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SEC. 34. That the act establishing the permanent Census Office, approved March sixth, nineteen hundred and two, and acts amendatory thereof and supplemental thereto, except as are herein amended, shall remain in full force. That the act entitled "An act to provide for the thirteenth and subsequent devennial censuses,” approved July second, nineteen hundred and nine, and acts amendatory thereof, and all other laws and parts of laws inconsistent with the provisions of this act are hereby repealed.
The CHAIRMAN. Proceed, Mr. Rogers.
STATEMENT OF HON. SAM. L. ROGERS.
Mr. Rogers. By way of introduction I should like to say that upon the request of the chairman of the House Committee on the Census that I prepare suggestions for decennial census legislation in the form either of a letter or of a tentative bill, I appointed a committee composed mainly of officials of the Census Bureau to go carefully into the matter. These officials had all taken part in the conduct of one or more decennial censuses and were thoroughly familiar with census taking. The membership of the committee included also Mr. William M. Steuart, secretary of the United States Tariff Commission, and Dr. John Lee Coulter, dean of the agricultural department of the University of West Virginia. The committee had instructions to confer with representatives of the principal bureaus of the Department of Agriculture, representatives of leading agricultural colleges, and others having knowledge of the science of census taking.
After the committee had held numerous meetings and given very careful consideration to the question whether it should recommend amendments to the Thirteenth Census act or the enactment of an entirely new act, it decided to make the latter recommendation. In drafting the tentative bill embodied in its report the committee used the Thirteenth Census act as a basis, making only those changes which seemed necessary or desirable in the interest of prompt and accurate census taking. These changes, however, were not of a drastic character. The committee's report was signed by all the members, who were unanimous in their approval of the tentative draft of the Fourteenth Census bill. After giving my own approval to the tentative draft, I submitted it to the Secretary of Commerce and the solicitor of the Department of Commerce, both of whom approved it.
The tentative bill was also submitted for consideration to, and approved by, a number of prominent statisticians and others, among whom were Dr. William B. Bailey, of Yale University; Dr. John Lee Coulter, of the University of West Virginia; Dr. Louis I. Dublin, statistician, Metropolitan Insurance Co., New York; Dr. E. Dana Durand, former Director of the Census; Mr. Leon M. Estabrook, chief Bureau of Crop Estimates, Department of Agriculture; Mr. John Koren, editor American Statistical Association; Hon. Jewell Mayes, secretary Missouri State Board of Agriculture; Mr. W. J. Spillman, chief Office of Farm Management, Department of Agriculture; Dr. George F. Warren, Cornell University; and Prof. Allyn A. Young, American Statistical Association.
When the tentative draft was submitted to the Census Committee of the House of Representatives that committee was supplied also with copies of the report of the Census Bureau Committee on Legislation for the Fourteenth Decennial Census. This report embodied the proposed bill in such form as to show all additions to, deletions from, and changes in the Thirteenth Census act.
I will say I did that to facilitate their labors and to aid them by giving them such information as would save them from performing research work and looking up the former legislation, and so forth, and to facilitate their work in general.
While the House committee had the proposed bill under consideration the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Agriculture, Mr. A. H. Fay, of the Bureau of Mines: the Director of the Geological Survey, and the Chief of the Statistical Division of the Food Administration, some of whose statements I shall refer to hereafter, appeared before that committee at its request.
NECESSITY FOR TAKING A COMPLETE DECENNIAL CENSUS OF POPULATION,
AGRICULTURE, MANUFACTURES, AND MINES AND QUARRIES.
The principal reasons for taking a complete census of population, agriculture, manufactures, and mines and quarries in 1920 are two: (1) The importance of having reliable statistics at the earliest possible date, and (2) the saving in cost that will result from taking the census at one time instead of by piecemeal.
Senator TOWNSEND. May I interrupt you right there? Are you now presenting an argument for a change in the existing method of taking a census, and is this something additional to the method that we have been in the habit of using heretofore?
Mr. ROGERS. No; this is a preliminary statement that has reference to the importance of taking the census in 1920 and also to
The CHAIRMAN. Let me state to Senator Townsend that the argument was made in the House that the census ought not to be taken at this time on account of the war conditions, and it is for that reason particularly that Mr. Rogers is now going into the question of the importance of taking the census at this time, showing that it is needed.
Mr. Rogers. In normal times the need of a complete and detailed census of population, agriculture, manufactures, and mines and quarries would not be questioned. The increasing complexity of the Nation's social and industrial life brings forth greater and greater demands for detailed statistics in regard to all classes of social and industrial phenomena. If the war should come to a close shortly before the date of the next census, so that the country's population and industries would not have had time to assume their normal aspects, it may be that the census statistics would be somewhat less significant than those obtained in completely normal times. In any event, however, they would be of great value, and whatever might be gained by delaying the census until normal conditions had been attained would undoubtedly be offset by the disadvantage resulting from the nonexistence of any recent statistics whatsoever along the more important census lines.
