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there are only two elements in the niverse: ELENCIIUS, in antiquity a kind of ear and this opinion we find adopted by count De rings set with large pearls. Tressan, in his essay on the Electri: Fluid. ELENchus, in logic, by the Latins called arAccording to this doctrine, two primitive ma- gumentum and inquisitio, is a vicious or fallaterial substances seem to exist in nature; one cious argument, which deceives under the apthat incessantly acts, and to which it is essential pearance of a truth; the same with what is to be in motion; the other absolutely passive, otherwise called sophism. and whose nature it is to be inert, and move en ELEʻOTS, n. s. Some name the apples in tirely as directed by the former. According to request in the cyder countries so; not known by the doctrines which long prevailed among che- that name in several parts of England. mists, there are three things that seem to be un

Mortimer's Husbandry. changeable, viz. earth; carbon, or charcoal; and EL'EPHANT, n. s. / Fr. elephante , Span. that invisible, though terrestrial and gravitating ELEPHAN'TINE, adj. j and Port. elefante ; principle, the basis of chlorine. In our experi- Lat. elephas ; Gr. εlepas, as Hyde suggests, from ments (say the French chemists) on earth, we Arab. phil, a mountain ; and Vossius has a sifind that, though vitrified by the most intense milar conjecture. A genus of the mammalia fire, it may be recovered in its proper form; and class of animals, more particularly described in some very pure earths cannot be changed even the ensuing article. in the foeus of the most powerful mirror. In like manner we may dissipate charcoal in His legs are for necessity, not flexure.

The elephant hath joints, but not for courtesy ;

Shakspeare vacuo by the solar rays, and the compound is

Jligh o'er the gate, in elephant and gold, hydrogenous gas; we may decompose this com

The crowd shall Cæsar's Indian war behold. puund by a metallic calx, and we have our char

Dryden's Virgil. coal again unchanged, for all metals contain charcoal in substan 2. Let us try to destroy it

The fan shall flutter in all female hands,

And various fashions learn from various lands; by common fire, and we have it then in the fixed air produced, from which it may be recovered. For this shall elephants their ivory shed,

And polished sticks the waving engines spread. unchanged by the electric spark. With the supposed basis of chlorine, the case is still more

Dear architect of fine chateaux in air, difficult, for we cannot by any means procure Worthier to stand for ever if they could, a sight of it by itself. Modern chemistry


any built of stone, or yet of wood, reckons fifty-two elements, but as these are only For back of royal elephant to bear! Согрет bodies, which the present state of instrumcuts,

ELEPHANT, in zoology. See 'ELEPHAS. &c., prevent us from decomposing, their number

ELEPHANT, AMERICAN. See MAM MUTH. is continually changing, and we therefore refer


ALOGY, &c.
ELEMI, n. s.


knighthood in Denmark, conferred upon none This drug is improperly called gum elemi, being a

but resin. The genuine elemi is brought from Ethiopia also called the order of St. Mary. Its institu

persons of the first quality and merit. It is in tiattish masses, or in cylinders, of a yellowish colour. It is very rare in Éurope, and supposed to be tion is said to have been owing to a gentleman produced by a tree of the olive kind. The spurious, among the Danish croises having killed an eleor American elemi, almost the only kind kuown, is of phant in an expedition against the Saracens in a whitish colour, with a greater or less greenish or 1184; in memory of which, king Canute inyellowish tinye. It proceeds from a tall tree, which stituted this order; the badge of which is a the Brasilians wound, and collect the resin.

towered elephant, hung on a watered sky-colored Hill's Mat. Med.

riband, like the George in England. ELEMI, a resin, which exudes from incisions

ELEPHANTA, a small but very remarkable made, in dry weather, through the bark of the island on the west coast of Hindostan, five amyris elemifera, a tree which grows in America. miles and a half from Bombay, in an easterly It is wrapped in flag leaves, in long roundish direction; its circumference cannot be more cakes, semitransparent, and of a yellow color. than five miles; a neat village near the landing It has a faint fragrance.

