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tions are now underway for an Administrative Radio Conference on the Maritime Mobile Service, to be held in Geneva in 1967.

The Government table of transmitter frequency tolerances and that of tolerances for the levels of spurious emissions were up-dated to reflect the current state of the art. A comprehensive set of radar engineering design objectives were promulgated as a guide to minimize the impact on the electromagnetic environment of radar equipments which will be developed.

Improved procedures have been developed and promulgated for the submission of notices of frequency assignments to the International Frequency Registration Board of the ITU, as well as for the processing of letters and questionnaires from the board concerning such assignments. A procedure for the coordination of frequency assignments in prescribed border zones between the United States and Canada was extended to include virtually all of the Government frequency bands above 30 megacycles.

A comprehensive program has been started for reviewing assignments contained in the Government frequency assignment list. This looks to the up-dating of those assignments, including the acquisition of additional data concerning particular assignments where such are required for electromagnetic compatibility studies, as well as the consolidation or deletion of assignments where possible.

A survey of Government radiofrequency usage is in progress. When completed it is expected to provide an indication of the extent of use being made of each frequency assigned to the agency concerned. An inventory of such usage has been completed, and procedures are under development for periodic submission by the Government agencies of reports of their frequency usage, for their processing by ADP techniques and their inclusion in the central magnetic tape file.

Increased attention is being given to measures to control the pollution of the electromagnetic spectrum. Steps thus far taken include (a) the establishment of procedures for the control of Government restricted radiation devices and ISM equipments; (b) efforts to remove the serious hazard to safety of life and property from garage door openers interfering with the navigation and control of aircraft; and (c) the establishment of a policy looking to the more effective control of transmitter spurious emissions.

Steps have been taken for the implementation, to the extent practicable, of a series of recommendations made by an ITU panel of experts in 1963 on ways and means to relieve the congestion in the frequency bands between 4 and 27.5 megacycles.

Procedures have been established for the selection, coordination, and authorization of frequency assignments for foreign embassy radio stations at the U.S. seat of government.

Although a considerable number of special problems in frequency management have necessarily been dealt with during the period under review, only a few of the more significant are mentioned here.

Agreement with the FCC upon a suitable site for an earth station in the State of Hawaii proved particularly difficult. Tests indicated that the site selected could be subject to receiving harmful interference from spurious emissions of nearby high power defense radars, which required the imposition of a limitation on such emissions, as well as the stimulation of efforts to modernize radar techniques and reduce their spurious emissions to tolerable levels.

* Industrial, scientific, and medical.

Sitting problems have also arisen in connection with the proposed location of other earth stations, as well as in the proposed location of TV stations in relatively close proximity to Government communication and radar operations.

Interference to radio astronomy observations from radar emissions has required corrective action on several occasions.

Extensive efforts have been required to provide adequate protection to the national radio quiet zone, and at the same time find the means for satisfying the frequency requirements of the general public in that zone insofar as practicable. The determination of a means for the satisfaction of requirements for educational and commercial TV broadcasting in the zone has proven to be particularly difficult.

THE FUTURE

The future of our radio spectrum management is of vital national concern. The national interest requires that we nurture and cultivate this valuable asset. We have an opportunity to enhance our "productivity” not only in tangible industrial output, but also in the intangible rewards of security, protection of life, property and resources, and the pursuit of happiness. Logic, therefore, tells us that we should:

Protect and foster the use of the spectrum.
Decide which uses are most in the national interest.
Plan ahead for orderly changes in its use to increase benefits
without destroying existing investments.

Implement desirable changes on a scheduled basis.

Constantly monitor the administration of use for prudence and for being in the national interest. My staff will shortly complete a major study of the activities needed to improve our prosture in this important field of frequency management and spectrum utilization. It is already clear that we need to launch a major long-range planning effort if we are to overcome the growing saturation in this important resource and avoid a situation in which the spectrum impedes growth in our national economy. I should shortly be able to provide this committee with copies of our study in this important area.

CONCLUSIONS

I would like to summarize this lengthy review as follows:

There is an acute and growing need for the development of comprehensive telecommunications policies and national plans with a perspective of the world of 1966. My office has issued important policy guidance in satellite communications; spectrum management; and Government-owned versus leased communications. Further policies are needed.

