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pert* at Marston-moor, on the second of July, York yielded on composition upon that day fortnight; the Marquis of Newcastle, with many gentlemen of great note and quality, shipped themselves for France; and the strong town of Newcastle took in by the Scots on the 19th of October then next following. More fortunate was his Majesty with his Southern army, though at the first he was necessitated to retire from Oxon at such time as the forces under Essex and Waller did appear before it. The news whereof being brought unto them, it was agreed that Waller should pursue the King, and that the Earl's army should march westward to reduce those countries. And here the mystery of iniquity began to shew itself in its proper colours. For whereas they pretended to have raised their army for no other end, but only to remove the King from his evil counsellors, those evil counsellors, as they call them, were left at Oxon, and the King only hunted by his insolent enemies. But the King, having totally broken Waller in the end of June, marched after Essex into Devonshire, and having shut him up in Cornwall, where he had neither room for forage, nor hope of succours, he forced him to fly ingloriously in a skiff or cockboat, and leave his army in a manner to the conqueror's mercy. But his horse having the good fortune to save themselves, the King gave
* This young Prince was the son of the ex-king of Bohemia and of King Charles's sister; and his employment in the Englisb army at that eventful juncture must present, to a reflecting mind, one of those remarkable mutations to which families as well as individuals are subject in this world, and which are over-ruled by the good providence of God to the accomplishment of his own wise purposes. Prince Rupert had to fight against those very Calvinists by whose aid his father had once hoped to become Emperor of Germany as well as King of Bohemia; and his principal associates in arms were persons, who, if they made any profession of religion at ail, called themselves “ Arminians," and whose principles his nearest relatives had contributed to vilify and condemn, at the Synod of Dort and on subsequent occasions. See pages 242, 255.
But the Lady Elizabeth, the Elector Palatine, and their royal offspring, had learnt wisdom by their sufferings; and, long before the commencement of the Civil Wars, had begun to cultivate the friendship of the Arminians both in Holland and England. They professed the greatest regard for Grotius : And his friend Johnson, to whom reference bas been made in page 216, was chaplain to the Queen of Bohemia. Respecting this accomplished clergymnan, Vossius thus writes to Grotius in 1642, at a period when the latter wished, as a peace-maker, that some one would reply to the slanders of Rivet, and had recommended that service to Vossius and Johnson ; and this extract may be considered as their answer to his application : “ And Doctor Johnson, chaplain to the Queen of Bohemia, has just been here. When I told him, that the time was nearly expired for delivering my letter to the French messenger, and after I had said that I was transmitting it to you, he requested me to present his best compliments to your excellency. He desired me also to add, that an accusation has been preferred against him, in the English Parliament, for heterodoxy; and 'not merely against him, but against the Queen also, for bestowing her patronage upon such a beretic.But by the prudence of certain individuals, this affair was dismissed without further discussion."-At such a juncture, it would bave been impolitic to interfere with the project of Grotius, however highly it might be approved. But Johnson and Vossius had other more powerful reasons why they declined this euterprize in a manner the least calculated to give offence.
quarter to the foot, reserving to himself their cannons, arms, and ammunition, as a sign of his victory. And here again the war might possibly have been ended, if the King had followed his good fortune, and marched to London, before the Earl of Essex had united his scattered forces and Manchester was returned from the northern service. But setting down before Plymouth now, as he did before Gloucester the last year, he lost the opportunity of effecting his purpose, and was fought withal at Newbury, in his coming back, where neither side could boast of obtaining the victory.
