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words, I personally consider this to be a very important program, a program with great significance for the fighting man. It is going to give the commander the ability to control, exercise command and control, in areas where very little infrastructure, very little indigenous improvement, very little indigenous communications exist. It will, for example, give the Strike Command the ability to control a tactical unit in Africa.
STUDY OF FREQUENCY NEEDS
Mr. DAHLIN. Do you, in your project, study the use of frequencies and problems that the Army may encounter, or be interested in in frequencies particularly with respect to the tactical satellite program?
Colonel GOLDENTHAL. Well, what we do, and this is a radio frequency interference problem, any site, of course, we have to check it out to be sure there is no radio frequency interference. Of course, one of the problems of any satellite system is to insure that frequency interference is held to a minimum. And this is being studied by the appropriate groups here.
Mr. Dahlin. But that is not within your group? That is what I am asking. Are you
Colonel GOLDENTHAL. We assist as required here, sir.
MULTIPLE ACCESS EQUIPMENT
Mr. DAHLIN. You mentioned multiple access requirements on the last page of your statement. What is it? How much can the ground station development program contribute to this multiple access part of the problem of the satellite program? How much can you do and what are you doing?
Colonel GOLDENTHAL. This is a problem of utilizing the available satellite power. On the other hand, you have got to have a minimum of constraints and control on the users so that if a small station wants to get through, with a vital message, that it has enough power to get through. One of the R. & D. aspects of the tactical program is to insure that the small station can get through, and, of course, without having an enormous communications control problem to try to control when a station can come on the air. Improving our access capability is very important in this.
Mr. Dahlin. Have you got contracts on that, or is that an in-house effort, or what is it?
Colonel GOLDENTHAL. We have got our systems engineering effort going constantly on the multiple access problem. We will have the Army is able to do this in-house but this is going to be part of the working technical group that determines the system power balance.
RELATIONSHIPS OF THE TSEG AND TCCS
Mr. DAHLIN. Mr. Gates, is there any regular communication channel necessary between the TSEG and the TCCS, is there any interaction between those groups or are they separate problems?
Mr. Gates. They are separate problems. There is, obviously, interaction because the satellite communications club is not a very large one. For example, Sam Brown participated in the TCCS.
Colonel GOLDENTHAL. We have two members, Mr. Senn and Colonel Datres. Mr. Sam Brown has attended meetings as technical director of the Satcom agency.
USE OF IDCSP FOR OPERATIONAL TRAFFIC
Mr. ROBACK. When is the IDCSP, of which seven satellites aire floating around, going to be used for what you might call business requirements of the Department?
Colonel GOLDENTHAL. Well, it is, agair it is my hope, the Army's hope, to be able to complete these tests as soon as possible. I believe in the first or middle part of next year.
Mr. ROBACK. You mean it is going to take until the middle of next year possibly for just testing without what you might call systematic traffic interchange?
Colonel GOLDENTHAL. Well, I am sure that a limited amount of traffic can be carried depending upon the urgency of the matter.
Mr. ROBACK. Why do you have to have a whole year to test out these satellites and ground stations?
Colonel GOLDENTHAL. Why do we have it?
Can't you tell by the fact the messages are coming back whether it is working or not?
Colonel GOLDENTHAL. Yes, but we have to test things like tone quality and there wouldn't be really much point in this large an investment in just working it until it didn't work and then fixing it so it worked again.
Mr. ROBACK. You have a test program that is going to extend to the time when the first satellite is liable to drop out of the sky. They have a year-and-a-half lifetime in the specification. They will be up a year by the time your test program is finished. I don't understand it. Maybe you ought to submit a statement for the record explaining the relationship between your test program-you are testing the whole program, aren't you?
Colonel GOLDENTHAL. Yes, but I might point out this is a joint test requirement that is put out by DCA and really if you want an overall systems evaluation I believe that you should-well, you can ask me anything you want to, but I think DCA are the people who are running the test program. I am the Army test conductor. The Air Force and the Navy also have one.
Mr. ROBACK. You are just testing the Army part of the program? Colonel GOLDENTHAL. Just the ground terminals.
Mr. ROBACK. You mean to say traffic to southeast Asia is not likely to be passed this year?
Colonel GOLDENTHAL. Well, traffic, this is going to be dependent on when we get a station there. We have one on the water that was shipped August 6.
Mr. RoBACK. You have your station problems and then you have your test program to run through.
Colonel GOLDENTHAL. Right. But certainly it is pretty obvious that if a terminal is available and it is working and there is urgency that messages be transmitted, they will be transmitted.
Mr. ROBACK. Testing is your mandate since it is an R. & D. program, and apparently it doesn't make any difference whether traffic passes so long as your test is performed.
