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379 places choose
658 members. London is the city which sends four members; all the members of the Germanic body had a the city of Ely does not send one; Weymouth right to assemble, and to make choice of the perand Melcombe-Regis is the borough sending four son whom they appointed to be their head. But, members; the five boroughs sending one mem amidst the violence and anarchy which prevailed ber each, are Abingdon, Banbury, Bewdly, for several centuries in the empire, seven princes Higham-Ferrers, and Monmouth; the universi- who possessed the most extensive territories, ties are Oxford and Cambridge; the Cinque and who had obtained an hereditary title to the Ports are Hastings, Dover, Sandwich, Romney, great offices of the state, acquired the exclusive and Hithe; and the three branches, Rye, Win- privilege of nominating the emperor. This right chelsea, and Seaford. In Scotland, the six coun was confirmed to them by the golden bull of ties sending alternately are Bute and Caithness, Charles IV.; the mode of exercising it was ascerNair and Cromarty, Clackmannan and Ross, tained, and they were dignified with the appellaeach two sending one alternately; Edinburgh is tion of electors. The nobility and free cities the city sending one. In Ireland the cities being thus stripped of a privilege which they had sending two are Dublin and Cork; those send- once enjoyed, were less connected with a prince ing one are Kilkenny, Limerick, Londonderry, towards whose elevation they had not contributed Cashel, and Waterford; the university is Dub- by their suffrages, and came to be more apprelin. In Wales, Pembroke is the borough send- hensive of his authority. The electors, by their ing two: Merioneth does not send one.
extensive power, and the distinguishing priviELECTION OF ECCLESIASTICAL Persons. Elec- leges which they possessed, became formidable tions for the dignities of the church ought to be to the emperors, with whom they were placed free, according to the stat. 9 Ed. II. cap. 14. If almost on a level in several acts of jurisdiction. any persons that have a voice in elections, take Thus the introduction of the electoral college any reward for an election in any church, college, into the empire, and the authority which it acschool, &c., the elect on shall be void. And if quired, instead of diminishing, contributed to any persons of such societies resign their places strengthen the principles of hostility and discord to others for reward, they incur a forfeiture of in the Germanic constitution.' double the sum ; and both the parties are ren The seven princes above alluded to were the dered incapable of the place. Stat. 31 Eliz. c. 6. three ecclesiastical princes, the archbishop of
ELECTION OF SCOTTISH PEERS. See Peers. Cologne, Mentz, and Treves ; and the four secuELECTION OF VerderORS OF THE FOREST lar, the count Palatine, the king of Bohemia, the (electionæ viridariorum forestæ), in law, a writ marquis of Brandenburgh, and the duke of that lies for the choice of a verderor, where any Saxony. of the verderors of the forest are dead, or re In 1648 the duke of Bavaria took the place of moved from their offices. This writ is directed the count Palatine, who was outlawed by the to the sheriff, and the verderor is to be elected emperor for having accepted the crown of Bohy his freeholders of the county, in the same man hemia : but he was at length restored to his rank, ner as coroners. New. Nat. Brev. 366.
