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the failing test vehicle. (Vehicles so de- accordingly. If the Administrator deterleted may be included in a later request mines that the test vehicle(s) does not for certification under § 85.57.) The Ad- meet applicable standards, he will proministrator will then select in place of ceed under $ 85.55(b). each failing vehicle an alternate vehicle
$ 85.58 Changes to a vehicle covered chosen in accordance with selection
by certification. criteria employed in selecting the vehicle
(a) The manufacturer shall notify the that failed, or
Administrator of any change in produc. (iii) Modify the test vehicle and dem
tion vehicles in respect to any of the onstrate by testing that it meets appli
parameters listed in $ 85.89(a) (3), cable standards. Another vehicle which.
§ 85.89 (b) (3), or $ 85.110(b) (3), givis in all material respects the same as
ing a full description of the change. Such the first vehicle, as modified, shall then be operated and tested in accordance
notification shall be in advance of the
change unless the manufacturer elects with applicable test procedures.
to follow the procedure described in (5) If the manufacturer does not re
§ 85.59. quest a hearing or present the required
(b) Based upon the description of the data under subparagraph (4) of this paragraph, the Administrator will deny
change, and data derived from such test
ing as the Administrator may require or certification.
conduct, the Administrator will deter§ 85.56 Separate certification.
mine whether the vehicle, as modified, Where possible a manufacturer should
would still be covered by the certificate include in a single application for certifi
of conformity then in effect. cation all vehicles for which certification
(c) If the Administrator determines is required. A manufacturer may, how
that the outstanding certificate would
cover the modified vehicles, he will notify ever, choose to apply separately for certification of part of his product line. The
the manufacturer in writing. Except as selection of test vehicles and the compu
provided in $ 85.59 the change may not be tation of test results will be determined
put into effect prior to the manufac
turer's receiving this notification. If the separately for each application.
Administrator determines that the modi& 85.57 Addition of a vehicle after fied vehicles would not be covered by the certification.
certificate then in effect, then the modi(a) If a manufacturer proposes to add fied vehicles shall be treated as additions to his product line a vehicle of the same to the product line subject to § 85.57. engine-system combination as vehicles
$ 85.59 Alternative procedure for notipreviously certified but which was not
fication of additions and changes. described in the application for certification when the test vehicle(s) represent
(a) A manufacturer may, in lieu of ing other vehicles of that combination
notifying the Administrator in adyance was certified, he shall notify the Admin
of an addtion of a vehicle under $ 85.57 or istrator. Such notification shall be in ad
a change in a vehicle under $ 85.58, novance of the addition unless the manu
tify him concurrently with the making of facturer elects to follow the procedure
the change if the manufacturer believes described in § 85.59. This notification
the addition or change will not require shall include a full description of the
any testing under the appropriate section. vehicle to be added.
Upon notification to the Administrator, (b) The Administrator may require
the manufacturer may proceed to put the the manufacturer to perform such tests
addition or change into effect. on the test vehicle(s) representing the
(b) The manufacturer may continue vehicle to be added which would have
to produce vehicles as described in the been required if the vehicle had been
notification to the Administrator for a included in the original application for
maximum of 30 days, unless the Admincertification.
istrator grants an extension in writing.
This period may be shortened by a notifi(c) If, after a review of the test re
cation in accordance with paragraph (c) ports and data submitted by the manu
of this section. facturer, and data derived from any test
(c) If the Administrator determines, ing conducted under $ 85.54, the Adminis
der § 85.54, the Adminis- based upon a description of the addition trator determines that the test vehicle(s) or change, that no test data will be remeets all applicable standards, the ap- quired, he will notify the manufacturer propriate certificate will be amended in writing of the acceptability of the ad
dition or change. If the Administrator determines that test data will be required, he will notify the manufacturer to rescind the change within 5 days of receipt of the notification. The Administrator will then proceed as in $ 85.57 (b) and (c), or $ 85.58 (b) and (c) as appropriate.
(d) Election to produce vehicles under this section will be deemed to be a consent to recall all vehicles which the Administrator determines under $ 85.57(c) do not meet applicable standards, and to cause such nonconformity to be remedied at no expense to the owner. Subpart G—Hearings on Certification 8 85.60 Hearing.
(a) After granting a request for a hearing under $ 85.55, the Administrator will designate a Presiding Officer for the hearing.
(b) The General Counsel will represent the Environmental Protection Agency in any hearing under this subpart.
(c) If a time and place for the hearing have not been fixed by the Administrator under $ 85.55, the hearing shall be held as soon as practicable at a time and place fixed by the Administrator or by the Presiding Officer. 8 85.61 Hearing file. (a) Upon his appointment pursuant
8 85 60 the Presiding Officer will establish a hearing file. The file shall consist of the notice issued by the Administrator under $ 85.55, together with any accompanying material, the request for a hearing and the supporting data submitted therewith and all documents relating to the request for certification, including the application for certification and all documents submitted therewith, and correspondence and other data material to the hearing.