Colonel GOLDENTHAL. Right. We are just not having an academic approach to this thing, the realities of life being what they are, available communication capability certainly can be preempted for operational traffic.
(The following additional statement was furnished for the record :) The Army in conducting its satellite communications research and development activities, recognizes the urgent communications requirements of the operating commands in southeast Asia and has responded to the needs. The Army was prepared to airlift the first of its southeast Asia terminals several months ago; however, a later site availability date warranted the shipping of this terminal by sea. The terminal is scheduled to arrive at its planned location coincident with the site occupational date.
The Army has placed both the AN/MSC_46 and AN/TSC-54 development programs in the highest military priority category to shorten the delivery of critical components.
As a continuing action, the Army is identifying those components and subassemblies which may cause delays in future terminal deliveries. It is intended that these particular items be given top priority.
The Army is monitoring closely the progress of its Pacific terminals toward an early operational capability and will continue to implement those actions which are appropriate in achieving this goal.
(The following letter was received by the subcommittee for the record :)
HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY,
Washington, D.C., August 31, 1966.
DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN : Before your Subcommittee, on 19 August 1966, the Army discussed its research and development activities regarding the AN/MSC-46 and AN/TSC-54 satellite communications ground stations. In conducting these R&D activities, the Army recognizes the urgent communications needs of the operating commands in Southeast Asia and is continuing to respond to their requirements. In June of this year, the first of the Southeast Asia terminals was received from the contractor and immediately prepared for priority air shipment to the Pacific. A change in the site availability date, however, favored the shipment of the initial Southeast Asia terminal by surface transport.
General Starbird's recent visit to Southeast Asia has given added emphasis to the need for an accelerated site preparation program. Accordingly, the Army is preparing to air-lift its second Southeast Asia terminal, which will not only allow the terminal to be at the site on the availability date, but will also permit timely adjustments and modifications to be made by the contractor before shipment.
In further recognition of the urgent need for an operational status in the Pacific, the AN/MSC-46 and AN/TSC-54 terminal development programs have been placed in the highest military priority category to shorten the delivery of critical components. As a continuing action, those components and subassemblies which may cause future delays in terminal deliveries are being identified. It is intended that these particular items be given top priority.
To determine what else can be done to reach an earlier operational capability, the Army is closely monitoring the progress of its terminals, with special emphasis on Southeast Asia, and will implement those actions appropriate to achieving this goal.
Appreciating your Subcommittee's interest in the progress of the Army's ground terminal development programs, I shall continue to make available to you and the members of your Subcommittee the services of my staff should there be a further need to clarify the Army's position in this matter.
A. W. BETTS, Lieutenant General, GS. Chief of Research and Development.
Mr. ROBACK, Mr. Chairman, in view of the time I think we had better have a little session with the Navy before we wind up.
Mr. HOLIFIELD. Thank you, gentlemen, for your testimony.
Admiral Robert H. Weeks, Assistant Chief of Naval Operations, Communications; Director of Naval Communications.
STATEMENT OF REAR ADM. ROBERT H. WEEKS, U.S. NAVY, ASSIST
ANT CHIEF OF NAVAL OPERATIONS (COMMUNICATIONS), DIRECTOR OF NAVAL COMMUNICATIONS; ACCOMPANIED BY CAPT. MERTON D. VAN ORDEN, U.S. NAVY
Admiral WEEKS. Good morning, Mr. Chairman. Mr. HOLIFIELD. We are glad to have you. Will you introduce your associates ? Admiral WEEKS. Yes, sir. I am accompanied by Capt. Merton D. Van Orden, who is the program director for the Navy satellite communications program. (The biographies referred to follow:)
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF REAR ADM. ROBERT HARPER WEEKS, USN Robert Harper Weeks was born in Springfield, Mass., on November 2, 1909, and graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1932. He served in the gunnery and engineering departments of the U.S.S. Chester and U.S.S. Portland before being ordered to the submarine school at New London, Conn., in July 1934. From 1935 to 1938 he was assigned to the submarines U.S.S. 8-43 and 8-25 respectively, and was designated as qualified for submarine command.
Following a tour of duty in communications, in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (OPNAV), he served as assistant fleet communication officer on the staff of commander in chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet from July 1941, until July 1944, returning to OPNAV as Assistant Chief of Naval Communications for Communication Security.
In June 1947 he was ordered to command the destroyer U.S.S. James 0. Owens (DD_776). In 1948 the Owens served in the “Palestine patrol," being one of the first U.S. naval vessels to fly the U.N. flag.