“ But howsoever, having gained some reputation by his western action, the houses seem inclinable to accept his offer of entering into treaty with him for an accommodation. This he had offered by his message from Evesham on the 4th of July, immediately after the defeat of Waller; and pressed it by another from Tavistock on the 8th of September, as soon as he had broken the great army of the Earl of Essex. To these they hearkened not at first. But being sensible of the out-cries of the common people, they condescend at last, appointing Uxbridge for the place, and the thirtieth day of January for the time thereof. For a preparative whereunto, and to satisfy the the importunity and expectation of their brethren of Scotland, they attaint the Arch-bishop of High Treason,* in the House of *“In his last sad sermon on the scaffold at his death, he did (as our blessed Saviour advised his disciples) pray for those that persecuted and despitefully used him. And not only pardoned those enemies, but dispassionately begged of Almighty God that he would also pardon them; and besought all the present beholders of this sad sight, that they would pardon and pray for him. But though he did all this, yet he seemed to accuse the magistrates of the city, for not suppressing a sort of people whose malicious and furious zeal had so far transported them, and violated all modesty, that though they could not know whether he were justly or unjustly condemned, were yet suffered to go visibly up and down'to gather hands to a petition, that the parliament would hasten his execution. And he having declared how unjustly be thought himself to be condemned, and accused for endeavouring to bring in Popery, (for that was one of the accusations for which he died, he declared with sadness, “That the several sects and divisions then in England (which he had laboured to prevent) were now like to bring the Pope a far greater
vest, than he could ever have expected without them; and said. these sects and divisions introduce prophaneness under the cloak of an ima. 'ginary religion,' and 'that we have lost the substance of religion by • changing it into opinion ;' and, that by these means the Church of Eng• land, which all the Jesuits' machinations could not ruin, was fallen into ' apparent danger by those (covenanters] which were his accusers.' To this purpose he spoke at his death; for which, and more to the same purpose, the reader may view his last sad sermon on the scaffold.” WALTON's Life of Bishop Sanderson.
The conduct of Archbishop Laud in the whole of his misfortunes was consistent, dignified, and pious. “He was brought to the scaffold, Jan. 10, 1645, after he had endured some affronts in his anti-chainber in the Tower, by some sous of schism and sedition, who unseasonably, that morning he was preparing himself to appear before the Great Bishop of our souls, would have him give some satisfaction to the godly, (for so they called themselves,) for his persecutions, which he called DISCIPLINE. To whom he answered, That he was now shortly to give an account of all his actions at an higher
Commons, and pass their bill by ordinance in the House of Peers, in which no more than seven Lords did concur to the sentence; but being sentenced howsoever, by the malice of the
and more equal tribunal, and desired he might not be disturbed in his preparations for it. Others asked him (to ruffle his soul into a passion, now he was fairly folding it up, to deliver it into the hands of his Redeemer,) • What were the most comfortable words a man should die with in his mouth?' And he mildly answered, I desire to be dissolved and to be with Christ :' adding meekly, (when asked How a man at that time might express his assurance, « That such assurance was to be found within, grounded on the word of God concerning Christ's dying for us, and that no words were able to express it rightly.' * “ Having stripped him of all the honours of an archbishop, they would have denied him the privilege of a malefactor, to have his own worthy confessor Dr. Sterne, since Archbishop of York, about him; taking it so ill, that he would not admit of Marshall, (that was fitter to be the executioner, than a chaplain,) that because he would not die according to the humour of the Presbyteriaus, he should not die in the honourable way of au Archbishop. Being brought out of the tower to the scaffold, he ascended it with an extra
ful and ruddy countenance, as if he had mounted rather to have beheld a triumph, than to be made a sacrifice; and came not there to die but to be translated, and exchange his mitre for the crown of martyrdom.
" The clearness of his conscience being legible in the cheerfulness of his dying looks, as the serenity of the weather is understood by the glory and ruddiness of the setting sun ; there desiring to have room to die, aud declaring that he was more willing to go out of the world, than any man to send him; he first took care to stop the chinks near the block, and remove the people he spied under it, expressing himself that it was no part of his desire ihai his blood should fall upon the heads of the people; in which desire it pleased God he was so far gratified, that there remaining a small hole from a knot in the midst of a board, the fore-finger of his right hand at his death happened to stop that also: and then at once pardoning and overcoming his enemies, many of whom coming thither to insult, went away to weep for him, who had this peculiar happiness with his master, that he gained that reverence by his adversity, that peitber he nor any gained in prosperity.”
