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was not, in truth, their being men of arbitrary principles them. "selves, but for being the opposers of those principles in others." But my subsequent researches convinced me of any mistake, and taught me to venerate, though not always to admire, several of those sterner virtues which the state of this nation and of Europe called into exercise, and which have generally been exaggerated to the Archbishop's prejudice. But I refrain from all further allusions to this great Prelate, as I shall have another opportunity of adverting to him, and “ to his good friend Hugo Grotius,” in a succeeding part of this Introduction.--As the doctrine of FUNDAMENTALS and of a GENERAL Religious PaciriCATION could not be introduced without some account of these two great men, and of the state of Europe at that period, I have made a large digression, (pp. 582—766,) in which I have presented the reader with many interesting particulars respecting Laud and Grotius, which have not been given by any preceding English writer,

The remaining contents of Appendix D, (pp. 800-830,) are soon specified. A brief allusion to the adulterated species of Arminianism which was imbibed and propagated by many of our English divines at the period of the Restoration, and which gave a tone to the public ministry of the English Clergy for some years afterwards, and three extracts, from Professor Poelenburgh, Bishop Fleetwood, and Bishop Atterbury,--conclude the volume..

The various subjects which I have now cursorily enumerated, are further illustrated and explained by notes, consisting of slight original observations, but principally of extracts from scarce pamphlets and treatises Several of these elucidations are now, for the first time, translated into our language. When I commenced this part of my undertaking, I resolved to borrow no part of my relation of facts from the histories and remarks of Clarendon, Burnet, Eachard, Grey, Collier, Neal, Walker, Calamy, or from the pamphlets of L'Estrange, Dr. South, Heylin's Quinquarticular History, or any other similar authority that is supposed to be in the hands of every Englishman, and that might seem to be too partial to one side or to the other. Freed from these trammels, and having no worldly consideration whatever to cloud my understanding or to bias my judgment, I have produced a very impartial account of those transactions which I narrate, and a correct exposition of the principles avowed by the chief actors, and generally in their own expressions. I am quite aware, that violent partizans on all sides, who derive their information from more objectionable sources, may not be inclined to concede to me even the small praise of impartiality; and that I shall be blamed particularly for the strong opinions, to which I have given utterance, in favour of Episcopacy and of the Clergy of the Established Church. But when the realler has perused the conclusion

of this Introduction, he will discover reasons why my apparent bias in this last respect ought to secure me from undue censure.

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I now proceed to advert to a few of those discussions which occur in the notes, and to which the title of this work will have called the attention of my readers.

A perusal of the long note (pp. 679—693,) on the origin and progress of English Arminianism, will convince every man of can. dour of the falsity of the proposition upon which I have ventured to animadvert, “that in England, CALVINISM went along with Civil liberty, and ARMINIANISM the contrary, and that in Holland it was at the same time the very reverse.” The notes, in pages 704–709 and 780, respecting Bishops Hall and Davenant, and the note on 798 (in which an allusion is made to Dr. Hall as the Bishop of Norwich,) will add strong confirmation to the one already quoted, and will inject serious doubts into the minds of those who have been accustomed to reckon those two celebrated divines as rigid Calvinists to the very close of life.

In the account which Mr. Farindon has given of the conversion of “the ever-memorable Hales of Eton” from Calvinism to Armin nianism, he has introduced a circumstance respecting EPISCOPIUS, which has exceedingly puzzled Mosheim, and other writers. The evidence adduced in pages 57749, will prove, I hope satisfactorily, that MARTINIUS was the individual, through whose reasoning Hales “bade John Calvin Good Night!"

The reputed PoPERY of Arminianism receives some explanation in pages 677–9, 267, and 526.—Some particulars respecting ARMINIUS and his system are related in pages 466, 478–83, 548, 552, 621, 801, and 828.-Curious acceptation of the the term “Pelagianism," p. 780.-Remarks on unchristian rebellion, pp. 561—4, 364-6, 728, 385, and 270.—Conversions to Armini. anism, 305, 394, 535, 577, 687-91, 704, 713, 780, 788, 800 and 803.