Adequate policies cannot be evolved by cooperative committee action alone but require the leadership of an aggressive and informed office at an effective coordinating level. My staff is growing in number and in experience. Our ability to provide assistance has been demonstrated on several fronts within recent months.

A competent, efficient, expanding common carrier structure for both domestic and international telecommunications is essential to our national security and continued social and economic development. The Intragovernmental Committee which I cochair has presented specific recommendations to the Congress to improve international telecommunications.

Effective communications satellite systems to serve both civil and Government needs are essential. By the end of this year a global commercial communications satellite system and an interim defense system will be in operation.

The Congress has charged the Executive with major responsibilities for the successful attainment of the objectives of the Communications Satellite Act of 1962. Executive departments and agencies are deeply involved with the questions not resolved by the act and are actively supporting the development of the Communications Satellite Corporation.

The orderly development of the National Communications System is dependent upon adequate support of the domestic and international common carriers and upon progressive integration of agency networks to form a long lines-like Government network. The definition of precise goals of the National Communications System by the Executive Agent is proceeding.

There is a need to further evaluate the proper policy and managerial relationships involved in directing the future growth of the National Communications System. Studies are currently being made of means of improving policy and management definition for the NCS through the provision of more adequate and detailed resource information as a part of the annual NCS long-range-plan submissions.

There is need to undertake a major revision of the Communications Act of 1934 at an early date. Preliminary studies are underway to detail the nature of legislative recommendations required.

In developing major policies it is essential that there be close working relationships between this office, the FCC, the Congress and the principal agencies of the executive branch. Progress toward improving coordination has been encouraging and is becoming more effective as we gain experience and understanding of major problems.

If you think that I have presented to you, gentlemen, more of the problems than of the solutions—more of the things that need to be done than the things that have been done, you are completely right. I am not a pessimist, but a realist and I try to face the situation as it is.

Mr. RANDALL. Our chairman has asked that it be announced that the same witness will resume tomorrow at the same time, 10 o'clock, and at the same place here in room 2247, Rayburn Building.

Thank you very much.
Mr. O'CONNELL. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

(Whereupon, at 12 noon, the subcommittee adjourned until 10 a.m., Tuesday, August 30, 1966.)

GOVERNMENT USE OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS

TUESDAY, AUGUST 30, 1966

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,
SUBCOMMITTEE ON MILITARY OPERATIONS
OF THE COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS,

Washington, D.C. The subcommittee met, pursuant to recess, at 10 a.m., in room 2247, Rayburn Office Building, Hon. Chet Holifield (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding.

Present: Representatives Chet Holifield, William S. Moorhead, and William L. Dickinson.

Also present: Herbert Roback, staff administrator; Douglas G. Dahlin, counsel; Paul Ridgely, investigator; and J. P. Carson, minority staff. Mr. HOLIFIELD. The subcommittee will resume its hearings.

I understand that you did not quite finish your report yesterday. Let us accept the balance of it for the record, and start in on the questioning. Then as we get to that part, we will discuss some of the matters.

STATEMENT OF HON. JAMES D. O'CONNELL DIRECTOR OF TELE

COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT; ACCOMPANIED BY FRED W. MORRIS, JR., ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR (ADVANCED CONCEPTS AND TECHNOLOGY); WILLIAM E. PLUMMER, ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR (FREQUENCY MANAGEMENT); COL. HAROLD R. JOHNSON (U.S. AIR FORCE), ASSISTANT DIRECTOR FOR PLANS AND PROGRAMS; VICTOR F. EVANS, DEPUTY ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT (NATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS); RALPH L. CLARK, SPECIAL ASSISTANT FOR INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS STUDY; CHARLES E. LATHEY, SPECIAL ASSISTANT FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS MOBILIZATION PLANNING; AND JOHN J. O'MALLEY, ASSISTANT LEGAL COUNSEL—Resumed

Mr. O'CONNELL. Very good, Mr. Chairman. Mr. ROBACK. You have a lengthy statement, and it will probably take some time to go over it, Mr. O'Connell. So, in the course of the interchange, undoubtedly the members will have occasion to refer to the portions that you have not covered.

Of course, the subject of the FCC decision on authorized user has had a great bearing upon this problem of Government procurement, and your office in one way or another has been involved.

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