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fall upon an expedient so refined, as to exhibit sentiments adapted to a situation, and to leave his readers to seek out the situation from the history; still less, that the author of a history should go about to frame facts and circumstances, fitted to supply the sentiments which he found in the letter. It may be said, perhaps, that it does not appear from the history, that any danger threatened St. Paul's life in the uproar at Ephesus, so imminent as that, from which in the epistle he represents himself to have been delivered. This matter, it is true, is not stated by the historian in form; but the personal danger of the apostle, we cannot doubt, must have been extreme, when the “whole city was filled with confusion;" when the populace had “ seized his companions ;” when, in the distraction of his mind, he insisted upon “coming forth amongst them;" when the Christians who were about him “would not suffer him;" when “his friends, certain of the chief of Asia, sent to him, desiring that he would not adventure himself in the tumult;" when, lastly, he was obliged to quit immediately the place and the country, “and when the

, tumult was ceased, to depart into Macedonia." All which particulars are found in the narration, and justify St. Paul's own account, “that he was pressed out of measure, above strength, insomuch that he despaired even of life, that he had the sentence of death in himself;" i.e. that he looked upon himself as a man condemned to die.

No. IV. It has already been remarked, that St. Paul's original intention was to have visited Corinth in his way to Macedonia : “I was minded to come unto you

before, and to pass by you into Macedonia.” (2 Cor. i. 15, 16.) It has also been remarked that he changed this intention, and ultimately resolved upon going through Macedonia first. Now upon this head there exists a circumstance of correspondency between our epistle and the history, which is not very obvious to the reader's observation ; but which, when observed, will be found, I think, close and exact. Which circumstance is this : that though the change of St. Paul's intention be expressly mentioned only in the second epistle, yet it appears, both from the history and from this second epistle, that the change had taken place before the writing of the first epistle ; that it appears however from neither, otherwise than by an inference, unnoticed perhaps by almost every one who does not sit down professedly to the examination.

First, then, how does this point appear from the history? In the nineteenth chapter of the Acts, and the twenty-first verse, we are told, that “Paul purposed in the spirit, when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem. So he sent into Macedonia two of them that ministered unto him, Timotheus and Erastus; but he himself stayed in Asia for a season.” A short time after this, and evidently in pursuance of the same intention, we find (chap. xx. 1, 2) that “Paul departed from Ephesus for to go into Macedonia ;” and that, “when he had gone over those parts, he came into Greece.” The resolution therefore of passing first through Macedonia, and from thence into Greece, was formed by St. Paul previously to the sending away of Timothy. The order in which the two countries are mentioned, shows the direction of his


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intended route, “when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia.” Timothy and Erastus, who were to precede him in his progress, were sent by him from Ephesus into Macedonia. He himself a short time afterwards, and, as hath been observed, evidently in continuation and pursuance of the same design, “departed for to go into Macedonia.” If he had ever therefore entertained a different plan of his journey, which is not hinted in the history, he must have changed that plan before this time. But, from the seventeenth verse of the fourth chapter of the first Epistle to the Corinthians, we discover, that Timothy had been sent away from Ephesus before that epistle was written: “For this cause have I sent unto you Timotheus, who is my beloved son."

The change therefore of St. Paul's resolution, which was prior to the sending away of Timothy, was necessarily prior to the writing of the first Epistle to the Corinthians.

Thus stands the order of dates, as collected from the history compared with the first epistle. Now let us enquire, secondly, how this matter is represented in the epistle before us. In the sixteenth verse of the first chapter of this epistle, St. Paul speaks of the intention which he had once entertained of visiting Achaia, in his way to Macedonia: “In this confidence I was minded to come unto you before, that ye might have a second benefit; and to pass by you into Macedonia.After protesting, in the seventeenth verse, against any evil construction that might be put upon his laying aside of this intention, in the twenty-third verse he discloses the cause of it: “Moreover I call God for a record upon my soul, that, to spare you, I came not as yet unto Corinth.” And then he proceeds as follows: “But I determined this with myself, that I would not come again to you in heaviness; for if I make you sorry, who is he then that maketh me glad, but the same which is made sorry by me? And I wrote this same unto you, lest when I came I should have sorrow from them of whom I ought to rejoice; having confidence in you all, that my joy is the joy of you all : for, out of much affliction and anguish of heart, I wrote unto you with many tears; not that ye should be grieved, but that ye might know the love which I have more abundantly unto you. But if any have caused grief, he hath not grieved me but in part, that I may not overcharge you all. Sufficient to such a man is this punishment, which was inflicted of many.” In this quotation, let the reader first direct his attention to the clause marked by italics," and I wrote this same unto you;” and let him consider, whether from the context, and from the structure of the whole passage, it be not evident that this writing was after St. Paul had “determined with himself, that he would not come again to them in heaviness?" whether, indeed, it was not in consequence of this determination, or at least with this determination upon his mind? And, in the next place, let him consider whether the sentence, “I determined this with myself, that I would not come again to you in heaviness," do not plainly refer to that postponing of his visit, to which he had alluded in the verse but one before, when he said, “I call God for a record upon my soul, that, to spare you, I came not as yet to Corinth ;" and whether this be not the visit of which he speaks in the sixteenth verse, wherein he informs the Corinthians, “that he had been minded to pass by them into Macedonia ;" but that, for reasons which argued no levity or fickleness in his disposition, he had been compelled to change his purpose. If this be so, then it follows that the writing here mentioned was posterior to the change of his intention. The only question, therefore, that remains will be, whether this writing relate to the letter which we now have under the title of the first Epistle to the Corinthians, or to some other letter not extant ? And upon this question I think Mr. Locke's observation decisive; namely, that the second clause marked in the quotation by italics, “I wrote unto you with many tears," and the first clause so marked, “I wrote this same unto you,” belong to one writing, whatever that was; and that the second clause goes on to advert to a circumstance which is found in our present first Epistle to the Corinthians; namely, the case and punishment of the incestuous person. Upon the whole then we see, that it is capable of being inferred from St. Paul's own words, in the long extract which we have quoted, that the first epistle to the Corinthians was written after St. Paul had determined to postpone his journey to Corinth ; in other words, that

; the change of his purpose, with respect to the course of his journey, though expressly mentioned only in the second epistle, had taken place before the writing of the first; the point which we made out to be implied in the history, by the order of the events there recorded, and the allusions to those events in the first epistle. Now this is a species of congruity of all others the most to be relied upon. It is not an agreement between two accounts of the same transaction, or between different statements of the same fact, for the fact is not stated; nothing that can be called an account is given; but it is the junction

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