and a new electoral dignity was created for the ELECTOR (in Germ. churfüst, kurfüst, or former, which increased the number of electors wahlfürst) was even in recent times a title of to eight. In 1692 a ninth electorate was added several princes of the German empire of con- by the emperor Leopold, in favor of the duke of siderable
power and dignity. During a long Hanover, of the house of Brunswick Luneburg. period,' says Dr. Robertson (Hist. Charles V.) From that period, to the year 1777, the electoral
college consisted of the three ecclesiastical elec- seph, elector, at present king of Bavaria. 9. cors, Mentz, Treves, and Cologne, and the six Frederick Augustus IV., elector, at present king secular, Bohemia, the palatinate of the Rhine, of Saxony; and, 10. Francis Il., elector of Saxony, Brandenburg, Bavaria, and Hanover. Bohemia, afterwards emperor of Austria. The dominions of the last elector palatine of the The electors besides the power of electing Rhine, having devolved in December 1777 to an emperor, had a right to capitulate with the the elector of Bavaria, the electoral college was new head of the empire, to dictate the condiagain reduced to eight members, until the peace tions on which he was to reign and to depose of Luneville ; when the three ecclesiastical elec- him if he broke those conditions. They actually torates were secularised, the archbishop of Ratis- deposed Adolphus of Nassau, in 1298, and Wenbon introduced as a new elector arch-chancellor, ceslaus in 1401. They were sovereign and indeand the duke of Wirtemberg, the landgrave of pendent princes in their respective dominions, Hlesse Cassel, the margrave of Baden, and the had the privilegium de non appellando illimigrand duke of Tuscany, as duke of Saltzburg, tatum,' that of making war, coining, and exerraised to the electoral dignity. This increased cising every act of sovereignty. They formed a the number of electors to ten, viz. the elector separate college in the diet of the empire, and arch-chancellor, Bohemia, Bavaria, Saxony, had among themselves a particular covenant, or Brandenburg, Hanover, Wirtemberg, Hesse Cas- league, called the . Kur verein. They had presel, Baden, and Saltzburg.
cedence of all the other princes of the empire, This arrangement was finally destroyed, as we even of cardinals, and ranked with kings. There have seen (article Diet), in the year 1806, when was, however, a difference between the secular the German empire was dissolved. Bavaria and and ecclesiastical electors; none of the latter Wirtemberg, on joining the Confederation of the could be chosen emperor, and they were to be Rhine, under the protection of the French empire, thirty years of age before they could attain the assumed the royal dignity; Hanover was in pos- electoral dignity, whilst the majority of the sesession of the French ; Baden and Saltzburg took cular electors was fixed at eighteen years of age, the titles of grand dukes; the elector arch- and any of them might be placed at the head chancellor that of the prince primate of the Con- of the empire; indeed they might even vote in federacy of the Rhine: and the year following their own favor. The functions of the electors Saxony' assumed the royal dignity; Hesse Cassel were exercised by deputies. The elector of was annexed to the new kingdom of Westphalia; Mentz was arch-chancellor in Germany; Treves, Bohemia as part of the dominions of Austria, in Gaul and the kingdom of Arles ; Cologne, in and Brandenburg as part of those of Prussia, Italy; Bohemia was arch-cupbearer; Bavaria, reverted to these two houses as independent arch-sewer, or officer who serves out the feasts; monarchical states. And thus the title of elector, Saxony, arch-marshal ; Brandenburg, arch-chamwhich for so long a series of years conferred a berlain; Hanover, arch-treasurer. During the rank equal to that of the old kings of Europe, vacancy of the imperial throne, the elector of became finally extinct.
Saxony used to be vicar of the empire in the The last electors of the German empire were, north, and the elector of Bavaria of the southern 1. Charles Theodore, baron Dahlberg, elector of circles. On the demise of an emperor of GerRatisbon, and arch chancellor, now prince pri- many, or a vacancy ensuing in the imperial mate. 2. Frederick William III., king of throne, the electors were summoned by the archPrussia, elector of Brandenburg. 3. George bishop of Mentz to meet (generally at FrankIII., king of Great Britain, elector of Hanover. fort) within three months. One month was or4. Ferdinand Joseph, elector of Saltzburg, now dinarily allowed for their determination; if it duke of Saltzburg. 5. Frederick II., elector, was delayed longer they were, according to the Dow king of Wirtemberg. 6. Charles Frederick, imperial constitution, to be fed on bread and elector, now grand duke of Baden. 7. William water until they had made a choice. Both their IX., elector of Hesse Cassel, driven from his dress and functions are particularly described by dominions by the French. 8. Maximilian Jo Du Cange.
E L ECTRICITY. ELECTRE, n. s. Gr. ndertpov; Latin, presence and portion of electricity in any given ELECTRIC, adj. electrum, amber, which, body. ELECTRICAL, having the quality when Change silver plate or vessel into the compound ELECTRICIAN, n. s. warmed by friction of stuff, being a kind of silver electre, and turn the rest ELECTRI'CITY, attracting bodies, gave into coin.
