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In some instances, however, it is in the national interest for the Government to provide directly the products and services it uses. These circumstances are set forth in paragraph 5 of this Circular.

No executive agency will initiate a "new start" or continue the operation of an existing “Government commercial or industrial activity" except as specifically required by law or as provided in this Circular,

3. Definitions. For purposes of this Circular:

a. A "new start" is a newly established Government commercial or industrial activity or a reactivation, expansion, modernization or replacement of such an activity involving additional capital investment of $25,000 or more or additional annual costs of production of $50,000 or more. Consolidation of two or more activities without increasing the overall total amount of products or services provided is not a "new start."

b. A Government commercial or industrial activity is one which is operated and managed by an executive agency and which provides for the Government's own use a product or service that is obtainable from a private source.

C. A private commercial source is a private business concern which provides a commercial or industrial product or service required by agencies and which is located in the United States, its territories and possessions, the District of Columbia, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

4. Scope. This Circular is applicable to commercial and industrial products and services used by executive agencies, except that it

a. Will not be used as authority to enter into contracts if such authority does not otherwise exist nor will it be used to justify departure from any law or regulation, including regulations of the Civil Service Commission or other appropriate authority, nor will it be used for the purpose of avoiding established salary or personnel limitations.

b. Does not alter the existing requirement that executive agencies will perform for themselves those basic functions of management which they must perform in order to retain essential control over the conduct of their programs. These functions include selection and direction of Government employees, assignment of organizational responsibilities, planning of programs, establishment of performance goals and priorities, and evaluation of performance.

c. Does not apply to professional staff and managerial advisory services such as those normally provided by an office of general counsel, a management and organization staff, or a systems analysis unit. Advisory assistance in areas such as these may be provided either by Government staff organizations or from private sources as deemed appropriate by executive agencies.

d. Does not apply to products or services which are provided to the public. (But an executive agency which provides a product or service to the public should apply the provisions of this Circular with respect to any commercial or industrial products or services which it uses.)

e. Does not apply to products or services obtained from other Federal agencies which are authorized or required by law to furnish them.

f. Should not be applied when its application would be inconsistent with the terms of any treaty or international agreement.

5. Circumstances under which the Government may provide a commercial or industrial product or service for its own use. A Government commercial or industrial activity may be authorized only under one or more of the following conditions:

a. Procurement of a product or service from a commercial source would disrupt or materially delay an agency's program. The fact that a commercial or industrial activity is classified or is related to an agency's basic program is not an adequate reason for starting or continuing a Government acitvity, but a Government agency may provide a product or service for its own use if a review conducted and documents as provided in paragraph 7 establishes that reliance upon a commercial source will disrupt or materially delay the successful accomplishment of its program.

b. It is necessary for the Government to conduct a commercial or industrial activity for purposes of combat support or for individual and unit retraining of military personnel or to maintain or strengthen mobilization readiness.

(. A satisfactory commercial source is not available and cannot be developed in time to provide a product or service when it is needed. Agencies' efforts to find satisfactory commercial sources should be supplemented as appropriate by obtaining assistance from the General Services and Small Business Administrations or the Business and Defense Services Administration. Urgency of a requirement is not an adequate reason for starting or continuing a Government commercial or industrial activity unless there is evidence that commercial sources are not able and the Government is able to provide a product or service when needed.

d. The product or service is available from another Federal agency. Excess property available from other Federal agencies should be used in preference to new procurement as provided by the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, and related regulations.

Property which has not been reported excess also may be provided by other Federal agencies and unused plant and production capacity of other agencies may be utilized. In such instances, the agency supplying a product or service to another agency is responsible for compliance with this Circular. The fact that a product or service is being provided to another agency does not by itself justify a Government commercial or industrial activity.

e. Procurement of the product or service from a commercial source rrill result in higher cost to the Government. A Government commercial activity may be authorized if a comparative cost analysis prepared as provided in this Circular indicates that the Government can provide or is providing a product or service at a cost lower than if the product or service were obtained from commercial sources.

