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vided, however, that securities held by trustees shall be considered as actually outstanding. 4. “Amortization” means the gradual extinguishment of an amount in an acCount by distributing such amount over a fixed period, over the life of the asset or liability to which it applies, or over the period during which it is anticipated the benefit will be realized. 5A. “Associated (affiliated) companies” means companies or persons that directly or indirectly, through one or mcre intermediaries, control, or are controlled by, or are under common control with the accounting company. B. “Control” (including the terms “controlling,” “controlled by,” and “under common control with”) means the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of a company, whether such power is exercised through one or more intermediary companies, or alone, or in conjunction with, or purSuant to an agreement, and Whether such power is established through a majority or minority ownership or Voting of Securities, common directors, officers, or stockholders, voting trusts, holding trusts, associated companies, Contract Or any other direct or indirect In eans. 6. “Book cost” means the amount at which property is recorded in these accounts without deduction of related provisions for accrued depreciation, depletion, amortization, or for other purposeS. 7. “Commission,” means the Federal Power Commission. 8. “COSt” means the amount of money actually paid for property or services. When the consideration given is other than Cash in a purchase and Sale transaction, as distinguished from a transaction involving the issuance of common stock in a merger or a pooling of interest, the Value of such consideration shall be determined on a cash basis. 9. “Cost of removal” means the cost of demolishing, dismantling, tearing down or otherwise removing gas plant, including the cost of transportation and handling incidental thereto.

10. “Debt expense” means all expenses in connection with the issuance and initial sale of evidences of debt, such as fees for drafting mortgages and trust deeds; fees and taxes for issuing or recording evidences of debt; cost of engraving and printing bonds and certificates of indebtedness; fees paid trustees; specific costs of obtaining governmental authority; fees for legal services; fees and commissions paid underwriters, brokers, and salesmen for marketing such evidences of debt; fees and expenses of listing on exchanges; and other like costs. 11. A. “Depletion,” as applied to natural gas producing land and land rights, means the loss in service value incurred in connection with the exhaustion of the natural resource in the course of service. B. “Depreciation,” as applied to depreciable gas plant, means the loss in service value not restored by current maintenance, incurred in connection with the consumption or prospective retirement of gas plant in the course of service from causes which are known to be in current operation and against which the utility is not protected by insurance. Among the causes to be given consideration are wear and tear, decay, action of the elements, inadequacy, obsolescence, changes in the art, changes in demand and requirements of public authorities, and, in the case of natural gas companies, the exhaustion of natural resources. 12. “Development costs” when used With respect to hydrocarbons, include all costs incurred in the readying of hydrocarbon deposits for commercial production including developmental well drilling costs. 13. “Discount”, as applied to the securities, issued or assumed by the utility, means the excess of the par (stated Value of no-par stocks) or fact value of the securities plus interest or dividends accrued at the date of the Sale over the cash value of the consideration received from their sale. 14. “Exploration costs” include all costs incurred in proving the existence of hydrocarbon deposits including geological, geophysical, lease acquisition (including delay rentals), administrative and general, and exploratory well drilling costs. 15. “Full-cost accounting for exploration and development costs” means the capitalization of all exploration and development costs incurred on or related to hydrocarbon leases, on properties in the contiguous 48 States and the State of Alaska, acquired after October 7, 1969. 16. “Investment advances” means advances, represented by notes or by book accounts only, with respect to which it is mutually agreed or intended between the creditor and debtor that they shall be settled by the issuance of securities or shall not be subject to current settlement. 17. “Minor items of property” means the associated parts or items of which retirement units are composed. 18. “Natural gas” means either natural gas unmixed, or any mixture of natural and artificial gas. 19. “Natural gas company” means a person engaged in the transportation of natural gas in interstate commerce, or the Sale in interstate commerce of such gas for resale. 20. “Net Salvage Value” means the salvage value of property retired less the cost of removal. 21. “Nominally issued,” as applied to securities issued or assumed by the utility, means those which have been signed, certified, or otherwise executed, and placed with the proper officer for sale and delivery, or pledged, or otherwise placed in some special fund of the utility, but which have not been sold, or issued direct to trustees of sinking funds in accordance with contractual requirements. 22. “Nominally outstanding,” as applied to securities issued or assumed by the utility, means those which, after being actually issued, have been reacquired by or for the utility under circumstances which require them to be considered as held alive and not retired, provided, however, that securities held by trustees shall be considered as actually outstanding. 23. “Original cost,” as applied to gas plant, means the cost of such property to the person first devoting it to public service.

24. “Person” means an individual, a Corporation, a partnership, an association, a joint stock company, a business trust, or any organized group of perSons, Whether incorporated or not, or any receiver or trustee.

25. “Premium,” as applied to securities issued or assumed by the utility, means the excess of the cash value of the consideration received from their Sale over the sum of their par (stated value of no-par stocks) or face value and interest or dividends accrued at the date of sale.

