in 1704; Sophia Cheron, in 1711;
And blush and tremble round the living wand.
Darwin. Chat:llon, in 1732; Ism. Mengs, in 1764; Nelson, in 1770; Meytens, a Swede, in 1770; ENCA'GE, v.a. From en and cage. To Rouquet, who practised in England, and wroté shut up in a cage; to coop up; to confine. upon the arts; Liotard, Duran, Paguier.
He suffered his kinsman March, ENAM'OUR, v. a. 1 Span. and Port. ena
Who is, if every owner were right placed, ENAM'ORADO. S morar ; Ital. inamorare, Indeed his king, to be encaged in Wales, from en and Amour, which see. To inspiré
There, without ransom, to lie forfeited.
Shakspeare. or inflame with love; taking of before the
Like Bajazet encaged, the shepherd's scoff, object. But Milton and Shakspeare use it
Or like slack-sinewed Sampson, his hair off. without; an enamorado is one desperately in
ENCAMP', v. n. 2
camper. From An enamorado neglects all other things to accom. ENCAMP'MENT. n. S. en and CAMP, which plish his
Sir T. Herbert.
see. To pitch tents, or form a camp: hence, to Affliction is enamoured of thy parts,
settle or dwell for a time. And thou art wedded to calamity. Shukspeure. He encamped at the mount of God. Exod. xiii. 5.
S Lat. nascor,
Their enemies served to improve them in their en the colors to the officer's tent, called the quartercampments, weapons, or something else. Grew. guard; besides a corporal's guard in the rear,
When a general bids the martial train called the rear-guard. Each regiment of horse Spread their encampment o'er the spacious plain, or dragoons has also a small guard on foot, called Thick rising tents a canvas city build.
the standard-guard, at the same distance. The Gay's Trivia.
grand guard of the army consists of horse, and is A feudal kingdom was properly the encampment of posted about a mile or a mile and a half distance a great army; military ideas predominated, military towards the enemy. In a siege,' the camp is subordination was established. Robertson. History of Scotland.
placed all along the line of circumvallation, or
rather in the rear of the approaches, out of canAmong the regulations concerning encamp- non-shot. The army faces the circumvallation, ment, published in Britain by authority, the fol- if any, that is, the soldiers have the town in their lowing are particularly to be attended to. “On
It is of great consequence, that a camp the arrival of a brigade, or a battalion, on the have a commodious spot of ground at its head, ground destined for its camp, the quarter and where the army, in case of surprise, may in a rear guards of the respective regiments will im moment be under arms, and in a condition to mediately mount; and, when circumstances re- repulse the enemy; as also, that there be a conquire them, the advanced picquets will be posted. venient field at a small distance, and of a sufThe grand guards of cavalry will be formed, and ficient extent to form in advantageously, and the horses picketed. The men's tents will then move with facility. be pitched, and, till this duty is completed, the ENCANTHIS, in surgery, a tubercle arising officers are on no account to quit their troops or either from the caruncula lachrymalis, or from companies, or to employ any soldier for their the adjacent red skin; sometimes so large, as to own accommodation. Necessaries are to be obstruct not only the puncta lachrymalia, but made in the most convenient situations, and the also part of the sight or pupil itself. See Surutmost attention is required in this, and every other particular, to the cleanliness of the camp. ENCARPIA, Gr. evrapria, in architecture, If circumstances will allow the ground on which Aower-work, or fruit-work, on the corners of a regiment is to encamp to be previously ascer- pillars. tained, the pioneers should make these, and other ENCA'VE, v. a.
From en and cave. essential conveniences, before the corps arrives hide as in a cave. at its encampment. Whenever a regiment re Do but encave yourself, mains more than one night in a camp, regular And mark the fleers, the gibes, and notable scows, kitchens are to be constructed. No tents, or That dwell in ev'ry region of his face ; huts, are to be allowed in front, or between the For I will make him tell the tale anew. intervals of the battalions. A spot of ground
Shakspeare. for this purpose should be marked out by the ENCAUSTIC Painting, Lat. encausticus ; quarter-master, with the approbation of the com Gr. 'Evravsın. The art of painting in enmanding officer. On arriving in a camp which caustic is a manner of painting which is is intersected by hedges, ditches, unequal or executed with the operation of fire. Ancient boggy ground, regiments will immediately make authors often make mention of this species of openings of communication, of sixty feet in painting, and which, if it had been described width. The ground in front of the encampment simply by the word encaustic, which signifies is to be cleared, and every obstacle to the move executed by fire, might be supposed to have been ment of the artillery and troops is to be removed. a species of enamel painting. But the expresCommanding officers of regiments must take sions encausto pingere, pictura encaustica, ceris care that their communication with the nearest pingere, picturam inurere, by Pliny and other grand route is open and free from impediments.' ancient writers, make it clear another species of The arrangement of tents in a camp is nearly the painting is thereby meant. We have no ancient same all over Europe; which is, to dispose them pictures of this description, and therefore the in such a manner, that the troops may form with precise manner adopted by the ancients is not safety and expedition. To answer this end, the completely developed, though many moderns troops are encamped in the same order as that have closely investigated the subject, and dein which they are to engage the enemy, which is scribed their processes. At what time, and by by battalions and squadrons; hence, the post of whom, this species of painting was first invented, each battalion and squadron must necessarily be is not determined by antiquaries, although it apat the head of its own encampment. Gustavus pears to have been practised in the fourth and Adolphus, king of Sweden, was the first who fifth centuries. Count Caylus and M. Bachelier, formed encampments according to the order of a painter, were the first of modern times who battle. By this disposition the extent of the made experiments in this branch of art, about the camp, from right to left of each battalion and year 1749. Some years after this, Count Caylus squadron, will be equal to the front of each in presented to the Academy of Painting at Paris line of battle; and consequently, the extent from his ideas and experiments on the subject of the right to left, of the whole camp, should be equal ancient manner of painting in encaustic. In to the front of the whole army when drawn up 1754 the count had a head of Minerva painted in line of battle, with the same intervals between ty M. Vien, after the process described by himthe several encampments of the battalions and seif, and presented it to the Academy of Sciences squadrons, as are in the line. Each giment in 1755. This success induced M. Bachelier to Posts a subaltern's guard at eighty yards from recommence his experiments, in which he suc