Bacon. ELECTRIFY, 0. a. to one species of attrac If that attraction were not rather electrical than magELECTRISE, v. a. tion the name of elec- netical, it was wondrous what Helmont delivereth
ELECTRO'METER, n. s. ) tricity, and to the bodies concerning a glass, wherein the magistery of loadthat so attract the epithet electric; which also
stone was prepared, which retained an attractive
Browne. means produced by an electric body; and me quality, taphorically, rapid; powerful. Bacon uses
By electrick bodies do I conceive not such only as
take up light bodies, in which number the ancients electre for a metallic compound. An electrician only placed jet and amber ; but such as, conveniently is he who is skilled in electricity. To electrify, placed, attract all bodies palpable.
Id, electrum and fio, to render electric, or apply elec An electrick body can by friction emit an exhalation tricity, and to electrise, are used synonymously. so subtile, and yet so potent, as by its emission to Electrometer, an instrument for ascertaining the cause no sensible diminution of the weight of the elec.
trick body, and to be expanded through a sphere, 3. Dr. William Gilbert, of Colchester, appears whose diameter is above two feet, and yet to be able to have been the first person who essentially to carry up lead, copper, or leaf gold, at the distance contributed to the establishment of electricity as of above a foot from the electrick body. Newton.
a science. In the year 1600 he published his When I would observe the electricity of the atmos work entitled De Magnete, which contains phere with this instrument, I thrust the pin I into the
a number of experiments made with various cork D, and holding the rod by its lower end A, pro- substances, possessing the properties of amber, ject it out of a window on the upper part of a house,
now termed electrics. Of Dr. Gilbert, Cavallo into the air ; raising the end of the rod with the electrometer, so as to make an angle of about fifty or sixty says that he ought to be considered as the father
Cavallo. degrees with the horizon.
4. No further discoveries were made in this Then mark how two electric streams conspire
science of any importance till the year 1670, To form the resinous and vitreous fire. Darwin.
when the celebrated Mr. Boyle much enlarged If a metallic point be fixed on the prime conductor, the list of electrics, and by experiment discovered and the flame of a candle be presented to it, on
that their effects were much increased by warmelectrising the conductor either with vitreous or resin- ing and wiping them before the application of ous ether, the flame of the candle is blown from the friction, and that during the friction they emitted point, which must be owing to the electric Auid in its passage from the point carrying along with it a stream
faint Aashes of light; this appearance he conof atmospheric air.
sidered as an additional characteristic of the
Id. But now a bride and mother and now there! How many ties did that stern moment tear!
5. Otto Guericke of Magdeburg, the inventor From thy Sire's to his humblest subject's breast
of the air-pump, and a contemporary with Mr. Is linked the electrick chain of that despair, Boyle, confirmed the experiments of the latter, Whose shock was as an earthquake's, and opprest and much enlarged the state of electrical knowThy land which loved thee so that none could love ledge. He constructed an apparatus in which thee best.