place contains all its inhabitants, who, inclusive Elemi, in the materia medica. See Amyris. of women and children, number about 100. To ELENCH, n, s. ? Old Fr. elenche ; Lat. deduce the era of the fabrication of its celebrated

ELENCHIZE, v. n. Selenchus ; Greek, eleyxos, cave or temple is not so easy a task; but it was, an argument or sophism. To elenchise used only (as far as we have found), by Ben Jonson, Hindu religion, which, according to the Puranas,

no doubt, posterior to the great schism in the is to argue; construct sophisms.

happened at a period coeval with our date of Tip. Hear him problematize.

the birth of Christ. It is under the protection PRO. Bless us, what's that!

of the India Company, and pays about £56 anTip. Or syllogize, elenchize. Ben Jonson. The first delusion Satan put upon Eve, and his furnishes their simple clothing. An elephant of

nually to the government; the surplus revenne whole tentatiou might he the same elench continued, as when he said, Ye shall not die ; that was, in his black stone, large as the life, is seen near the equivocation, you shall not incur present death.

landing place, from which the island probably

took its name. Browne's Vulgar Errours.

The cave formed in a hill of Discover the fallacies of our common adversary, stone, is about three-quarters of a mile from the that old sophister, who puts the inost abusive elenches beach; its massy roof is supported by rows of

Decay of Piety. columns regularly disposed, but of an order dif

On us.

[merged small][graphic][merged small][merged small][graphic][merged small][merged small]

ferent from any in use with us; gigantic figures betrayed, I never received marks of attention in relief are observed on the walls; these, as without a demand on my generosity.'— Travels, well as the columns, are shaped in the solid pp. 52, 53. rock, and by artists, it would appear, possesscd ELEPHANTIASIS, so named from the legs of of some ability, and unquestionably of astonish- people affected with this disorder growing rough ing perseverance. They are very massive, short and wonderfully large, like the legs of an elephant, in proportion to their thickness, and their capi- is a disease that mostly attacks the feet. It is known tal bears some resemblance to a round cushion by the skin being thick, rough, wrinkly, unctuous pressed by the superincumbent mountain, with nd void of hair, and mostly without the sense of which they are also of one piece. The floor of feeling. It is said to be contagious. Cullen ranks the apartment is generally full of water, its it in the class cachexiæ, and order impetigines. pavement or ground-work not permitting it to At first very severe pain is felt in one of the inbe drawn off, or to be soaked up. For it is to guinal glands, which, after a short tiine, becoines be observed, that even the cavern itself is not hard, swelled, and inflamed. No suppuration, visitable after the rains, until the ground of it however, ensues; but a red streak may be observed has had time to dry into a competent hardness. running down the thigh from the swelled gland Several of the columns have been levelled, and to the ley. As the inflammation increases in all the figures mutilated, as Mr. Goldingham was the parts, the fever gradually abates, and perhaps, informed by the Portuguese, who were at the after two or three days' continuance, goes off

. trouble (and no small one) of dragging cannon It, however, returns again at uncertain periods, up the bill for the better execution of this exploit. leaving the leg greatly swelled with varicose The cave at Elephanta is not now in use as a turgid veins, the skin rough and rugged, and a temple, nor is it a place of pilgrimage, or thickened membrana cellulosa. Scales appear possessed of a sacerdotal establishment; al- also on the surface, which do not fall off, but are though neighbouring individuals make occasional enlarged by the increasing thickness of the memofferings of prayers and oblations. Consider- branes; uneven lumps, with deep tissures, are ing the pains bestowed on it, it must, at some formed, and the leg and foot become at last period of time, have been held in greater esti- of an enormous size. mation; but the brahmins general disregard A person may labor under this disease many imperfect or mutilated images.