His prayer on the scaffold is peculiarly affecting. After commending himself to“ the riches and fulness of God's piercies,” he thus most devoutly poured out his soul before the mercy-seat of Heaven : “ Look upon me, but not till thou hast nailed my sins to the cross of Christ, but not till thou hast bathed me in the blood of Christ, not till I have hid myself in the wounds of Christ; that so the punishment due unto my sins may pass over me. And since thou art pleased to try me to the uttermost, I most humbly beseech thee, give me now, in this great instance, full patience, proportionable comfort, and a heart ready to die for thine honour, the king's happiness, and this church's preservation. And my zeal to these (far from arrogancy he it spoken !) is all the sin (human frailty excepted, and all incidents thereto) which is yet known to me in this particular, for which I come now to suffer : I say, in this particular of treason. But otherwise my sins are many aud great: Lord, pardon them all, and those especially (whatever they are) which have drawn down this present judgment upon me. And when thou hast given me strength to bear it, do with me as seems best in thine own eyes. Amen.
*** And that there may be a stop of this issue of blood, in this more than miserable kingdom, () Lord, I beseech thee, give grace of repentance to all blood-thirsty people. But if they will not repent, O Lord, defeat and frustrate all their designs and endeavours, which are or shall be contrary to the glory of thy great name, the truth and sincerity of religion, the establishment of the King and his posterity after him in their just rights and privileges, the honour and conservation of Parliaments in their just power, the preservation of this poor church in her truth, peace and patrimony, and the Presbyterians both Scots and English, he was brought to act the last part of his tragedy on the 10th of January, as shall be told at large in another place. This could presage no good success to the following treaty. For though covenants sometimes may be written in blood, yet I find no such way for commencing treaties. And to say truth, the King's commissioners soon found what they were to trust to: For, having condescended to accompany the commissioners from the Houses of Parliament, and to be present at a sermon preached by one of their chaplains, on the first day of the meeting, they found what little hopes they had of a good conclusion. The preacher's name was Love, a Welshman, and one of the most fiery Presbyters in all the pack: In whose sermon there were many passages very scandalous to his Majesty's person, and derogatory to his honour; stirring up the people against the treaty, and incensing them against the King's commissioners; telling them, that they came
with hearts full of blood ; and that there was as great a dis• tance betwixt the treaty and peace, as there was between hea
ven and hell.' Of this the Oxon Lords complained, but could obtain no reparation for the King or themselves; though afterwards Cromwell paid the debt, and brought him to the scaffold when he least looked for it.”*
settlement of this distracted and distressed people under their ancient laws and in their native liberties. And when thou hast done all this in mere mercy for them, O Lord, fill their hearts with thankfulness, and with religious dutiful obedience to thee and thy commandments all their days. So, Amen Lord Jesu, Amen!”
* The contrast between Mr. Love and Archbishop Laud is very striking. It is stated " as a circumstance coutributing to make the death of the former appear the more judicial, that, when Archbishop Laud was beheaded, this Mr. Love, in a most inhuman triumph, fionrished his handkerchief dipt in the blood of that great and venerable prelate."