However, disadvantages of starting or continuing Government activities most be carefully weighed. Government ownership and operation of facilities usually involve removal or withholding of property from tax rolls, reduction of revenues from income and other taxes, and diversion of management attention from the Government's primary program objectives. Losses also may occur due to such factors as obsolescence of plant and equipment and unanticipated reductions in the Government's requirements for a product or service. Government commercial activities should not be started or continued for reasons involving comparative costs unless savings are sufficient to justify the assumption of these and similar risks and uncertainties.

6. Cost comparisons. A decision to rely upon a Government activity for reasons involving relative costs must be supported by a comparative cost analysis which will disclose as accurately as possible the difference between the costs which the Government is incurring or will incur under each alternative.

Commercial sources should be relied upon without incurring the delay and expense of conducting cost comparison studies for products or services estimated to cost the Government less than $50,000 per year. However, if there is reason to believe that inadequate competition or other factors are causing commercial prices to be unreasonable, a cost comparison study will be directed by the agency head or by his designee even if it is estimated that the Government will spend less than $50,000 per year for the product or service. A Government activity should not be authorized on the basis of such a comparison study, however, unless reasonable efforts to obtain satisfactory prices from existing commercial sources or to develop other commercial sources are unsuccessful.

Cost comparison studies also should be made before deciding to rely upon å commercial source when terms of contracts will cause the Government to finance directly or indirectly more than $50,000 for costs of facilities and equipment to be constructed to Government specifications.

a. Costs of obtaining products or services from commercial sources should include amounts paid directly to suppliers, transportation charges, and expenses of preparing bid invitations, evaluating bids, and negotiating, awarding, and managing contracts. Costs of materials furnished by the Government to contractors, appropriate charges for Government owned equipment and facilities used by contractors and costs due to incentive or premium provisions in contracts also should be included. If discontinuance of a Government commercial or industrial activity will cause a facility being retained by the Government for mobilization or other reasons to be placed in a standby status, the costs of preparing and maintaining the facility as standby also should be included. Costs of obtaining products or services from commercial sources should be documented and organized for comparison with costs of obtaining the product or service from a Government activity.

b. Costs of obtaining products or services from Government activities should include all costs which would be incurred if a product or service were provided by the Government and which would not be incurred if the product or service

were obtained from a commercial source. Under this general principle, the following costs should be included, considering the circumstances of each case :

(1) Personal services and benefits. Include costs of all elements of compensation and allowances for both military and civilian personnel, including costs of retirement for uniformed personnel, contributions to civilian retirement funds (or for Social Security taxes where applicable), employees' insurance, health, and medical plans (including services available from Government military or civilian medical facilities), living allowances, uniforms, leave, termination and separation allowances, travel and moving expenses, and claims paid through the Bureau of Employees' Compensation.

(2) Materials, supplies, and utilities services. Include costs of supplies and materials used in providing a product or service and costs of transportation, storage, handling, custody, and protection of property, and costs of electric power, gas, water, and communications services.

(3) Maintenance and repair. Include costs of maintaining and repairing structures and equipment which are used in providing a product or service.

(4) Damage or loss of property. Include costs of uninsured losses due to fire or other hazard, costs of insurance premiums and costs of settling loss and damage claims.

(5) Federal taxes. Include income and other Federal tax revenues (except Social Security taxes) received from corporations or other business entities (but not from individual stockholders) if a product or service is obtained through commercial channels. Estimates of corporate incomes for these purposes should be based upon the earnings experience of the industry, if available, but if such data are not available, The Quarterly Financial Report of Manufacturing Corporations, published by the Federal Trade Commission and the Securities and Exchange Commission may be consulted. Assistance of the appropriate Government regulatory agencies may be obtained in estimating taxes for regulated industries.