years; and perhaps the chief inconvenience he Various have been, and are to this day, the will experience is the enormous bulky leg which conjectures respecting the Elephanta Cave. he drags about with him. The incumbrance has, Those who attempt to deduce its origin from indeed, induced many to submit to an amputathe Egyptians, from the Jews, or from Alexander tion; but the other leg then frequently becomes the Great, appear to give themselves much un- affected. See Medicine. necessary trouble. The striking resemblance ELEPHANTINE, in Roman antiquity, an in several particulars of the figures in the cave appellation given to the books wherein were reto the present Hindoo race, would induce those gistered the transactions of the senate and magiswho, from history as well as from observation, trates of Rome, of the emperors or generals of have reason to believe they have preserved the armies, and even of the provincial magistrates ; same customs from time immemorial, to imagine the births and classes of the people, and other that the ancestors of these people were its fabri- things relating to the census. They are supposed cators; but those who are in a small degree ac to have been so called, from the leaves being quainted with their mythology, will be persuaded made of ivory. of it; nor is a much greater extent of know ELEPHANTOPUS, in botany, a genus of the ledge requisite to enable us to discover it to polygamia segregata order, and syngenesia class be a temple dedicated principally to Siva, the of plants : natural order forty-nin:h, compositæ : destroyer or changer.

CAL. quadriflorous, with hermaphrodite florets liguELÉPHANTINA, called also Ghezirat-el-Sag, fated or plain; receptacle naked; the pappus or the flowery island,' an island of the Nile, in bristly. Species six, one an oriental herb, the Upper Egypt, described by captain Light as rest West India plants. a perfett paradise. “It must be confessed that ELEPHAS, the elephant, in zoology, a genus we find beauty by comparison ; and this must of quadrupeds belonging to the order bruta. The Excuse all travellers in their particular praise of characters, as defined by Linnæus and Gmelin,are spots, which elsewhere would not, perhaps, call these : 'He has no fore teeth in either jaw, and forth their eulogy. Though the season of the no tusks in the lower jaw; the tusks of the upper year was approaching to the greatest heat, shade jaw are very long, and stretch far out of the 33 every where to be found amongst the thick mouth : has a long, extensible, and flexible, cartiplantations of palm trees, which surrounded and laginous trunk, or proboscis, on the nose, which traversed the island. Amongst these the modern is capable of laying hold even of very minute habitations showed themselves, whilst the eye objects. The body is almost naked. There is often rested on the ancient temples still existing. only one known species, called by way of distincEvery spot was cultivated, and every person tion from the American elephant, which is quite employerd; none asked for money ; and I walked a different genus, E. maximus, or the great 'eleaboui, greeted by all I met with courteous and phant. He is the largest of all land animals. friendly salams. The intercourse I had with the From the front to the origin of the tail he is genenatire of Assuan was of a very different nature; rally about sixteen feet long, from the end of the and in spite of French civilisation and French trunk twenty-five feet, and about fourteen feet prozeny, which the countenances and complexion high. The circumference of the legs is about of many of the younger part of the inhabitants six feet. These are the largest dimensions But