Byron. the electric, a globe of sulphur, was made to And the wild sparkle of his eye seemed caught revolve on an axis; the hand was applied to it From high, and lightened with electric thought. as a rubber; and by this contrivance, which was
in principle the same as the most modern con1. The particular branch of science denomi - struction of the electrical machine, he was ennated electricity appears to have derived its abled to obtain an accumulation of electricity far name from that of the first substance in which beyond any thing that had been effected by his any of its properties were discovered. This predecessors
. This philosopher discovered also was amber, the Greek name of which is ndertpov, the principle of electrical repulsion. evidently derived from 'Hertwp, a name by 6. In the year 1709 appeared the first treatise which Homer designates the Sun. It has been on electricity; it was the production of Mr. said by some that the ancients, observing amber Hawksbee, who far exceeded his predecessors in to possess the property of attracting light sub- the discoveries which he made. He was the stances when rubbed, termed it electrum, and first who observed the electric power of rubbed that hence arose the word electricity. Those glass; the flashing light of an excited electric who entertain this opinion, would derive the had been observed by Boyle; but, as Mr. Hawksname from the Greek verb claw to draw; but bee by his glass globe could collect the electric this appears to us to be a very forced derivation, matter in much greater quantities than had been since amber was doubtless called by the name done before, he had the pleasure of beholding of electron, long before it was known to possess the intensity of its light, and of observing the the magnetic property of attraction. Perhaps snapping noise by which its discharges are atwas so called from its bright and shining ap- tended. Some of the experiments made by Mr. pearance. But, whatever may be the etymology Hawksbee were very curious, and deserve more of the term, it is now employed to designate notice than has hitherto been taken of them. that science which investigates the attractions Among others the following may be mentioned. and repulsions, the emissions of light, and ex- He lined more than one-half of a glass globe plosions, which are produced, not only by the with sealing-wax, and, having exhausted it of its friction of vitreous, resinous, and metallic sur- air, he put it in motion in an appropriate frame. faces, but by the heating, cooling, evaporation, On applying his hand to it, for the purpose of and mutual contact of a vast number of sub- excitation, he was surprised to observe an exact stances.
image of his hand on the concave surface of the 2. It is rather remarkable that, although the wax, as distinctly defined as if there had been attractive energy of electricity has all the ap- nothing but transparent glass between his eye pearance of being a very recent discovery, it and his hand, although the wax was in some has been said to be the first physical fact re- places an eighth of an inch in thickness. When corded in the history of science. The electrical pitch was used instead of wax the effect was the properties of amber were known and pointed same. out upwards of 2000 years ago; but the subject 7. After this period the science of electricity did not engage the attention of the learned till appears to have been for some time stationary, the beginning of the seventeenth century. This from the discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton abwas perhaps a fortunate circumstance, since it at sorbing the attention of the public; but, soon all events prevented the science from being after the death of that distinguished individual, clouded or perverted by the ignorance of early it obtained renewed attention, and some very times.
important discoveries were made in it by Mr.
Stephen Grey, a pensioner of the Charter-house. his observing, that a piece of leaf-gold, repelled With the date of this gentleman's experiments by an excited glass tube, and which he endeacommenced the modern triumph of electricity. voured to drive about the room with a piece of Directing his attention to the nature of electrical excited gum copal, instead of being repelled by phenomena, he endeavoured to excite them in it, as it was by the glass tube, was eagerly atall known bodies; and, though in many cases he tracted. The same was the case with sealing was unsuccessful, he thus added considerably to wax, sulphur, resin, and many other substances. the catalogue of electrics. Many substances, in He discovered, also, that it was impossible to exwhich no attractive power was excited by rub- cite a tube in which the air was condensed. He bing while in their natural state, became strongly also observed, that such substances as were least attractive if excited after being moderately susceptible of electric excitement by friction were warmed, but lost this property as they became the best conductors of electricity; though all the cold. This fact, says the late ingenious Mr. bodies he tried became electric by communicaSinger, clearly pointed out a relation between tion when placed on a non-conducting support. the state of bodies and their power of evincing In this way he electrified himself, being supelectric appearances; and the nature of this re- ported by silk lines, and touched by an excited lation was explained by Mr. Grey's subsequent glass tube; and on this occasion the abbe experiments. Every attempt to render metals Nollet, who accompanied him in these experielectric by friction or otherwise proved inef- ments, drew the first electrical spark from the fectual in the hands of Mr. Grey, as well as in human body. those of his predecessors, when it occurred to 11. M. Du Fay, says Mr. Singer, has also the him that, as electric light appeared to pass be- merit of having given the first clear account of tween excited bodies and such as were incapable that apparent repulsion which obtains in most of excitation, the attractive power might be also electric experiments, and which was first obcapable of communication from one to the served by Otto Guericke, who had noticed that other.