Finding that the Parliament did not act according to his wishes, Love and some other Presbyterians entered into a conspiracy for the overthrow of their formerly much-esteemed Republican government. After a trial of six days, he was convicted of treason (June 27,1651) and the court pronounced sentence of death upon him as a traitor. In his defence he said "I have been called a malignant and apostate ; but God is my witness, I never carried on a malignant interest : I still retaip my covenanting principles, from which, by the grace of God, I will never depart. Neither am I an incendiary between the two nations of England and Scotland; but I am grieved for their divisions ; and if I had as much blood in my veins as there is water in the sea, I would count it well spent to quench the fire that our sins have kindled between them. I have all along engaged my life and estate in the Parliament's quarrel, against the forces raised against the late King; not from a prospect of advantage, but from conscience and duty : and I am so far from repenting, that, were it to do again upon the same unquestionable authority, and for the same declared ends, I should as readily engage in it as ever, though I wish from my soul that the ends of that just war had been better accomplished.”—What hold could any government have on a man who avowed sentiments like these ? His “ covenauting principles" were so accommodating as to be turned with equal facility in favour of a Commonwealth or a MONARCHY. lo one of Sir Henry Vane's letters to Cromwell, a little before that period, he writes thus concerning Mr. Love: “I am daily confirmed in my opinion, that he and his brethren do still retain their old leaven, and are
· He afterwards thus alludes to the great schism among the Puritans and the treaty that was proposed between the King and Parliament:
[not] ingenuous at all towards us, whatever they pretend; but have dexterity enough to take us on our weak side, thinking thereby to save themselves entire in their principles, and gain some, while this decisive work in Scotland be over. For it is plain unto me, that they do not judge us A LAWFUL MAGISTRACY, or esteem any thing TREASON that is acted by them to destroy us, in order to bring the King of Scots as head of the Covenant. Yet whilst such, they help up their party in the face of us, and for their better encouragement meet with clemency and favour from us; unto which you are much depended upon to cast in also your influence, to balance your brother Heron who is taken for a hack-friend to the Black Coats."
The reader will perceive from this extract, that Love and his friends were concerned in that enterprize of Charles the Second, which terminated fatally to his cause in the defeat at Worcester. Great intercession was made to the men in power in behalf of Mr. Love. The republican Colonel Hammond, brother to the loyal Doctor, (see page 297,) writes thus to Cromwell, July 22 : “ When I bad the honour to know you well, it was your lordship's way in your affairs, (and sure it was the good way, the way of God,) to give a full summons before blood was shed. I cannot say but this poor man [Love] might have avoided his offence from what was to be known; but such an eminent warning as this, if not received, will leave like offenders for ever altogether inexcusable. But, most of all, the hearts of many, if not the most, of good men here, of all parties, are exceedingly set to save his life from this ground-that it may be a means to unite the hearts of all good men the bent of whose spirits is set to walk in the ways of the Lord. For certainly
em are under severe bondage, and do not only want themselves spiritual liberty, but are at enmity with those that have it, from their own dark forms and principles, yet they (the Presbyterians) are to be preferred far before a generation that does much increase, who are turned aside out of the good way, and turn the grace of God into wantonness, and pursue iniquity with greediness, following the lusts of their own corrupted hearts, till They are carried to that excess of wickedness that is hardly to be named among christians. Such as these, and the irreconcileable generation of Cavaliers, do especially boast and please themselves in their hopes of the destruction of this poor man.”
But all intercession was unavailing : He was brought to the scaffold on the 22d of August. In his address to the people, he said, among other things : Clan
made a spectacle unto God, to angels, and to nep. I am made a grief to the godly, a laughing-stock to the wicked, and a gazingstock to all: yet, blessed be God, I am not a terror lo myself: though there is but a little between me and death, there is but a little between me and heaven.--I am for a regulated mixed monarchy, which I judge to be one of the best governments in the world. I opposed, in my place, the forces of the late king; because I am against screwing up monarchy into tyranny, as much as against those who would pull it down to anarchy. I was always against putting the King to death, whose person I promised in my covenant to preserve; and I judge it an ill way of curing the body politic, to cut off the political head. '1 die with my judgment against the engagement : I pray God to forgive them who impose, and them who take it, and preserve them who refuse it. Neither would I be looked upon as owning the present government: I die with my judgment against it. And I die cleaving to all those oaths, vows, covenants and protestations, which were imposed by the two houses of Parliament. I have abundant peace in my own mind, that I have set myself against the sins aud apostacies of the time. Although my faithfulness hath procured me the ill-will of men, it hath secured me peace with God: I have lived in peace, and I shall die in peace.” How far bis rancour personally against the king could consist with these protestations of bis love for " a mixed monarchy," the reader may easily determine. The wbole of his address and of his prayer, however, was highly confirmatory of the reasoning contained in Vane's letter to Cromwell. The account of Love's