26. “Production, transmission, and distribution plant.” For the purposes of this system of accounts:

A. “Production System” shall consist of plant and equipment used in the production of gas. It shall include producing lands and leaseholds, gas rights, other land rights, structures, drilling and clearing equipment, gas Wells, well head equipment, separation and other facilities used in the production of natural gas. The production System ends where the gas enters a gathering system, transmission system or distribution system, as applicable, in accordance with the practices in the pricing area where such system is located.

B. “Transmission System” means the land, structures, mains, valves, meters, boosters, regulators, tanks,

compressors, and their driving units and appurtenances, and other equipment used primarily for transmitting gas from a production plant, delivery point of purchased gas, gathering system, storage area, or other wholesale source of gas, to one or more distribution areas. The transmission system begins at the outlet side of the valve at the connection to the last equipment in a manufactured gas plant, the connection to gathering lines or delivery point of purchased gas, and includes the equipment at Such connection that is used to bring the gas to transmission pressure, and ends at the outlet side of the equipment which meters or regulates the entry of gas into the distribution System or into a storage area. It does not include storage land, structures or equipment. Pipeline companies, including those companies which measure deliveries of gas to their own distribution systems, shall include city gate and main line industrial measuring and regulating stations in the transmission function. . C. “Distribution System” means the mains which are provided primarily for distributing gas within a distribution area, together with land, structures, valves, regulators, Services and measuring devices, including the mains for transportation of gas from production plants or points of receipt located within such distribution area to other points therein. The distribution system owned by companies having no transmission facilities Connected to such distribution system begins at the inlet side of the distribution system equipment which meters or regulates the entry of gas into the distribution system and ends with and includes property on the customer's premises. For companies which own both transmission and distribution facilities on a continuous line, the distribution system begins at the outlet side of the equipment which meters or regulates the entry of gas into the distribution system and ends with and includes property on the customer's premises. The distribution system does not include storage land, structures, or equipment. D. “Distribution Area” means a metropolitan area or other urban area comprising one or more adjacent or nearby cities, Villages or unincorporated areas, including developed areas contiguous to main highways. 27. “Property retired,” as applied to gas plant, means property which has been removed, Sold, abandoned, destroyed, or which for any cause has been withdrawn from Service. 28. A. “Replacing” or “replacement,” when not otherwise indicated in the context, means the construction or installation of gas plant in place of property retired, together with the removal of the property retired. B. “Research, Development, and Demonstration” (RD&D) means expenditures incurred by natural gas companies either directly or through another person or Organization (such as research institute, industry association, foundation, university, engi

neering company, or similar contractor) in pursuing research, development, and demonstration activities including experiment, design, installation, construction, or operation. This definition includes expenditures for the implementation or development of new and/or existing concepts until technically feasible and commercially feasible operations are verified. Such research, development, and demonstration costs should be reasonably related to the existing or future utility business, broadly defined, of the public utility or licensee or in the environment in which it operates or expects to operate The term includes, but is not limited to: All such costs incidental to the design, development or implementation of an experimental facility, a plant process, a product, a formula, an invention, a system or similar items, and the improvement of already existing items of a like nature; announts expended in connection with the proposed development and/or proposed delivery of substitute or synthetic gas supplies (alternate fuel Sources for example, an experimental coal gasification plant or an experimental plant synthetically producing gas from liquid hydrocarbons); and the costs of obtaining its own patent, such as attorney's fees expended in making and perfecting a patent application. The term includes preliminary investigations and detailed planning of Specific projects for securing for customers non-conventional pipeline gas supplies that rely on technology that has not been verified previously to be feasible. The term does not include expenditures for efficiency surveys; studies of management, management techniques and organization; consumer Surveys, advertising, promotions, or items of a like nature.

29. “Retained Earnings” (formerly earned surplus) means the accumulated net income of the utility less distribution to stockholders and transfers to other capital accounts.

30. “Retirement units” means those items of gas plant which, when retired, with or without replacement, are accounted for by crediting the book cost thereof to the gas plant account in which included.

31. “Salvage value” means the amount received for property retired, less any expenses incurred in Connection with the sale or in preparing the property for sale; or, if retained, the amount at which the material recoverable is chargeable to Materials and Supplies, or other appropriate account.

32. “Service life” means the time between the date gas plant is includible in gas plant in service, or gas plant leased to others, and the date of its retirement. If depreciation is accounted for on a production basis rather than on a time basis, then service life should be measured in terms of the appropriate unit of production.

33. “Service value” means the difference between original cost and net Salvage value of gas plant.

34. “Unsuccessful exploration and development costs” are exploration and development costs related to efforts which do not directly result in the discovery of commercially recoverable hydrocarbon reserves.

35. “Subsidiary Company” means a company which is controlled by the utility through ownership of Voting Stock. (See “Definitions”—item 5B “Control”). A corporate joint venture in which a corporation is owned by a Small group of businesses as a separate and specific business or project for the mutual benefit of the members of the group is a subsidiary company for the purposes of this system of accounts.

36. “Utility,” as used herein and when not otherwise indicated in the context, means any natural gas company to which this system of accounts is applicable.