Contrasts are instituted-in page 285 between the death-bed scene of Grotius, and of Rivet his most acrimonius accuser ; 336_341, between the execution of Archbishop Laud, and Mr. Love who exulted at that great Prelate's death ;-753, between the conduct of Vossius, and that of the brave Grotius, towards Archbishop Laud in his troubles ;-482 between the Divinity of the schools and that of the scriptures ;-413-16, 790, between the tolerant views of Dr. Hammond and John Goodwin, and those of Dr. Owen ;-761, 76575, between the amplitude of Fundamental Articles of religion devised by the Arminians, and those of the Calvinists ;-296-306, 512, 518, between the prophesying humour of the Calvinists, and the common sense of the Arminians;-643, between extempore prayers, and written forms ;-606, between the French Calvinists and Dutch Armi. nians ;-223, between the Remonstrants, Du Moulin, Amyraut, and Twisse ;-678 between the labours of the Conformists in the Popish controversy, and those of the Puritan Clergy ;-674, between marriage and celibacy ;-710—6, between the political principles of the English Arminians and Calvinists ;-380-1. between the suppleness of Dr. Owen, and the firmness of Meric Casaubon; and 636, between Grotius and Selden.

The genius and tendency of Calvinism are well portrayed by Grotius in page 271–8, and by Dr. Hammond 690—2.--Calvi. nistic Revolutionary reveries, 512, 515, and 528.-Westminster Assembly of Divines 400—9, 435, 443, 464-72.-Preparations for the Assembly by the Du Moulins 392.-Remarkable deficiency of the Calvinists in a knowledge of the Ancient Fathers, 430, 524, 534, 686.-The craft of the English Puritans, immediately prior to the civil wars, in joining the articles of the Irish Church with those of the Church of England, in argumentative array against the Arminians, 565.-Description of the Calvinists in those days, 271, 359, 463, 512, 528, 705, and 786.--Presbyterian discipline 445, and intolerance, 448, 467.-Contests between the Presbyterians and Independents, 313, 342, 386, 448, 606 and 733.-Dr. Twisse's curious Predestinarian arguments, &c. 476–81, 490/2, 406, 444; his obligations to the Jesuits, 477, 526 ; and his prophetical enthusiasm, 506, 510, 512.-A Parliamentary chaplain, described by himself, 457-8.—The Long Parliament 406, 444. Scotch Presbyterians, 347–9, 365.—The French Calvinists, 265, 721.-Synod of Dort and its consequences, 425, 572, 587, 592, 710, 738.—The capacity in which the British Deputies appeared at that Synod, and their private disputes, 398, 565, 710.-Dury's pacific labours, 608—10, 617, 748 ; his prophesying humour, 617, 754.g.Sir Henry Vane's prophecies, 513, 516_8.-Animadversions on some of Richard Baxter's assertions, 251, 294, 302, 323, 330, 352, 360, 379, 401, 640, 678, 747.-An almost universal and voluntary infliction of self-punishment, in the year 1662, on the high Predestinarian ministers, 788.

To general readers the following notes will probably appear the most interesting: Curious anecdote about Archbishop Tillitson, 785–7.-Difficulty of defining with accuracy Whigs and Tories, 812-5.-The desire of Grotius to be employed at the Court of England, and the reasons why his request was slighted, 634-6, 597, 600.--The family of Vossius, and his invitation to England and Ireland, 659–65.-Female branches of the family De Medicis, 719_731.-An account of Dr. Cosin's Devotions, 502: The Elector Palatine and the Queen of Bohemia, 611-3, 754.-The Ancient Fathers of the Christian Church, and their great authority, 428-434, 413, 535, 685, 799.-Escape of Grotius from confinement, 582 ; and his fine letter on the death of his

daughter Maria, 603.-Dr. Featly's trimming conduct, 459,463, 403.Selden's conduct in the Assembly of Divines at Westmin, ster, 470.-Bishop Atterbury on the advantages of a married Clergy, 644; and Archbishop Laud's opinion about celibacy, 674. -Ancient and modern ideas about Catholic emancipation, 693. University learning, 369–71.Critique upon Du Moulin's VATES, 281.

: On the subject of Popery, abundant information will be found in the copious notes, pp. 549—784; and Cardinal Richelieu's finesse is exposed in pages 624-30, 734.

On various subjects connected with our national history, the reader will find some information in the following notes : King James the First, 307, 376, 510, 561, 649, 711.-King Charles the First, 376, 648, 716, 719–31, 734; and His Majesty's death, 323, 350, 377, 380, 387, 391.--King Charles the Second, 607, 820.The Electoral Family, 336, 453, 611-3, 647, 724, 784, 740, 770, 817.