(6) Depreciation. Compute depreciation as a cost for any new or additional facilities or equipment which will be required if a Government activity is started or continued. Depreciation will not be allocated for facilities and equipment acquired by the Government before the cost comparison study is started. However, if reliance upon a commercial source will cause Government owned equipment or facilities to become available for other Federal use or for disposal as surplus, the cost comparison analysis should include as a cost of the Government activity, an appropriate amount based upon the estimated current market value of such equipment or facilities. The Internal Revenue Service publication, Depreciation; Guidelines and Rules may be used in computing depreciation. However, rates contained in this publication are maximums to be used only for reference purposes and only when more specific depreciation data are not available. Accelerated depreciation rates permitted in some instances by the Internal Revenue Service will not be used.

(7) Interest. Compute interest for any new or additional capital to be invested based upon the current rate for long-term Treasury obligations for capital items having a useful life of 15 years or more and apon the average rate of return on Treasury obligations for items having a useful life of less than 15 years. Yield rates reported in the current issue of the Treasury Bulletin will be used in these computations regardless of any rates of interest which may be used by the agency for other purposes.

(8) Indirect costs. Include any additional indirect costs incurred by the agency resulting from a Government activity for such activities as management and supervision, budgeting, accounting, personnel, legal and other applicable services.

7. Administering the policy.

a. Inventory. Each agency will compile and maintain an inventory of its commercial or industrial activities having an annual output of products or services costing $50,000 or more or a capital investment of $25,000 or more. In addition to such general descriptive information as may be appropriate, the inventory should include for each activity the amount of the Governments capital investment, the amount paid annually for the products or services involved, and the basis upon which the activity is being continued under the provisions of this Circular. The general descriptive information needed for identifying each activity should be included in the inventory by June 30, 1966. Other information needed to complete the inventory should be added as reviews required in paragraphs 7b and c are completed.

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b. "New starts."

(1) A "new start" should not be initiated until possibilities of obtaining the product or service from commercial sources have been explored and not until it is approved by the agency head or by an assistant secretary or official of equivalent rank on the basis of factual justification for establishing the activity under the provisions of this Circular.

(2) If statutory authority and funds for construction are required before a “new start" can be initiated, the actions to be taken under this Circular should be completed before the agency's budget request is submitted to the Bureau of the Budget. Instructions concerning data to be submitted in support of such budget requests will be included in annual revisions of Bureau of the Budget Circular No. A-11.

(3) A "new start" should not be proposed for reasons involving comparative costs unless savings are sufficient to outweigh uncertainties and risks of unanticipated losses involved in Government activities.

The amount of savings required as justification for a "new start" will vary depending on individual circumstances. Substantial savings should be required as justification if a large new or additional capital investment is involved or if there are possibilities of early obsolescence or uncertainties regarding maintenance and production costs, prices and future Government requirements. Justification may be based on smaller anticipated savings if little or no capital investment is involved, if chances for obsolescence are minimal, and if reliable information is available concerning production costs, commercial prices and Government requirements. While no precise standard is prescribed in view of these varying circumstances a "new start” ordinarily should not be approved unless costs of a Government activity will be at least 10 percent less than costs of obtaining the product or service from commercial sources.

A decision to reject a proposed “new start” for comparative cost reasons should be reconsidered if actual bids or proposals indicate that commercial prices will be higher than were estimated in the cost comparison study.

(4) When a "new start" begins to operate it should be included in an agency's inventory of commercial and industrial activities.

C. Existing Government activities.

(1) A systematic review of existing commercial or industrial activities (including previously approved “new starts” which have been in operation for at least 18 months) should be maintained in each agency under the direction of the agency head or the person designated by him as provided in paragraph 8. The agency head or his designee may exempt designated activities if he decides that such reviews are not warranted in specific instances. Activities not so exempted should be reviewed at least once before June 30, 1968. More frequent reviews of selected activities should be scheduled as deemed advisable. Activities remaining in the inventory after June 30, 1968, should be scheduled for at least one additional follow-up review during each three-year period but this requirement may be waived by the agency head or his designee if he concludes that such further review is not warranted.

