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may also observe a considerable difference between that for determining the proportions in an olearesin, gum-lac, and sulphur, the most insulating ginous mixture, would easily point out that of all known substances, and silk, crystal, and difference. common glass.

679. It would be equally possible, and very 678. M. Rousseau has not found any differ- curious, to try the effect of the two kinds of elecence in the conducting power of liquids, whether tricity on different substances; all that would be spirituous or aqueous, acid, alkaline, or neuter, necessary would be to place the two poles alterthe time required by the needle to arrive at the nately in connexion with the ground. Accordmaximum of deviation being too short, in everying to Ermann's results, it is probable that a case, to ascertain the inequality of its duration difference would be found between most subBut a modification of the apparatus, similar to



cury, 396.


ALKALIES, decomposition of the, 156.

battery, 152. Experiments on earths, 168. ComANALGAN of potassium and sodium, to procure, municating magnetism to steel needles by the con. 158,

ducting wire, 364. Repeats (ersted's experiments, AMMONIUM, to form amalgam of, 165.

363, 332. 384. Electro-magnetic rotation of merAMPERE, M., his electrical needle, 458, Facts dis

covered by him, 331. 342, 343. His galvanome- DECOMPOSITION, Voltaic, 171. ter, 331.

DE LA RIVE, M., his apparatus, 460. ANTINORI, Ridolfi, and Gazzeri, M.M., their experi- DE LUC, M., development of the relation of the va. ments in electro-magnetism, 391.

rious parts of a Voltaic apparatus to the different á XAGO, M., attraction of iron filings by the connect effects it produces, 109. His experiments, 110. ing wire of the battery, 335, 336.

His first dissection of the pile, ib. Second dissec

tion, 111. Third dissection, 114. His theory of BARLOW, Mr., his method of communicating mag the Voltaic pile, 116. Electric column, 122.

netism to needles, 410. His experiments in elec- DIAMOND, experiments on, 304. tro-magnetism, 405. BATTERY, Voltaic, circuit made through water, 119. EARTHS, experiments on, by Messrs. Pontir and Ber

319. Experiments on the great, of the London In zelius, and Sir H. Davy, 168. stitution, 386. Voltaic, best conductors for dis ELECTRIC COLUMN, M. De Luc, 122. Mr. Singer's ebarging the, 318.

experiments on the, 123. Construction of the inBERZELITS, M., electro-magnetic experiments by, strument, ib.

393. Experiments to prove that oxidation is not ELECTRICAL CEMENTs, preparation of, 200. the cause of the electricity of the Voltaic apparatus, ELECTRICAL CHIME of Mr. Forster, 124. Mr. Sin

ger's, 125. BERZELIUS and Pontin, M.M., experiments relative ELECTRICAL CURRENTS, M. Ampère on, 342. to the expansion of mercury, 163.

ELECTRICITY, its effects on frogs, discovereů by Gal. BERZELIUS, Pontin, and Sir H. Davy, experiments vani, 3. Volta discovers the effect of, on different on earths, 168.

kinds of metals, 96. Professor Berzelius's experiBICHAT, M., bis galvanic experiments on frogs, 241. ment to prove that oxidation is not the cause of the BINARY PILE constructed by Zamboni, 99. To re electricity of the Voltaic apparatus, 109. Quantity store its action, 166.

wanted in the Voltaic battery to produce the elecBiot's, M., experiments, 354.

tro-magnetic effect, 329. Blot and Savart, M.M., on determining the law by ELECTRO-MAGNETISM, M. Oersted's first experiments

which a connecting wire acts on magnetised bodies, in, 316.329. M. Boisgeraud's experiments in, 341. 345.

M. La Borne's experiments in, 392. Mr. Barlow's BOLSGERACD, M., his experiments in electro-mag experiments in, 406. netism, 341.

ELECTROMETER, effects of a column upon the gold

leaf, 126. CARLISLE, Mr., his first experiments upon the moist EXPERIMENTS, electro-magnetic, 320–325. 331. pile, 138.

