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XVII. Summary of those Empires which have swayed

a large portion of the Earth

33

XVIII. Semiramis. Sardanapalus

36

XIX. Cyrus. Cresus. Solon

37

* XX. The birth of Cyrus, and inhuman conduct of

Astyages King of the Medes

40

XXI. Struggles of the Grecians against the Persians.

Miltiades. Themistocles

46

XXII. Customs and Manners of the Spartans. The

love of the Athenians for the Fine Arts 49

XXIII. War between Athens and Sparta. Alcibiades 52

XXIV. Socrates, his Life and Death

55

XXV. Alexander the Great and the Macedonian

Empire

57

XXVI. Customs and Brave Deeds of the early Romans 61

XXVII. Pyrrhus. Fabricius

64

XXVIII. Rome's struggle with Carthage. Hannibal 65

XXIX. Continuation of the former Chapter

70

XXX. Interior state of Rome. Julius Cæsar

72

XXXI. Augustus. Antonius. Cleopatra. Octavia.

Livia

75

XXXII. Germany two thousand years ago

81

XXXIII. Propagation of the Christian Religion. De-

struction of Jerusalem. Constantine. Monk-

hood

85

XXXIV. Extent of the Roman Empire. Its division.

Migration of People. Destruction of Western

Empire

88

XXXV. Justinian. Silk Worms introduced into Europe 91

XXXVI. Accounts by Contemporaries of the Invasions

of the Vandals, Goths, and Huns

93

XXXVII. Arabia. Mahomet. Conquests of the Ara-

bians

100

XXXVIII. Arabians. Mahomet. Saracene empire · 102

XXXIX. Christian Religion introduced into Germany

by Boniface. Growing Power of the Pope 113

XL. Zenghis Khan, and the Mogul empire - 115

XLI. Origin of Ottoman empire. Tamerlane and

the Mogul empire

118

XLII. Charlemagne. The Frank empire

• 123

XLIII. Watches and Clocks

• 126

XLIV. Henry I. and Otto I.

. 129

CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY.

B. C. 4004. Creation of the World. 2348. The Deluge. 2059. Ninus became king of Assyria. 1921. Call of Abraham : 430 years after (1491) the Israel

ites left Egypt. 1728. Joseph sold as a slave. 1650 (or some say in 1722). Sesostris reigned in Egypt. 1582. About this time Cecrops reigned at Athens. 1571. Moses born. 1491. Israelites depart out of Egypt. 1200. The Phænician trade flourishes. 1184. Taking of Troy. Jephtha judge in Israel. 1050. David king. 1004. Solomon's temple dedicated at Jerusalem. 975. Separation of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah. 884. The date of Lycurgus. Homer. Asa, king of Judah.

About this time Carthage was founded. 820. Sardanapalus. Fall of the Assyrian empire. 753. Building of Rome. Isaiah. 721. Samaria taken. Kingdom of Israel at an end. 605. Jerusalem taken by the Assyrians, and commence

ment of the Babylonish Captivity. 587. Taking of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar. 555. Cyrus founds the Persian empire from the Danube

to the Indus. 538. Taking of Babylon by Cyrus. 536. Jews return from Babylon and rebuild their temple. 509. First Consulship after the expulsion of the Tarquins

from Rome, about the same time as that of the

Peisistratidæ from Athens. 490. The Greeks under Miltiades defeat the Persians at

Marathon. 480. Battles of Thermopylæ under Leonidas, and of Sa

lamis under Themistocles. 479. Defeat of the Persians on the same day at Platæa and

Mycale.

B.C. 445. Herodotus and Phidias. Nehemiah rebuilds Jerusa

lem. 431. Commencement of the Peloponnesian war, followed by

the Plague of Athens, lasting twenty-eight years. 405. The battle of Ægospotamos. 404. Capture of Athens by the Lacedæmonians. During

the early part of the Peloponnesian war, in which Thucydides had a command, Socrates, though ridiculed by Aristophanes, was teaching Xenophon,

Plato, and Alcibiades. 390. Rome taken by the Gauls. 360. Philip of Macedon conquers the Athenians at Me

thone. 336. Succession of Alexander the Great, the pupil of Aris

totle; he destroys the Persian Empire, and forms the Græco-Macedonian Empire from the Adriatic

to the Indus. 323. Alexander dies at Babylon. 281. Romans conquer Pyrrhus. 264. First Punic War commences. The “ Arundel Mar

bles" 6 the Parian Chronicle” supposed to have

or

been constructed. 218. Second Punic War begins. 149. Third Punic War begins. 147. Scipio destroys Carthage, and Mummius Corinth. 88. Civil war between Marius and Sylla. 63. Capture of Jerusalem by Pompey. 60. First Triumvirate of Cæsar, Pompey, and Crassus.

At this period Rome was every where victorious

abroad, and continually in civil dissension at home. 31. Battle of Actium. Augustus emperor. The Roman

Empire now extended from the Atlantic to the

Euphrates.
Jesus Christ was born in the reign of Augustus.

A.D.

70. Jerusalem taken by Titus. 79. Herculaneum and Pompeii destroyed. 64. First Persecution of the Christians. Fire of Rome. 93. Second Persecution of the Christians. 107. Third Persecution of the Christians. 164. Fourth Persecution of the Christians. 202. Fifth Persecution of the Christians. 235. Siz Persecution the Christians. 250. Seventh Persecution of the Christians. 257. Eighth Persecution of the Christians.

A.D. 272. Ninth Persecution of the Christians. 302. Tenth Persecution of the Christians. 200. The misgovernment of the Roman Empire in

vites the attacks of barbarous hordes from

Germany;

410.

Hordes of Barbarians invade the Roman

Empire

250. Rome invaded by the Goths. 271. Rome invaded by the Alemanni and Marco

manni. 376. Rome invaded by the Huns and Alares. 406. Rome invaded by the Goths under Alaric. 409. Vandals and Suevi settle in Spain.

Rome taken by Alaric. 419. Kingdom of the Visigoths founded in Spain by

Wallia, 420. Settlement of the Franks under Pharamond in

Gaul. 451. Invasion of Gaul by the Huns under Attila. 455. Vandals under Genseric sack Rome. 476. Rome taken by Odoacer, king of the Heruli.

And end of the Western Empire. 488. Ostrogoths invade Italy under Theodoric. 325. Council of Nice. 333. Constantine the first Christian emperor. 395. Theodosius divides the Roman Empire into the

Eastern and Western Kingdoms. 533. Belisarius conquers the Vandals in Africa. 538. Belisarius conquers the Goths in Italy, 554. Justinian's General Narses conquers the north of

Italy. 563. Lombards invade Italy. 622. Flight of Mahomet or “Hejira,” the Epoch of the

Mahometans. 632. Diffusion of Mahometanism and rise of the Arabian

power. 641. Alexandria taken by the Arabians and the Alexan

drian Library destroyed. 712. Spain conquered by the Moors and Arabs. 732. Defeat of the Moorish army near Tours by Charles

Martel. 800. Frank Empire founded by Charlemagne. 900. Frank Empire divided into France, Germany, and

North Italy. 19. Henry, " the Town Builder,” king of Germany. 964. Otho the Great unites Italy to the German Empire. 1048. The Turks invade the Eastern Empire,

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