(2) Reviews should be organized in such a manner as to ascertain whether continued operation of Government commercial activities is in accordance with the provisions of this Circular. Reviews should include information concerning availability from commercial sources of products or services involved and feasibility of using commercial sources in lieu of existing Government activities.

(3) An activity should be continued for reasons of comparative costs only if a comparative cost analysis indicates that savings resulting from continuation of the activity are at least sufficient to outweigh the disadvantages of Government commercial and industrial activities. No specific standard or guideline is prescribed for deciding whether savings are sufficient to justify continuation of an existing Government commercial activity and each activity should be evaluated on the basis of the applicable circumstances.

(4) A report of each review should be prepared. A decision to continue an activity should be approved by an assistant secretary or official of equivalent rank and the basis for the decision should appear in the inventory record for the activity. Activities not so approved should be discontinued. Reasonable adjustments in the timing of such actions may be made, however, in order to alleviate economic dislocations and personal hardships to affected career personnel.

8. Implementation. Each agency is responsible for making the provisions of this Circular effective by issuing appropriate implementing instructions and by providing adequate management support and procedures for review and follow-up to assure that the instructions are placed in effect.

If overall responsibility for these actions is delegated by the agency head, it should be assigned to a senior official reporting directly to the agency head.

If legislation is needed in order to carry out the purposes of this Circular, agencies should prepare necessary legislative proposals for review in accordance with Bureau of the Budget Circular No. A-19. 9. Effective date. This Circular is effective on March 31, 1966.


Director. Mr. WEBBER. As I stated earlier, since the policy of the Department of Defense now is to “contract out” whenever and wherever possible, the ambiguities of the circular compounded by other ambiguities in wage data collection by the Department of Labor, have created a critical situation for both Federal and private enterprise blue collar employees.

A further force producing a breakdown in standards of civilian employment today is the resort to the use of military uniformed personnel by certain commanders to replace Federal employees lost under reduction in force operations. Sometimes this takes a circuitous route. The Federal civilian force is reduced and the work is "contracted out." Due to difficulties the contractor encounters, he is not able to perform on schedule and, at this point, the base commander has all or some of the work done by military persons during duty hours and other work done, "after duty hours," through the practice of uniformed personnel “moonlighting" for the contractor.

To document the existence of this situation, I should like to incorporate into the record, with your permission, as Annex II, a set of three memoranda on this subject from Assistant Secretary of Defense Roger T. Kelley to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and other addressees.

(The documents referred to follow :)

Annex II


Washington, D.C., February 22, 1971. Memorandum for The Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, The Assistant Secretary

of Defense (Administration), The Assistant Secretaries of the Military
Departments (Manpower and Reserve Affairs), The Directors of the Defense

Subject: Replacement of Civilian Personnel with Military Personnel.

Department of Defense Directive 1400.5, subject : "Statement of Personnel Policy for Civilian Personnel in the Department of Defense,” of January 16, 1970, provides that civilian employees shall be utilized in all positions which do not require military incumbents for reasons of law, training, security, discipline, rotation or combat readiness, or which do not require a military background for successful performance of the duties involved.

My memorandum of February 27, 1970, reaffirmed this policy and emphasize that it is also the policy of the Department of Defense that military personnel will not be substituted for civilian personnel being reduced in force. The memorandum of February 27 recognized that for reason of operational necessity, local commanders might have to temporarily assign military personnel to civilian-type functions, but that as soon as practical, arrangements should be made to assign personnel in accordance with established policy. The memorandum also emphasized that planned reductions were not to be used as justification for the use of contract services.

ing widespread substitution of military personnel for civilian personnel being reduced in force. These cases have been investigated and while local commanders were generally found to be applying the policies properly, some instances were

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