333. 335. 337. 343–346. 350. 354–359. 361. CAVENDISH, Mr., conductibility of iron, 237.

363–382. 384-386. 389. 391–404. 406. 410. CEMENTS, electrical, preparation of, 200.

Voltaic, , 172-184. 186–192. 241. 267–280. CHARCOAL, combustion of, by the Voltaic battery, 284, 288, 290—303.

214. CHILDREN, Mr., powerful Voltaic apparatus by, 266. FILINGS, attraction of, by the connecting wire of the

dis experiments, 267–280, 284-288. 290—303. battery, 335. 363. CHIME, electrical of Mr. Forster, 124. Mr. Singer's, FORSTER, Mr., his electrical chime, 124. Mr. Sin


ger's, 125.

on, 241.

COLUMN, electric, by M. De Luc, 122. Mr. Singer's Frogs, effects of electricity on, discovered by Galexperiments on the, 123. Effects of, upon a gold vani, 3. M. Lehot's experiments on, 58. M. Valli's leaf electrometer, 126. Construction of, for making experiments on,

8-28. M. Humboldt's experiobservations, 128. Precaution to be observed for ments on, 29. M. Bichat's galvanic experiments

its constant and immediate action, 129. COMBUSTION of charcoal by the Voltaic battery, 214. CONDUCTORS, best, 148. 222. Best, for discharging Galvani, L., discovers the effects of electricity on a the Voltaic battery, 318.

frog, 3. CRIMINAL, Dr. Ure's experiments on a, 250-265. GALVANIC Pile of Zamboni, 99. CRTICKSHANK, Mr., Voltaic pile of, 197. Construc- GALVANISM, M. Lehot's memoir on, 56. Its effects line of his battery, 198, 199.

on taste by M. Lehot, 60. Experiments which Carexts, M. Ampère on electrical, 342.

form the basis of M. Lehot's theory of, 77--94 DAVY, Sır 11., his experiments relating to the sepera Mr. Singer's first experiments, 108,

tion of gases from the wires proceeding from the GALVANOMETER, M. Ampère's, 331.

GASES, Sir H. Davy's experiments relating to the se Pontin ard Berze.ius, M.M., experiments relative

paration of, from the wires proceeding from the to the expansion of mercury, 163. 168. battery, 152. Influence of the Voltaic spark on, POTASSIUM, to procure amalgam of, 158. 216.

PRECHTL, M., his experimental illustration of the GAZZERI, Ridolf, and Artinori, M.M., their experi effects of a spiral wire, 465. ments in electro-magnetism, 391.

Rabbit, M. Valli's galvanic experiments on a, 23. HUMBOLDT, M., his experiments on frogs, 29. His REPULSION and attraction of the two wires connect

conclusions from his early experiments, 31-39. ing the battery, 332. Analysis of his work on galvanism, 42. Pfaff's RIDOLFI, Gazzeri, and Antinori, M.M., their expeobjections to Humboldt's theory, 45~55.

riments in electro-magnetism, 391.

Robison, Professor, arrangement of a series of IRON, conductibility of, 237.

plates, 193.

Rotation, electro-magnetic, of mercury, 396. LA BORNE, M., his electro-magnetic experiments, 392.

SAVART and Biot, M.M., on determining the law by LEHOT, M., his memoirs on galvanism, 56. Effects which a connecting-wire acts on magnetised bodies,

of galvanism on taste, 60. Experiments which 345. form the basis of his theory, 77–94.

SINGER, Mr., his Erst experiments, 108. On the LONDON INSTITUTION, experiments with the great phenomena of the Voltaic apparatus, 119. His battery, 386.

conclusions on the electrical effects of the battery,

121. His experiments on the electric column, MAGNETIC virtue given to metallic bodies when the 123.

electric current evolved from the battery is trans SOLUTIONS, best calculated for the Voltaic battery, mitted through thein, 348.

120. JAGNETISM, communicating it to steel needles by SPARK, influence of the Voltaic, on gases, 216. the conducting-wire, 364.