. Moderation of the Episcopal Church, 435, 532, 545, 654, 798. Her rites and ceremonies, 527, 432-4, 543-4, 799.-At an equal distance from Puritanism and Popery, 656, 67.-Advantages of Episcopacy, 545, 698, 702, 422.Jus Divinum of Episcopacy, and of other modes of Divine Worship, 792-5.--Episcopal Clergy prior to the Civil Wars, 302, 630, 333, 335, 525, 811. Employment of Ecclesiastics in the great offices of State, 585.Uniformity in Public Worship, 452, 575, 772.-Origin of Ecclesiastical Power, 436.-The observance of Christmas, 411, 419,451; and of the Christian Sabbath, 287, 455, 542.-Baptismal Regeneration, 395.-Conformity, 543.

The principles of Toleration, 415, 448, 452, 607, 692, 704, 707, 729, 730, 783, 791, 796, 800.Those who oppose Popery are the greatest lovers of Toleration, 783.–Fundamental Articles, 496, 552, 762. 772.-Those of the Bremen Divines at the Synod of Dort, 577. Vile sycophancy and intolerance of the Romish Church, 496, 558-61, 621, 624, 628.

Some of the retributive acts of Divine Providence are briefly pointed out in the notes, pp. 302, 339, 512, 466, 528, 595, 706, 788, 826-8. Confirmation of some of Mr. Mede's conjectures, 508.- Socinianism, 641-3, 782.- Progress of Independency in England, 451.

In addition to the notes now specified, some of which will be found extremely long, others are interspersed throughout the work concerning Luther, Melancthon, Calvin, Rivet, Du Moulin, Servetus, Beza, Milletiere, Paræus, Dr. John Owen, Robert Baylie, Philip Nye, Judge Jenkins, Casaubon, Junius, Lightfoot, Selden, Sampson Johnson, Amyraut, Courcelles, John Goodwin, Feuardent, Marets, Bogerman, Du Plessis Marly, Daillée, Cas. sander, Castellio, Prince Rupert, Duke of Hamilton, Hugh Pe. ters, Dr. Samuel Ward, Bishop Morley, Philip Henry, John

Archer; Joshua Sprigge, Bishop Burnet, Dr. Prideaux, Professor Poelenburgh, Archbishop Sheldon, Dr. Lloyd, Samuel Hartlib, Bishop Andrews, Herbert Thorndyke, Bishop Bedell, Gomarus, Bishop Morton, Gondemar, Archbishop Tillotson, Oliver Crom. well, Gerard Brandt, Archbishop Abbot, Martinius, Crocius, De Barneveldt, Chancellor Oxenstern, Gustavus Adolphus, Prince Maurice, Episcopius, Louis the Thirteenth, Sir Richard Browne, Peter De Marca, Bishop Atterbury, Vossius, Duke of Buckingham, Bishop Juxon, the Archbishop of Cologne, Dr. Walter Balcanqual, Archbishop Dawes, Dr. Hoe Van Henegg, Bishop Hoadly, the Elector of Saxony, John Durie, Tobias Conyers, Dr. Henry More, Bishop Fleetwood, Samuel Wesley, Sir Henry Wotton, &c. &c. · Numerous extracts are also given, in the form of explanatory notes, from BRAY's Life of Evelyn, Twells's Life of Dr. Pocock, Fell's Life of Dr. Hammond, Bishop Hall's Hard Measure, Lord CLARENDON'S Life by Himself, Bates's Lives, Isaac WALTON'S Lives, PARR's Life of Archbishop Usher, JACKSON's Life of John Goodwin, Bishop Heber's Life of Jeremy Taylor, and other authentic and creditable biographical Memoirs. Several elucidations have likewise been borrowed from BURRISH's Batavia Illustrata, SANDERSON's Preface to his Sermons, Pierce's Divine Philanthropy and Purity Defended, BAKER's Chronicle by Phillips, DR. HamMOND's Sermons, Mede's & Lightfoot's Works, The Letters and Minor Treatises of Grotius, River's Apology, Dury's Prodromus, Sermons preached by various Puritan Divines before the Long Parliament, Twisse's Vindication, BAYLE's Dictionary, Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History, Acts of the Dort Synod, BAYLIE's Dissuasive from the Errors of the Time, CURCELLÆUS De Jure Dei, BURNET on the Thirty-Nine Articles, 8c.



1. DR. PETER HEYLIN. * It was my intention to have given a concise character of a few of the most important of those works which I have now enumerated; but the execution of this task must be deferred till the publication of the second volume. One writer, however, Dr. Peter HEYLIN, whose History of the Presbyterians, and Life of Archbishop Laud, I have occasionally quoted, deserves in this place a brief notice. It has been said of him, “that, in some things, he was too much a party-man, to be an Historian:". He was undoubtedly a warm writer, yet in general exceedingly correct in his relation of matters of fact, and very sincere even on those doctrinal topics in which I conceive him to have been in error. But with

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