(b) The appeal file will be available for inspection by the applicant at the office of the Presiding Officer. & 85.62 Representation.
An applicant may appear in person, or inay be represented by counsel or by any other duly authorized representative. 8 85.63 Prehearing conference.
(a) The Presiding Officer upon the request of any party, or in his discretion, may arrange for a prehearing conference at a time and place specified by him to consider the following:
(1) Simplification of the issues; .
(2) Stipulations, admissions of fact, and the introduction of documents;
(3) Limitation of the number of expert witnesses;
(4) Possibility of agreement disposing of all or any of the issues in dispute;
(5) Such other matters as may aid in the disposition of the hearing, including such additional tests as may be agreed upon by the parties.
(b) The results of the conference shall be reduced to writing by the Presiding Officer and made part of the record. § 85.64 Conduct of hearings.
(a) Hearings shall be conducted by the Presiding Officer in an informal but orderly and expeditious manner. The parties may offer oral or written evidence, subject to the exclusion by the Presiding Officer of irrelevant, immaterial, and repetitious evidence.
(b) Witnesses will not be required to testify under oath. However, the Presiding Officer shall call to the attention of witnesses that their statements may be subject to the provisions of title 18 U.S.C. 1001 which imposes penalties for knowingly making false statements or representations, or using false documents in any matter within the jurisdiction of any department or agency of the United States.
(c) Any witness may be examined or cross-examined by the Presiding Officer, the parties, or their representatives.
(d) Hearings shall be reported verbatim. Copies of transcripts of proceedings may be purchased by the applicant from the reporter.
(e) All written statements, charts, tabulations, and similar data offered in evidence at the hearing shall, upon a showing statisfactory to the Presiding Officer of their authenticity, relevancy, and materiality, be received in evidence and shall constitute a part of the record.
(f) Oral argument may be permitted in the discretion of the Presiding Officer and shall be reported as part of the record unless otherwise ordered by him. § 85.65 Initial and final decisions.
(a) The Presiding Officer shall make an initial decision which shall include written findings and conclusions and the reasons or basis therefor on all the material issues of fact, law or discretion presented on the record. The findings, conclusions, and written decision shall be provided to the parties and made a part of the record. The initial decision shall become the decision of the Secretary without further proceedings unless there is an appeal to the Administrator or motion for review by the Administrator within 20 days of the date the initial decision was filed.
(b) On appeal from or review of the initial decision the Administrator shall have all the powers which he would have in making the initial decision including the discretion to require or allow briefs, oral argument, the taking of additional evidence or the remanding to the Presiding Officer for additional proceedings. The decision by the Administrator shall include written findings and conclusions and the reasons or basis therefor on all the material issues of fact, law, or discretion presented on the appeal or considered in the review. Subpart H-Test Procedures for Ve
hicle Exhaust and Fuel Evaporative Emissions (Gasoline Fueled Light
Duty Vehicles) § 85.70 Introduction.
The procedures described in this subpart will be the test program to determine the conformity of gasoline fueled light duty vehicles with the applicable standards set forth in this part.
(a) The test consists of prescribed sequences of fueling, parking, and operating conditions. The exhaust gases generated during vehicle operation are diluted with air and sampled continuously for subsequent analysis of specific components by prescribed analytical techniques. The fuel evaporative emissions are collected for subsequent weighing during both vehicle parking and operating events. The test applies to vehicles equipped with catalytic or directflame afterburners, induction system modifications, or other systems or to uncontrolled vehicles and engines.
(b) The exhaust emission test is designed to determine hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen mass emissions while simulating an average trip in an urban area of 7.5 miles. The test consists of engine startups and vehicle operation on a chassis dynamometer through a specified driving schedule, as described in Appendix A to this part. A proportional part of the diluted exhaust emissions is collected continuously, for subsequent analysis, using a constant volume (variable dilution) sampler.
(c) The fuel evaporative emission test is designed to determine fuel hydrocarbon evaporative emissions to the atmosphere as a consequence of urban driving, and diurnal temperature fluctuations during parking. It is associated with a series of events representative of a motor vehicle's operation, which result in fuel vapor losses directly from the fuel tank and carburetor. Activated carbon traps are employed in collecting the vaporized fuel. The test procedure is specifically aimed at coliecting and weighing:
(1) Diurnal breathing losses from the fuel tank and other parts of the fuel system when the fuel tank is subjected to a temperature increase representative of the diurnal range;
(2) Running losses from the fuel tank and carburetor resulting from a simulated trip on a chassis dynamometer; and
(3) Hot soak losses from the fuel tank and carburetor which result when the vehicle is parked and the hot engine is turned off. § 85.71 Gasoline specifications.