Needles made mag Striking distance of, 218-220. netic by the common clectrical machine, 372. Spirals, M.M., Arago and Ampère's experiments How to communicate it to a steel bar, 406.

with, 336. MAGNETISing a needle by placing it in a spiral con SPIRAL WIRE, M. Prechtl's experimental illustration ducting-wire, 412.

of the effects of a, 465.
MERCURY, Messrs. Berzelius and Pontin's experi- STELL BAR, how to magnetise, 406.

ments relative to the expansion of, 163. Sir H. SYLVESTER, Mr., his Voltaic combination, 185.
Davy's experiments on the electro-magnetic rota-
tion of, 396.

Taste, effects of galvanism on,

by M. Lehot, 60. Metals, Volta discovers the effect of electricity on different, 96. Effect of the Voltaic battery on, URE, Dr., experiments on a criminal, 250–265. 24.

VALLI, M., his galvanic experiments on frogs, 8–28.

On rabbits, 23. Needle, one magnetised by the Voltaic battery Volta's experiments, 95. Effects of electricity on

placed in a spiral, 338. 412. M. Ampère's, 458. different kinds of metals, 96. NEEDLES, steel, communicating magnetism to, by the Voltaic APPARATUS, Professor Berzelius's experi

conducting-wire, 364. To ascertain the polarity of, ment to prove that oxidation is not the cause of the according in Mr. Barlow's method of communi electricity of, 109. cating magnetisır, 410.

VOLTAIC BATTERY, solutions best calculated for the, NERVES, Ds. Wilson Philip, on the influence of the 120. Mr. Pepy's portable, 202. Conductors em

Voltaic battery in obviating the effects of the di ployed in the, 222. Its effect on metals, 224. vision of the eighth pair of, 24€.

Best conductors for discharging the, 318. Effects NICHOLSON, Mr., his first experiments upon the produced by the connecting-wire of the, 319. moist pile, 138.

Quantity of electricity wanting to produce the

electro-magnetic effect, 329. Action of the earth OERSTED, M., his early experiments in electro-mag upon the currents excited by the, 343. netism, 316-329.

VOLTAIC EXPERIMENTS, 172—184. 186–192. 241. OXIDATION, Professor Berzelius's experiment to

267–280. 284-288. 290-383. prove that it is not the cause of the electricity of Voltaic Pile, first experiments made upon the the Voltaic apparatus, 109.

moist pile in this country, performed by Messrs.

Nicholson and Carlisle, 138. Substances Pepys's, Mr., Voltaic battery of, 202.

ployed in contact with each other in the, 143. PFAFF, M., his memoir on galvanism, 44. His ob Of Mr. Cruickshank, 197. Construction of, 198,

jections to Humboldt's theory, 45—55. Experiments on frogs,

VOLTAIC SPARK, influence of, on gases,

216. PHILIP, Dr. W., influence of the Voltaic battery in Von Buch, M., his experiments, 389.

obviating the effects of the division of the eighth
pair of
nerves, 246.

Wire, effects produced by the conducting, of the Pile, Voltaic, 97. Zamboni's galvanic, 99. To Voltaic battery, 319. M.M. Biot and Savart, on

restore its action, 166. Voltaic, M. De Luc's ex determining the law by which a connecting-wire periments, 109. His theory of the, 116. Voltaic, acts on magnetised bodies, 345. Effect produced first experiments made in England upon the moist, by the connecting, when bent into an helix, 346. performed by Messrs. Nicholson and Carlisle, 138. Communicating magnetis n to steel needles by the Voltaic, substances employed in contact with each conducting, 364. Magactising a needle by placing other in the, 143. 195. Voltaie of Mr. Cruick it in a spiral conducting, 412. Examining the shank, 197. Construction of, 193, 199.

effects of a spiral conducting, on a floating magPlates, Professor Robison's arrangement of a series netised needle, 416. M. Prechtl's experimental

of, 193. Size of, for the electrical column, 131. illustration of the effects of a, 465. POLARITY, to ascertain the, of needles, according to

Mr. Barlow's method of coinmunicating magne. ZAMBONI, his galvanic pile, 99. To restore its actism, 410.

tion, 166.