the fibres of an electrified feather receded from 8. For this purpose Mr. Grey inserted a wire each other, and from the tube or globe by which and ball, by means of a piece of cork, in the they had been electrified. Du Fay viewed this Extremity of a glass tube, and, on rubbing the as the indication of a general principle in electube, found its attractive power was communi- tricity, which may be thus expressed. Electrified cated to the wire and ball. He proceeded with bodies attract all those that are not so, but repel this experiment until the length of the wires them as soon as they are electrified by their conwhich he used became inconvenient. He then tact. suspended the ball by means of pack-thread, from 12. The consideration of this general principle the tube, and found the electricity was still com- led the same assiduous philosopher to a discovery municated. The same result was obtained when of the first importance, viz. the existence of two the ball was suspended by the pack-thread, from distinct attractive powers, produced by the frica balcony twenty-six feet high: on exciting the tion of different substances, the one excited by tube small light substances were attracted by the rubbing glass, rock crystal, gems, wool, hair, and ball from the pavement of the court below. many other substances, he called vitreous eléctri
9. In connexion with Mr. Wheeler, Mr. Grey city. The other, resulting from the friction of afterwards extended his experiments, and suc- amber, copal, gum-lac, resins, sealing-wax, &c., ceeded in transmitting the electric power from he named resinous electricity. The characterishis excited tube through nearly 800 feet of pack- tics of these attractive powers are, that they thread, without any apparent diminution of its strongly attract each other, and produce a mutual force. In arranging the apparatus for these ex- counteraction of effect, whilst they separately periments these gentlemen found that a silken act in an apparently similar manner on all uncord was incapable of transmitting the attractive electrified bodies: but the effect of either of power of the tube; an effect which they at first them is destroyed or weakened by the approach attributed to its comparative smallness, but they of the other. If gold leaf be electrified by afterwards observed that a wire of much smaller rubbed glass it immediately recedes from it, and diameter carried off the electrical effect com.. will not again approach whilst it remains in its pletely, and thus discovered that there are in electric state. But in this state it is strongly nature various bodies differently qualified for attracted by any excited body of the resinous the transmission of the electric matter, some class, and will fly to sealing-wax or amber more conveying it most readily, and to a great dis- rapidly than to an unelectrified body. Hence it tance, and others incapable of transmitting it to was concluded, by Du Fay, that there are two any perceptible distance. The former class of distinct electricities, each repulsive of its own bodies are now termed conductors of electricity, particles, but having a strong attraction for those and the second class non-conductors, or electrics; of the other. So that all bodies electrified with these terms are said to have been first applied to the vitreous electricity repel those that are simithem by Desaguliers.
larly electrified, and attract such as are unelectri10. Soon after Mr. Grey's discovery of the fied or endowed with the resinous electricity. difference between conductors and non-con- And the converse of this is the case with such as ductors, M. Du Fay discovered the difference are possessed of the resinous electricity. between positive and negative, or, as they were 12.* The terms resinous and vitreous electricifor some time, and are still by some called, the ty, continues the same author, were sufficiently vitreous and resinous electricities. This disco- appropriate at the time they were proposed; but very was accidentally made in consequence of it has been since found that either kind of elec
tricity can be obtained at pleasure, both from days before he recovered from the effects of the glass and sealing-wax, by varying the nature blow, and the terror. He added, that he would of the substance with which they are rubbed. not take a second shock for the whole kingdom Hence the vitreous electricity of Du Fay is now of France. Mr. Allamand, who made the expecalled positive electricity; and the resinous, riment with a common beer glass, said, that he negative electricity; terms first proposed by Dr. lost his breath for some moments; and then felt Franklin.