In fact, at this time the need of up-to-date data in regard to all phases of agriculture is very great indeed. Changes in agricultural conditions in the United States are taking place rapidly, and it is important for the country to know just what these changes are, especially with reference to live stock and grain crops. The Department of Agriculture issues monthly and annually estimates of acreage and production of leading crops and of the number and value of live stock, but these estimates are based primarily upon the accurate data secured from individual farmers at the decennial censuses. No private interest or any branch of the Government service has accurate knowledge of the number and location of the live stock of the United States at the present time. Large numbers of horses and mules have been shipped abroad for war purposes, as well as many cattle for feeding the armies and the civil populations of the allied countries. The demand for live-stock data, especially data as to the live stock for food purposes, will increase as the war progresses.
The necessity and reasons for having a census of agriculture in conjunction with the next decennial census are fully presented by Secretary Houston, of the Department of Agriculture, and Mr. Raymond Pearl, Chief of the Division of Statistics of the Food Administration, beginning at pages 197 and 241, respectively, of the hearings before the Census Committee of the House of Representatives, to which I respect fully invite your attention.
There is also great demand at present for information concerning many classes of raw materials and manufactured products. Hardly a week passes in which the Census Bureau does not receive requests for current information bearing on these subjects. I shall file with the committee excerpts from some letters which have been received by the bureau within the last year, which illustrate the need for more up-to-date statistics of manufactures.
FOOD AND KINDRED PRODUCTS,
Requesting definite reports, if possible, on estimates of number of persons engaged in beet and cane sugar refining industries in 1915 and 1916, wages paid each year, cost of material and value of sugar in tons for three branches of industry. (Evening World, New York, July 21, 1917.)
Requesting latest data covering flour-mill and gristmill products. (Wichita Mill & Elevator Co., Wichita Falls, Tex., Apr. 25, 1918.)
Requesting data on the number of hogs packed each year for 1914, 1915, 1916, and 1917, also amount of lard produced each year. (The Associated Manufacturers of Cotton-Seed Products, Dallas, Tex., Jan. 16, 1918.)
Requesting later statistics than 1914 on slaughtering and meat packing. (Wilson & Co., Chicago, III., Feb. 19, 1918.)
Requesting to be furnished with information as to the amount of corn ground in country last year and what becomes of it. (American Manufacturers' Association, Chicago, Ill., Apr. 17, 1917.)
TEXTILES AND THEIR PRODUCTS,
Could you oblige us with a statement of manufactures of oilcloth and linoleum up to as recent a date as possible? The writer is trying to compile a statement for the Government War Trade Board. (The Nairn Linoleum Co., Kearny, N. J., Apr. 22, 1918.)
Will you please inform us whether you have record of the number of square yards of linoleum manufactured yearly for the last 10 years, and whether you have the number of square yards of inlaid linoleum separately? (Armstrong Cork Co., Pittsburgh, Pa., Apr. 20, 1918.)
Will you please mail us statistics of the textile industry for 1916, especially of the knitting end of the industry? The information we want to gather is the approximate investment in plants and machinery and the yearly volume of business; how many people employed, and the average wage; the number of dozen pairs of hose manufactured and number of underwear garments.
("New Way" Knitting Co., Williamston, Mich., May 16, 1917.)
Kindly forward report of total dozen shirts manufactured in the United States during 1916; also 1917. (Cluett, Peabody & Co., Inc., Troy, N. Y., June 28, 1918.)
Would it be possible for you to give us figures for cotton manufactures in the United States by States, either for the year 1916 or, if possible, for 1917? If the woolen manufacture does not substantially follow along with the cotton manufacture, could you also give figures for this by States? Could you give us the latest figures by States for the manufacture of wheat and corn-flour products? Could you also give us the production of pig iron and refined copper by States? (Ginn & Co., 15 Ashburton Place, Boston, Mass., Feb. 13, 1918.)
Any information on the total output of manila cordage in the United States, even an estimate as to the number of tons produced, will be of value. Also following questions answered: What is the amount in sizes } inch and upward? How much of the output goes into marine use; that is, for boats, etc.? How much is used for drill cables? How much for miscellaneous purposes, such as farm use, construction work, etc.? (The Curtis Publishing Co., Phila(lelphia, Pa., June 22, 1918.)
ELECTRICAL AND OTHER MACHINERY.
Will you kindly send two copies of the census report showing the production of machinery in the United States and by-products issued in 1917? (International Harvester Co. of America, Harvester Building, Chicago, Ill., Jan, 5, 1918.)
Send me some data regarding the following industries : Forging, stamping, diesinking, and the heat treatment of metals. I would like to have a general report telling how these industries have increased during the past year, and also showing their relative importance to other industries. I have seen some pamphlets prepared by Mr. W. M. Steuart, chief statistician for manufactures, and found these very interesting. (The American Drop Forger, Pittsburgh, Pa., Oct. 27, 1917.)
LEATHER AND ITS FINISHED PRODUCTS. Certain data with reference to the manufacture of boots and shoes per annum for the years 1913, 1914, 1915, and 1916. (The Curtis Publishing Co., Boston, Mass., Jan. 15, 1918.)