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ELECTRUM, Gr. niekt pov. Amber : or a the mint or on the sideboard. There are many mixed metal, according to some authors. See coins of this alloy of the kings of Bosphorus, ELECTRE, ELECTRICITY, and below.

some small ones of Syracuse, and many Celtic She of whose soul, if we may say 'twas gold,

and of ancient Gaul. Her body was the electrum and did hold

ELECTUARY, n. s. Fr. and Belg. electuaire ; Many degrees of that.

Donne. Ital. elettuario; Span. and Port. letuario; Lat. ELECTRUM, Lat. 'Hlektpov, Gr. Electrum, electuarium; all from. Gr. Exlertnplov, ekleyw, according to Ovid, was that resinous substance elign, to choose-Minsheu. But Vossius and now called amber; of which there are two kinds, Gesner prefer ekleypa, from £xXerxelv, to lick; the white and the yellow. Sometimes its color as the etymology. Ä form of medicine made of approaches to a hyacinthine red. Also, accord- conserves and powders, in the consistence of ing to Pliny (lib. xxx. cap. 4), a mixture of gold honey. The modern pharmacopæias treat of and silver, of which the fifth part was silver, these articles as confections. According to other ancient writers, they har

We meet with divers electuaries, which have no inthree varieties of substances called electrum, that gredient, except sugar, common to any two of them. were used in the arts; namely, glass, a compound

Boyle. metal, and succinum. In the Homeric poems trum is often mentioned, which seems to have

Electuaries made up with houey or syrup, when the been succinum, the yellow or white amber. Ac- consistence is too thin, ferment : and when too thick, cording to Eustathius the ancients used some

candy. By both which the ingredients will be altered or impaired.

Quincy. times to call gold by this name, probably from its brilliancy, the word véætup signifying the

ELEEMOSYNA ARATRI, ELEEMOSYNA CAsun. Pliny thinks that the alloy is the same RUCARUM, or pro aratris, in our ancient custhat Homer mentions in the fourth book of the toms, a penny which king Ethelred ordered to Odyssey, in describing the palace of Menelaus, be paid for every plough in England towards which he says was ornamented with gold, elec- the support of the poor. It is sometimes also trum (jléktpov), silver, and ivory. The scholiast called eleemosyna regis, because first appointed upon Aristophanes, supposes that the electrum by the king. of Homer was glass, but there is nothing in any ELEEMOSYNARIUS, in old records, the of his works to warrant such a supposition, for almoner, or officer who received the eleemosyglass is not designated by any character. It is nary rents and gifts, and distributed them to more probable that electrum was yellow amber, charitable uses. See Almoner. which has a resplendent sunny brilliancy accord ELEEMOSYNARY, n. s. & adj. Gr. elepoing with its Greek name; and Ilerodotus mentions rovn; ab £deos, compassion. One who lives upon that succinum or amber was known to the ancients. alms: as an adjective it means given in charity Pliny says, all gold is naturally alloyed by silver or living upon it. in various proportions; some containing a tenth,

It is little better than an absurdity, that the cause some a nioth, and some an eighth part. Wherever should be an eleemosynary for its subsistence to its the silver anlounts to a fifth of the mass, the com- effects, as a nature posterior to and dependent on pound is called electrum; this alloy may also be itself.

Glanville's Scepsis. prepared artificially, by adding to gold the re

In the year 1430, it appears that the eleemosynary quisite proportion of silver. But if this latter boys, or choristers, of that monastery acted a play. exceeds a fifth of the whole, the mass ceases to

Warton. History of English Poetry. be malleable. The nature of electrum is to

EL'EGANCE, n. s. reflect a richer lustre by lamp-light than pure

Fr. elegance ; Ital. silver does. That which is native has also the


eleganza; Lat. elegantia, additional property of detecting poisons, iride

ELEGANT, adj. elegans, ab eligere, to scent rings passing rapidly over the surface of

ELEGANTLY, adr. choose. The beauty of the cup, accompanied by a noise like that of hot propriety, not of greatness, says Dr. Johnson.