such an intense pain all along his right arm, that 13. To the labors of Messrs. Grey and he was apprehensive of bad consequences, but Wheeler, and their coadjutors Du Fay and it soon after went off without any inconvenience, Nollet, all subsequent electricians are highly in- &c. Other philosophers, on the contrary, debted; their means of research were extended showed their magnanimity, by receiving a numby the improvement of electrical apparatus, ne- ber of electric shocks as strong as they could possicessarily resulting from the discovery of conduct- bly make them. Mr. Boze wished that he might ing and non-conducting power; whilst the die by the electric shock, in order to furnish, by generalisation of electric phenomena by Du Fay, his death, an article for the memoirs of the Acaand his discovery of the distinction between demy of Sciences at Paris. But, adds Dr. Priestpositive and negative electricity, was an enlarge- ley, in his history of electricity, it is not given to ment of the existing sphere of knowledge in a every electrician to die in so glorious a manner, degree before unparalleled. From this period, as the justly envied Richman. Public curiosity indeed, the science assumed a more important was promptly and highly excited by this discoaspect, its cultivators increased in number, and very, and all Europe was presently filled with the communication of their researches consti- itinerant exhibitors of the Leyden Jar, who obtuted a prominent feature in the transactions of tained a livelihood by administering the electrithe most celebrated societies and academies of cal shock. The experiment was repeated and Europe.
varied by the electricians of every country, and 14. It was in the year 1745 that the remarkable an explanation of the principle on which the effect properties of the Leyden phial were first ob- depends, was offered by Dr. Franklin of Ameserved. This discovery was merely accidental; rica, and Dr. Watson in England, at the same yet it tended, more than any other discovery hi- time, without the one knowing that the other therto made, to promote the progress of electri was engaged in the pursuit. The propositions city. The circumstances that led to this discovery of these two philosophers, observes Mr. Singer, were the following :-Professor Muschenbroeck were nearly similar; but that of Dr. Franklin observed, that when conducting bodies were being the more perfect, and having a real priority placed on glass, &c., and electrified, their elec- of publication, was adopted, and has been since tricity was very soon carried off by the conduct. celebrated as the Franklinean Theory of Elecing particles floating in the atmosphere; he tricity. He referred all electrical effects to the therefore imagined, if a conducting substance motion of a peculiar fluid, repulsive of its own were put into a glass phial, that it could be particles, and having an attraction for all other charged much higher than in open air, as the matter. And he considered the opposite elecglass would protect it from the dissipating action tricities of glass and sealing-wax as indications of the atmosphere.
of different states of this fluid: the vitreous elec15. This idea he attempted to put in practice tricity being the plus or positive state, and the by filling a small phial with water, which is a resinous the minus or negative state. All bodies conducting substance. For this purpose he can contain a certain quantity of electric fluid in passed the end of a wire through the cork of the a latent state. If this quantity be increased they phial, so as to touch the water, and then charged become electrified positively; if it be diminished the water by bringing the wire in contact with they are rendered negative. The production of the prime conductor, but found no extraordinary electrical effects is therefore nothing but the result result from the experiment. Mr. Cuneus, of of the unequal distribution, by art, of a naturally Leyden, who was one of the party when the pro- diffused fluid. Such are the leading principles fessor made the experiment, repeated it after- of the Franklinean theory; they have been conwards; and, happening to hold the phial in his sidered mathematically by Mr. Cavendish, by hand, after he had connected the wire with the Æpinus, and others, and, with some modifications, prime conductor, until the water, as he supposed, apply to most of the electrical phenomena at had received a full charge of electricity, and then present known. applying his other hand to unloose the wire from 17. Frequent experiments, attended with close the conductor, he received such a sudden shock observation, were likely enough to lead to imin his arms and breast, as filled him with asto- portant results in this interesting science; and nishment.
we have now arrived at a period in its history 16. The report of such a strong effect of the which is perhaps the most distinguished of any. electric power immediately raised the attention. We allude to the discovery of the identity of elecof all the philosophers in Europe. Many of tricity and lightning. Mr. Grey and Dr. Wall them greatly exaggerated their accounts ; either seem to have been the first who thought of the from a natural timidity, or a love of the marvel- resemblance between thunder and the snapping lous. M. Muschenbroeck, who tried the experi- noise which is heard when an excited electric is ment with a very thin glass bowl, told M. Reau- approached by a conducting substance. The mur in a letter written soon after the experiment, abbé Nollet, Mr. Winckler, and others, also that he felt himself struck in his arms, shoulder, enumerated many resemblances between the and breast, so that he lost his breath; and was two phenomena of electricity and those of thunder;