General Instructions

1. Classification of Utilities. A. For the purpose of applying Systems of accounts prescribed by the Commission, natural gas companies are divided into four classes, as followS: Class A. Natural Gas Companies having annual gas operating revenues of $2,500,000 or more. Class B. Natural Gas Companies having annual gas operating revenues

of $1,000,000 or more but less than $2,500,000. Class C. Natural Gas Companies having annual gas operating revenues of $150,000 or more but less than $1,000,000. Class D. Natural Gas Companies having annual gas operating revenues of $25,000 or more but less than $150,000. B. This system of accounts applies to Class A and Class B utilities. The System of accounts applicable to Class C and Class D utilities is issued separately. C. The class to which any utility belongs shall originally be determined by the average of its annual gas operating revenues for the last three consecutive years. Subsequent changes in classification shall be made when the annual gas operating revenues for each of the three immediately preceding years shall exceed the upper limit, or be less than the lower limit, of the annual gas operating revenues of the classification previously applicable to the utility. D. Any utility may, at its option, adopt the system of accounts prescribed by the Commission for any larger class of utilities. 2. Records. A. Each utility shall keep its books of account, and all other books, records, and memoranda which support the entries in such books of account so as to be able to furnish readily full information as to any item included in any account. Each entry shall be supported by such detailed information as will permit ready identification, analysis, and Verification of all facts relevant thereto. B. The books and records referred to herein include not only accounting records in a limited technical sense, but all other records, such as minute books, stock books, reports, correspondence, memoranda, etc., which may be useful in developing the history of or facts regarding any transaction. C. No utility shall destroy any such books Or records unless the destruction thereof is permitted by rules and regulations of the Commission. D. In addition to prescribed accounts, clearing accounts, temporary or experimental accounts, and subdivi

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sions of any accounts, may be kept, bers which it uses and a reconciliation provided the integrity of the pre- of such account numbers with the acscribed accounts is not impaired.

count numbers provided herein. It is E. All amounts included in the ac intended that the utility's records counts prescribed herein for gas plant shall be so kept as to permit ready and operating expenses shall be just analysis by prescribed accounts (by and reasonable and any payments or direct reference to sources of original accruals by the utility in excess of just entry to the extent practicable) and to and reasonable charges shall be in permit preparation of financial and cluded in account 426.5, Other Deduc operating statements directly from tions.

such records at the end of each acF. The arrangement or sequence of counting period according to the prethe accounts prescribed herein shall scribed accounts. not be controlling as to the arrange 4. Accounting period. Each utility ment or sequence in report forms

shall keep its books on a monthly which may be prescribed by the Com basis so that for each month all transmission.

actions applicable thereto, as nearly as 3. Numbering system. A. The ac

may be ascertained, shall be entered in count numbering plan used herein

the books of the utility. Amounts apconsists of a system of three-digit

plicable or assignable to specific utility whole numbers as follows:

departments shall be so segregated 100-199 Assets and Other Debits.

monthly. Each utility shall close its 200-299 Liabilities and Other Credits. books at the end of each calendar year 300-399 Plant Accounts.

unless otherwise authorized by the 400-432, 434-435 Income Accounts.

Commission. 433, 436-439 Retained Earnings Accounts.

5. Submittal of questions. To main480-499 Revenue Accounts. 700-899 Production, Transmission and Dis

tain uniformity of accounting, utilities tribution Expenses.

shall submit questions of doubtful in900-949 Customer Accounts, Customer

terpretation to the Commission for Service and Informational, Sales and consideration and decision. General and Administrative Expenses. 6. Item lists. Lists of "items" appear. B. In certain instances, numbers

ing in the texts of the accounts or elsehave been skipped in order to allow

where herein are for the purpose of for possible later expansion or to

more clearly indicating the application permit better coordination with the

of the prescribed accounting. The lists numbering system for other utility de

are intended to be representative, but partments.

not exhaustive. The appearance of an C. The numbers prefixed to account

item in a list warrants the inclusion of titles are to be considered as part of

the item in the account mentioned the titles. Each utility, however, may

only when the text of the account also adopt for its own purposes a different

poses a different indicates inclusion inasmuch as the system of account numbers (See also same item frequently appears in more general instruction 2D) provided that than one list. The proper entry in the numbers herein prescribed shall each instance must be determined by appear in the descriptive headings of

the texts of the accounts. the ledger accounts and in the various 7. Extraordinary items. It is the sources of original entry; however, if a intent that net income shall reflect all utility uses a different group of ac- items of profit and loss during the count numbers and it is not practica period with the exception of prior ble to show the prescribed account period adjustments as described in numbers in the various sources of paragraph 7.1 and long-term debt as original entry, such reference to the described in paragraph 17 below. prescribed account numbers may be Those items related to the effects of omitted from the various sources of events and transactions which have original entry. Moreover, each utility occurred during the current period using different account numbers for and which are not typical or customits own purposes shall keep readily ary business activities of the company available a list of such account num- shall be considered extraordinary

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