Rather that which is selected or chosen because metal plunged in water. Electrum was not only used for ornamental

it pleases : hence applied particularly to objects

of taste. Milton uses the adjective for accurate plate, but was occasionally employed for coin, at least for medals. Thus Lampridius, in his in discernment, or nice in taste. life of Alexander Severus, says that that prince St. Augustine, out of a kind of elegancy in writing, caused medals to be struck in honor of Alex- makes some difference.

Raleigh's History. ander the Great, both of electruin and gold.

They describe her in part finely and elegantly, and in part gravely and sententiously.

Bacon. (Electreos aliquantos, sed plurimos tamen aureek.) The Romans themselves appear to have Lovers are anxious to trick themselves out; to be preferred the white lustre of silver to the yel- spruce in their apparel; to have their locks neatly low radiance of gold, &c. probably this taste combed and curiously curled ; to adorn their shoes together with the imperfection of the art of as

with elegant ties; to be point device in all their

Burton, saying, as practised by them, aided also by an idie superstitious notion of the efficacy of elec Now read with them those organic arts which irum in detecting poison, contributed to give to enable men to discourse and write perspicuously, thris alloy a temporary celebrity. Modern taste, elegantly, and according to the fittest style of lofty,

Milton. however, prefers the native lustre of the noblé racan, or lowly. metals in all their purity to any alloy of them

In a poem elegantly writ, with each other, nor is it probable, that the I will not quarrel with a slight mistake. Roman electrum will ever again be met with at

Roscommon. Vol. VIII.

M м



These questions have more propriety, and elegancy, According to Vossius from old Lat. eleo, (oleo), understood of the old world.


cresco, to increase; because all things are supMy compositions in gardening are altogether Pinda- posed to proceed from certain elements. A first, rick, and run into the beautiful wildness of nature,

or constituent principle: hence an ingredient or without the nicer elegancies of art. Spectator.

constituent part; and that which is proper, or Polite with candour, elegant with ease. Pope. . agreeable, to a person or thing. The verb, Whocver would write elegantly, must have regard derived from the noun, is used by our old to the different turn and juncture of every period: writers for to compound with elements, to conthere must be proper distances and pauses.

stitute. Sometimes the element,' when used Pope's Odyssey, Notes.

alone, signifies the air. Elementarity is simplicity There may'st thou find some elegant retreat.

of nature; the state of being uncompounded: London.

elementary, having but a single or simple prinThe elegant arts owe their choicest beauties to a

ciple; initial; made of, or belonging to, the taste for the contemplation of nature. Percival.

elements. If we can direct the lights we derive from such exalted speculations upon the humbler field of the We, when we were children, were in bondage under

Gal. iv. 3. imagination, whilst we investigate the springs, and the elements of the world. trace the courses of our passions, we may not only

The heavens and the earth will pass away, and the

Peter. communicate to the taste a sort of philosophical soli- elements melt with fervent heat. dity, but we may reflect back on the severer sciences Every parish should keep a petty schoolmaster, some of the graces and elegances of taste, without which should bring up children in the first elements of which the greatest profi ciency in those sciences will letters.

Spenser. always have the appearance of something illiberal. With religion it fareth as with other sciences; the

Burke. first delivery of the elements thereof must, for like conThis cap to my cousin I owe;

sideration, be framed according to the weak and slenShe gave it, and gave me beside,

der capacity of young beginners.

Hooker. Wreathed into an elegant bow,

If nature should intermit her course, those princi. The riband with which it is tied.

Cowper. pal and mother elements of the world, whereof all And that vice,

things in this lower world are made, should lose the Though well perfumed and eleguntly dressed,

qualities which now they have.

Id. Like an unburied carcass tricked with flowers, Is but a garnished nuisance, fitter far

He (a courtier) is not, if he be out of court, but, For cleanly riddance, than for fair attire.

fish-like, breathes destruction, is out of his own eleId.

