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abstract accepted affirmative Algol antecedent application argument assertion called categorical categorical proposition causal cause Classification concept conclusion connexion connotation and denotation contradictory Contrapositive Deductive Deductive Inference defined definition differentia Dilemma disjunctive proposition distinction division Earth effect Enthymeme Enumerative Induction Epimenides essential exclusive explanation expressed fact fallacy figure Formal fundamental given Hence hypothesis hypothetical Hypothetical Syllogism ibid idea ideal Identity illicit major implied important indeterminate Inductive Inference instances interest is-not J. S. Mill Laws of Thought major premiss meaning Method of Difference Mill Mill's Modus Tollens nature negative object observation obverse P's are S's particular plants point of view positive possible postulate precisely predicate principle purpose question reasoning reference rejected relation relevant Rule S's are P's S's are-not P's Science scientific sense Sorites species statement summum genus term theory tion true truth undistributed universal valid verification vide word
Page 415 - If an instance in which the phenomenon under investigation occurs, and an instance in which it does not occur, have every circumstance in common save one, that one occurring only in the former; the circumstance in which alone the two instances differ is the effect, or the cause, or an indispensable part of the cause, of the phenomenon.
Page 391 - I had, also, during many years followed a golden rule, namely, that whenever a published fact, a new observation or thought came across me, which was opposed to my general results, to make a memorandum of it without fail and at once; for I had found by experience that such facts and thoughts were far more apt to escape from the memory than favorable ones.
Page 283 - The only proof capable of being given that an object is visible, is that people actually see it; the only proof that a sound is audible, is that people hear it: and so of the other sources of our experience.
Page 456 - The uniformity in the succession of events, otherwise called the law of causation, must be received not as a law of the universe, but of that portion of it only which is within the range of our means of sure observation, with a reasonable degree of extension to adjacent cases.
Page 417 - Whatever phenomenon varies in any manner, whenever another phenomenon varies in some particular manner, is either a cause or an effect of that phenomenon, or is connected with it through some fact of causation.
Page 395 - If two or more instances of the phenomenon under investigation have only one circumstance in common, the circumstance in which alone all the instances agree is the cause (or effect) of the given phenomenon.
Page 314 - I worked on true Baconian principles, and without any theory collected facts on a wholesale scale...
Page 386 - The total energy of any material system is a quantity which can neither be increased nor diminished by any action between the parts of the system, though it may be transformed into any of the forms of which energy is susceptible.
Page 314 - I happened to read for amusement ' Malthus on Population,' and being well prepared to appreciate the struggle for existence which everywhere goes on from long-continued observation of the habits of animals and plants, it at once struck me that under these circumstances favourable variations would tend to be preserved, and unfavourable ones to be destroyed. The result of this would be the formation of new species. Here then I had at last got a theory by which to work...