the animal differs in size in different countries; and conveying them to his mouth. When he in some not exceeding seven feet in height. The drinks, he thrusts his trunk into the water, and eyes are small in proportion to the size of the fills it by drawing in his breath and exhausting the head. The muzzle is very different from that of air: when the trunk is thus filled with water, he any other quadruped : it is nothing but the origin can either throw it out to a great distance, or drink of a long trunk which hangs between the two it by putting the end of the trunk in his mouth. large tusks; the mouth appears behind the trunk, The two large tusks, which some call the horns, which serves in place of an upper lip, and the of the elephant, are of a yellowish color, and under lip terminates in a point. The feet are extremely hard. The bony substance of which short, round, clumsy, anil only distinguishable they are composed is known by the name of by the toes. The trunk is, properly speaking, ivory, and much used in different branches of the nose extended, and terminated by a couple manufacture. The ears are very large, and reof nostrils. But, besides serving as an organ of semble those of an ape. The skin of the elephant smell, the trunk performs all the functions of a has but few hairs on it, placed at great distances strong and dexterous arm. The trunk of an ele- from each other. It is full of wrinkles, like those phant is about eight feet long, five feet and a half on the palm of a man's hand, besides many in circumference near the mouth, and one foot chapped and greasy ridges. The female has two and a half near the extremity: it is a pipe of an dugs, one on each side of the breast. irregular conical figure, and widened at the end : The female elephant has not, like other quadruthe superior side of the trunk is convex, and fur- peds, the orifice of the vagina adjacent to the rowed transversely; and the inferior side is flat, anus; for it is situated nearly in the middle of and has two longitudinal rows of small protu- the belly, about two and a half or three feet disberances resembling the tentacula of the silk- tant from the anus. Naturalists, as well as traworm and most other caterpillars. The upper vellers, agree in affirming that the male organ part of the trunk corresponds with the extremity of the elephant exceeds not either in length or of the nose in other quadrupeds, and answers the diameter that of a horse. Although, for this reasame intent on; the inferior part serves as an son, Buffon, Linnæus, and other eminent writers, upper lip, including the nostrils at the same have made their coition a subject of considerable time. For the trunk is a continued canal, di- controversy, yet, as they have since been observed vided into two cavities by a longitudinal parti- to cover like the horse, the subject is not worth tion: these cavities ascend along the fore part of pursuing. As to the time of gestation, which the upper jaw, where they make a turn inward, Buffon limits to nine months, the best modern and descend into the palate, terminating in two authorities consider it to be about twenty months. separate orifices; they have likewise each a They bring forth but one at a time; which, on separate orifice at the end of the trunk. At the coming into the world, is as large as a wild boar, place where these cavities make a turn, and be- and is furnished with teeth : however, the large fore they enter into the bones of the head, there tusks do not make their appearance till some is a moveable cartilaginous plate situate in such a time after, and at the age of six months they are manner as enables the animal to shut the canal, several inches long. Elephants of this age are as and to prevent the water with which it occasion- large as an ox in a natural state. ally fills the trunk from entering into the passage Elephants, even in a savage state, are peaceable of the nose, where the organs serving for the sen- and gentle creatures. They never use their weasation of smell are placed. The elephant can pons but in defence of themselves or their commove the trunk ir all directions ; le can extend panions. Their social dispositions are so strong, or shorten it at pleasure, without altering the that they are seldom found alone, but march aldiameters of the two canals within. By this ways in large troops: the oldest and most exmeans respiration is not interrupted, whatever perienced lead the van; the young and the lame · be the situation of the trunk; and the water is keep in the middle; and those of the middle age allowed to remain till the animal chooses to walk in the rear. The females carry their young throw it out by an expiration. Each canal is on their tusks, embracing them at the same time lined with a smooth strong membrane, and the with their trunk. They seldom march in this surface of the trunk is covered with another regular order but when they reckon the journey strong membrane or skin. The substance con- dangerous, such as an expedition to cultivated tained between the exterior and interior mem- lands, where they expect to meet with resistance. branes, is a composition of longitudinal and On other occasions they are less cautious; some transverse muscles, which serve to extend and of them falling behind or separating from the contract the length of the trunk. At the extre- rest, but seldom so far as to be beyond the reach mity of the trunk there is a concave protuberance, of assistance from their companions. It is danin the bottom of which are the two passages of the gerous to offer them the least injury; for they run nostrils. The inferior part of the protuberance straight upon the offender; and, though the is thicker than the sides, and the superior part weight of their body be great, their steps are so is stretched out like a finger about five inches large, that they easily outrun the swiftest man, long; which, together with the edges of the whom they either pierce with their tusks, or seize whole extremity of the trunk, takes on different with their trunk, dart him in the air, and then figures according to the necessities of the animal. trample him under their feet. Travellers who It is by this organ that the animal lays hold of frequent these countries kindle large fires, and food or other substances; and he manages it with beat drums during the night, to prevent their apas much dexterity as a man does his hand, taking proach. After being once attacked by men, or up grains of corn, or the smallest piles of grass, falling into any ambush, they never forget the in

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