Sir T. Overbury. His infant muse, though artless, was not mute : Of elegance as yet he took no care ;

The king is but a man : the violet smells to him as For this of time and culture is the fruit ;

t doth to me; and the element shews to him as it doth And Edwin gained at last this fruit so rare ;


The king, As in some future verse I purpose to declare.


Contending with the fretful elements,

Bids the wind blow the earth into the sea, ELEGIT, in law, a writ of execution, which

Or swell the curled waters. Id. King Lear. lies for a person who has recovered debt or da

Who set the body and the limbs mages; or upon a recognizance in any court, Of this great sport together as you guess ? against a defendant who is not able to satisfy -One sure that promises no clement the same in his goods.

In such a business.

Id. Henry VIII. EL'EGY, n. s. Fr. elegie; Ital. Span. We are simple men; we do not know she works ELEGIAC, adj. and Lat. elegia, of Gr. Eleyos, by charms, by spells, and such daubry as is beyond ELE'GIAST, n. s. complaint or grief. A plain ur element.

Shakspeare. tive or funeral poem. An elegiast, or elegist, is

A prince should watch that his reason may not be a writer of such poems.

so subdued by his nature, as not to be so much a man of

peace as to be a jest in an army; nor so much a man He hangs odes upon hawthorns, and elegies upon

of war, as to be out of his element in his council, brambles, all forsooth deifying the name of Rosalind.

Saville. Shakspeare.

Here be four of you, able to make a good world; So on Meander's banks, when death is nigh, The mournful swan sings her own elegy. Dryden.

for you are as differing as the four elements. Bacon.

Not all, as if some perished by this,
Let elegiao lay the woe relate,
Soft as the breath of distant Autes. Gays Triviu.

But so as all in you contracted is :

As of this all, though many parts decay, ELEGY is derived from the Greek εdeyela; but The pure, which elemented them, shall stay. who was the inventor of elegiac poetry is not

Donne. known. Horace acknowledges himself ignorant

Have not all souls thought, of it. Among the Latins, the principal writers For many ages, that our body's wrought of elegiac verse were Propertius, Ovid, and Ti Of air, and fire, and other elements? bullus ; the latter of whom is esteemed by Quin And now they think of new ingredients. Id. tilian the best elegiac poet; but the former is

Sure it is but an elementary fire that goes out ; that preferred by the younger Pliny. Among the which is celestial continues.

Bp. Hall. Contemplations. Greeks, Callimachus, Parthenius, and Eupho

Our torments may, in length of time, rion, were the principal writers of elegy. See

Become our elements.

Milton. POETRY.

Leeches are by some accounted poison, not properly, EL'EMENT, n. s. & v. a.

Fr. element ;

that is by temperamental contrariety, occult form, or ELEMENT'AL, adj.

Span. Port. and

so much as elemental repugnancy; but, inwardly taken, ELEMENTAR'ITY, n. S.

Ital. elemento; they fasten upon the veins, and occasion an effusion ELEMENTARY, adj. Lat. elementum. of blood.


to me.

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Á very large class of creatures in the earth, far enquire into the origin of this apparent diversity, above the condition of elementarity.

and he will find that those bodies which seem Browone's Vulgar Errours. the most different from each other are at bottom He from his flaming ship his children sent,

nearly the same. Thus the blood, chyle, milk, To perish in a milder element.

Waller. A man may rationally retain doubts concerning the urine, &c., as well as the various solid parts of

animals, are all composed of one particular subnumber of those ingredients of bodies, which some call elements, and others principles.


The same simplicity appears in the oriWhether any one such body be met with, in thuse ginal composition of the nourishment of vegetasaid to be elemented bodies, I now question. Id.

bles, notwithstanding the variety among them

with respect to hardness, softness, elasticity, There is nothing more pernicious to a youth, in

taste, odor, and medical qualities. They chietly the elements of painting, than an ignorant master,


depend, for these, upon water and the light of the sun.