Kindly furnish data covering annual sales of shoe leather and leather for bags and belting, etc. (Rubber-Leather Co. of America, 624 Perry Building, Philadelphia, Pa., May 8, 1918.)
CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS. Requesting information for the years 1915, 1916, and 1917 on the fertilizer Industry. (The National Fertilizer Association, Atlanta, Ga., May 14, 1918.)
Desires data relating to the annual production and consumption of lainpblack in the United States. Dill-Crosett (Inc.), 45 John Street, New York, N. Y., Mar. 22, 1918.)
What quantities of sulphate of ammonia are produced in this country per annum for last five years and the market of this product during same period ? Are there any imports of this material or appreciable exports, and where can I find a list of the principal producers of ammonia? (American Tar Products Co., 208 South LaSalle Street, Chicago, Ill., Dec. 22, 1916.)
Requesting statistics on nitric acid production and consumption for 1913 and 1916. (American Cyanamic Co., Fifth Avenue, New York, Mar. 16, 1917.)
Requesting publication which shows the production of chemicals in the United States. Yearly production of lacquers and varnish; yewly production of artificial leathers. (Atlas Powder Co., Wilmington, Del.. June 11, 1917.)
Desires statistics showing the amount of benzoic acid produced in the United States during the last 12 months, (Avri Chemical Co. (Inc.), Jersey City, N. J., Mar. 7, 1918.)
CARRIAGES, WAGONS, AUTOMOBILES, ETC. I am writing to ask you if you can furnish me with a carriage and wagon bulletin for 1915 and 1916, (F. MacKinnon Manufacturing Co., Grand Rapids, Wis., Mar. 9, 1918.)
Will you kindly advise us if there has been any census of the automotive industry (comprising the automobile truck and truck tractor and aeroplane industries) of more recent date than 1914. (Society of Automobile Engineers, 29 West Thirty-ninth Street, New York, May 6, 1918.)
MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, ETC.
I would like to know the number of talking machines and phonographs of all kinds manufactured in the United States during 1917 or 1916. (Main & Main, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Feb. 11, 1918.)
Requested information relative to the importation, manufacture, and sale of pianos, plano players, and phonographs, also the number of music teachers and students. (Steger & Sons, Mar. 13, 1918.)
Requesting data on the approximate amount of paper and twine consumed in United States prior to 1914 and to date. (American Druggists Syndicate, Long Island City, Jan. 8. 1917.)
Requesting data on statistics of principal industries of Connecticut later than 1914. (Bureau of Labor, Hartford, Conn.)
Requesting data on the domestic production in the United States of brushes during the past five years. (Brooks & Brooks, 12 Broadway, New York, Mar. 30, 1918.)
Requesting latest statistics on yearly production in your State of wooden barrels and kegs. (Cooperage Industries, St. Louis, Mo.)
Requesting compiled summary of the manufacturing interest for 1916 and 1917 for Atlanta, Birmingham, Nashville, Knoxville, Chattanooga, Memphis. Little Rock, Charlotte, N. C. (Chattanooga Industrial Board, Chattanooga, Mar. 20, 1918.)
Requesting complete data on the conditions of business in the grist and cider mills of State of New York and also comparative data for years previous to this year. (Department of Foods and Markets, 71 West Twenty-third Street, New York, June 18, 1915.)
Requesting statistics of manufacturing for year 1917 in certain States (Dixie Overland Highway Association, Columbus, Ga., Jan. 31, 1918.)
Thanks for abstract of census of manufacturers for 1914; regret that the census is not of later date. (Philadelphia Roll & Machine Co., Philadelphia, Pa., Apr. 2, 1918.)
Requesting census of manufactures of North Carolina for any period subsequent to 1914. (Harris, Forbes & Co., New York, Apr. 17, 1917.)
Requesting estimates on the value of manufacturing production for 1917 or 1918. (Edward F. Swift, Chicago, Ill., Apr. 20, 1918.)
Requesting data on the value of the total iron, drug, and tobacco business during last year. (The New York Public Library. New York, Dec. 16, 1916.)
Requesting data on number of fountain pens manufactured per year in the United States. (The Evans Dollar Pen Co., Waterloo, Iowa, June 10, 1918.)
Requesting publications on flour-mill and gristmill products, 1917; manufacture of glass, 1917; paper and wood pulp, 1917; cigar industry. 1917. (The Association of the Bar, 42 West Three hundred and fourth Street, New York, Sept. 17, 1917.)
Requesting data with respect to prewar and present ship-repair facilities. Number of floating repair docks in existence at the present time. (United States Shipping Board, memorandum for Capt. Chambers, June 4, 1918.)
Requesting bulletin showing an analysis of the textile industries throughout the United States, an analysis of boot and shoe inlustries throughout country, and analysis of the confectionery industries throughout the country, etc. (Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 24, 1917.)
At present we are gathering, at the urgent request of the war boards and with the authority of the President, data concerning the following subjects:
Antimony-stocks on hand and in transit and consumption.
Boots, shoes, and leather goods-manufactured, shipped, and on hand (monthly).