After another tour of duty in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Captain Weeks was ordered as chief of communications for the Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic (Saclant) and assisted in the establishment of that command in 1952. From 1952 to 1954 he commanded the fleet oiler U.S.S. Sabine (A0–25), in the service force, Atlantic Fleet. In 1954-55 he was a student, naval warfare course at the U.S. Naval War College, Newport, R.I.
From 1955 to 1957 he served as assistant chief of staff for communications, commander, naval forces Far East and commander, naval forces Japan. He assumed command of Destroyer Squadron 10 on November 23, 1957.
Upon being relieved as commander, Destroyer Squadron 10 on November 21, 1958, he reported to OPNAV for duty as Deputy Director of Naval Communications for Communications, in May 1959 his billet title was changed to Deputy Assistant Chief of Naval Operations (communications).
Rear Admiral Weeks served as commander, Cruiser Division 4 from April to July 1962 and as commander Cruiser-Destroyer Flotilla 10 until April 1963, when he was ordered to duty with the Joint Staff, Headquarters, U.S. European Command as director, communications-electronics division. In August 1965 the adm'ral reported to the Office of Chief of Naval Operations as ACNO (communications), Director, Naval Communications, where he is currently serving.
In addition to the Legion of Merit and the Secretary of the Navy Commendation Ribbon, the admiral also has been awarded the American Defense Service Medal with bronze "A," American Campaign Medal, World War II Victory Medal, Navy Occupation Service Medal, National Defense Service Medal, and the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal.
In 1934 Rear Admiral Weeks married the former Reina Sigrid Alvord of Longmeadow, Mass. They have two children Sigrid H. and John A.
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF CAPT. MERTON D. VAN ORDEN, USN Merton Dick Van Orden was born in Austin, Tex., on February 24, 1921. He was appointed to the U.S. Naval Academy in 1941, graduating in June 1944, ensign, USN. He served on the U.S.S. Independence (CVL-22) until August 1945, U.S.S. Tanager (AM–385) until May 1947, at which time he was ordered to duty under instruction at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He graduated from MIT in January 1949 with a bachelor of science, electrical engineering degree, and was ordered to the U.S.S. Marquette (AKA-95), where he served until June 1950. He was designated engineering duty officer (electronics) in November 1949.
Captain Van Orden served as staff electronics officer, on the staff of commander Charleston group, U.S. Atlantic Reserve Fleet, from July 1950 until June 1953, after which he reported to the Boston Naval Shipyard, he served as assistant electronics officer, ship superintendent, assistant shop superintendent, and production analysis superintendent. He left the Boston Shipyard in June 1956, and reported to the U.S. Navy Electronics Laboratory, San Diego, for duty as program officer, radio and radar. In June 1960, he reported to the Defense Communications Agency and assisted with the establishment of that Agency as a part of the R. & D. directorate. In June 1963, he was de tached from the DCA and entered George Washington University for studies in financial management, graduating in June 1964, with a master, business administration degree. He served in the office of the chief of naval material, systems development division, until August 1965, at which time he was selected to become the project manager, satellite communications project, Bureau of Ships—later naval electronics systems command. In December 1965 Captain Van Orden was given additional duty as program director, satellite communications program, office of the chief of naval operations. He is serving in both offices at this time, and is the principal satellite communications officer in the Navy.
Captain Van Orden has the American Defense Service Medal, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with four stars, American Campaign Medal, World War II Victory Medal, Navy Occupation Service Medal, with one star. He also holds the Expert Rifleman Medal.
Captain Van Orden is continuing his graduate studies as a doctoral candidate at the George Washington University, where he is also an instructor on the faculty. Both of these activities are carried out as part of the evening program of that university. His wife is the former Nancy Platt of Kingsport, Tenn., and they have a daughter who is a junior at Hollins College, Roanoke, Va., and a son who is a plebe at the U.S. Naval Academy. His official residence is Houson, Tex., but the family currently resides at 2709 N. Jefferson Street, Arlington, Va.
Admiral WEEKS. It is a pleasure to have the opportunity of appearing before this committee for the purpose of discussing the Navy's interests and plans in the field of satellite communications. Since my predecessor, Rear Admiral now Vice Admiral Roeder
appeared before you in 1964, the Navy
to be involved in a number of significant matters pertinent to these hearings.
The U.S. Navy has long had a need for efficient, effective, longrange communications among ships and aircraft of its fleets spread over many thousands of miles of the oceans of the world, and from those ships and aircraft to and from their bases. Since the wires and cables which provide communications for shore bases are obviously not suitable for moving platforms, the Navy has had to look toward the use of radio waves for the vital links to its ships, aircraft, and Marine Corps units in forward areas.
For the long-range circuits required, primary dependence was placed on high frequency and medium frequency radio waves. In recent