Reflections of this kind suggested an If dusky spots are varied on his brow, And streaked with red, a troubled colour show;

idea of several principal elements of wbich all That sullen mixture shall at once declare

other bodies are composed, which by their vaWinds, rain, und storms, and elemental war.

rious combinations furnished all the variety of

Dryden's Virgil. natural bodies. Democritus, Aristotle, and other All rain water contains in it a copious sediment of great philosophers of antiquity, fixed the number terrestrial matter, and is not a simple elementary to four, which have retained the name of elements

Ray. ever since. These are, fire, air, earth, and water; They slew that they are out of their element, and each of which they imagined was naturally disthat logick is none of their talent.

Baker on Learning.

posed to hold its own place in the universe.

Thus, the earth, as heaviest, naturally tended The elementary salts of animals are not the same

towards tbe centre, and occupied the lower parts; as they appear by distillation. Arbuthnot on Aliments. Soft yielding minds to water glide away,

the water, as approaching next to it in gravity, and sip with nymphs their elemental tea.


was spread chiefly on the outside of the earth;

the air, being more subtile and rare, occupied Simple substances are either spirits, which have no manner of composition, or the first principles of bodies, the middle place; while the fire, being still more usually called elements, of which other bodies are

subtile and active, receded to the greatest discompounded.


tance of all, and was supposed to compose the First the fine forms her dulcet voice requires, planets and stars. This system was extended to Which bathe or bask in elemental fires. Darwin, all the productions of nature. The older chePeace! heaven-descended maid, whose powerful mists, with Paracelsus at their head, pretend voice

to speak of four elementary bodies, salt, sulFrom ancient darkness called the morn;

phur, earth, and mercury : but when we atOf jarring elements composed the noise,

tempt to form an idea of what they mean, we When Chaos, from his old dominion torn,

find it very confused; and that their expressions With all his bellowing throng, Far, far was hurled the void abyss along.

concerning them are enveloped in so much Beattie.

obscurity, that they cannot be comprehended. ELEMENTS, iu astronomy, are those principles Some have attempted to prove that the elements, deduced from astronomical observations and whatever they are, must necessarily be invisible calculations, and those fundamental numbers

or imperceptible by any of our senses. which are employed in the construction of tables quiry into their number or properties, therefore, of the planetary motions. Thus, the elements must be attended with very little success; and of the theory of the sun, or rather of the earth, all the knowledge we can have upon the subject are his mean motion and eccentricity, and the must be drawn from a view of their combinamotion of the aphelia. The elements of the tions, and reasoning analogically from the transtheory of the moon are its mean motion; that mutations we observe to take place in nature. of its node and apogee, its eccentricity, the We find that all the different kinds of air are inclination of its orbit to the plane of the eclip- composed of that invisible and subtile fluid tic, &c

named heat, united in a certain way with some ELEMENTS, in physics, the first principles of other substance: by which union the compound which all bodies in the system of nature are com- acquires the properties of gravitation, expansion, posed These are supposed to be few in num- rarefaction, &c.; for pure heat, unless when ber, unchangeable, and by their combinations to united with some terrestrial substance, neither produce that extensive variety of objects to be gravitates nor expands. This is evident from met with in the works of nature. There seems the phenomena of the burning glass, where the to be in reality some foundation for this doctrine; light concentrated in the focus will neither heat for there are some principles evidently exempted the air nor water, unless it meets with something from every change or decay, but which can be with which it can form a permanent union. mixed or changed into different forms of matter. Heat, therefore, is justly to be considered as A person who surveys the works of nature in an one of the original elements, being always capinaitentive manner, is apt to form a contrary opi- able of uniting with bodies, and of being exnion, when he considers the numerous tribes of tricated from them unchanged, while the same fizsils, plants, and animals, with the wonderful bodies are by their union with it changed into variety that appears among them in almost every various forms; water, for instance, into vapor, ibstance. He is thence induced to conclude, that or ice, both of which return into their origina's nature employs a vast variety of materials in pro- state by the abstraction or addition of heat in a ducing such prodigious diversity. But let him certain degree. Hence some have concluded that

An en

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