(a) Fuel having the following specifications or substantially equivalent specifications approved by the Administrator, shall be used in exhaust and evaporative emission testing. The lead content and octane rating of the fuel shall be in the range recommended by the vehicle or engine manufacturer.
during the season during which the mileage accumulation takes place.
(c) The specification range of the fuels to be used under paragraph (b) of this section shall be reported in accordance with $ 85.51(b) (3). $ 85.72 Vehicle and engine prepara
tion (fuel evaporative emissions). (a) (1) Apply appropriate leak-proof fittings to all fuel system external vents to permit collection of effluent vapors from these vents during the course of the prescribed tests. Since the prescribed test requires the temporary plugging of the inlet pipe to the air cleaner, it will be necessary to install a probe for collecting the normal effiuents from this source. Where antisurge/vent filler caps are employed on the fuel tank, plug off the normal vent if it does not conveniently lend itself to the collection of vapors which emanate from it, and introduce a separate vent, with appropriate fitting, on the cap. Where the fuel tank vent line terminus is inaccessible, sever the line at a convenient point near the fuel tank and install the collection system in a closed circuit assembly with the severed ends. All fittings shall terminate in 5/10-inch ID tube sections for ready connection to the collection systems and shall be designed for minimum dead space.
(2) The design and installation of the necessary fittings shall not disturb the normal function of the fuel system components or the normal pressure relationships in the system.
(b) (1) Inspect the fuel system carefully to insure the absence of any leaks to the atmosphere of either liquid or vapor which might affect the accuracy of the test or the performance of the control system. Corrective action, if any, shall be reported with the test results under § 85.53.
(2) Care should be exercised, in the application of any pressure tests, neither to purge nor load the evaporative emission control system.
(c) Prepare fuel tank for recording the temperature of the prescribed test fuel at its approximate midvolume.
(d) Provide additional fittings and adapters, as required to accommodate a fuel drain at the lowest point possible in the tank as installed on the vehicle. 8 85.73 Vehicle preconditioning (fuel
evaporative emissions). Vehicle to be tested for compliance with the fuel evaporative emissions standard
of this part shall be preconditioned as follows:
(a) The test vehicle shall be operated under the conditions prescribed for mileage accumulation, $ 85.91, for 1 hour immediately prior to the operations prescribed below.
(b) The fuel tank shall be drained and specified test fuel (85.71(a)) added. The evaporative emission control system or device shall not be abnormally purged or loaded as a result of draining or fueling the tank.
(c) The test vehicle shall be placed on the dynamometer and operated over a simulated trip, according to the applicable requirements and procedures of $ $ 85.75–85.80 except that the engine need not be cold when starting the run on the dynamometer and only a single trip of 7.5 miles shall be run. During the run the ambient temperature shall be between 68° F. and 86° F.
(d) The engine and cooling fan shall be stopped upon completion of the dynamometer operation and the vehicle permitted to soak either on or off the dynamometer stand at an ambient temperature between 76° F. and 86° F. for a period of not less than 1 hour prior to the soak period prescribed in $ 85.74 (a) (1). § 85.74 Evaporative emission collection
procedure. The standard test procedure consists of three parts described below which shall be performed in sequence and without any interruption in the test conditions prescribed
(a) Diurnal breathing loss test. (1) The test vehicle shall be allowed to "Soak” in an area where the ambient temperature is maintained between 60° F. and 86° F. for a period of not less than 10 hours. (The vehicle preparation requirements of $ 85.72 may be performed during this period.) It shall then be transferred to a soak area where the ambient temperature is maintained be. tween 76° F. and 86° F. Upon admittance to the 76° F-86° F. soak area, the prescribed fuel tank thermocouple shall be connected to the recorder and the fuel and ambient temperatures recorded at a chart speed of approximately 12 inches per hour (or equivalent record).
(2) The fuel tank of the prepared test vehicle, preconditioned according to $ 85.73 shall be drained and recharged with the specified test fuel, $ 85.71(a), to the prescribed “tank fuel volume," de
fined in $ 85.1. The temperature of the fuel following the charge to the tank shall be 60° F.+2° F. Care should be exercised against abnormal loading of the evaporative emission control system or device as a result of fueling the tank.
(3) Immediately following the fuel charge to the tank, the exhaust pipe (s) and inlet pipe to the air cleaner shall be plugged and the prescribed vapor collection systems installed on all fuel stystem external vents. Multiple vents may be connected to a single collection trap provided that, where there is more than one external vent on a fuel system distinguishing between carburetor and tank vapors, separate collection systems shall be employed to trap the vapors from the separate sources. Every precaution shall be taken to minimize the lengths of the collection tubing employed and to avoid sharp bends across the entire system.
(4) Artificial means shall be employed to heat the fuel in the tank to 84° F. +2° F. The prescribed temperature of the fuel shall be achieved over a period of 60 minutes+10 minutes using a constant rate of heat input. After a minimum of 1 hour, following admittance to the 76° F.-86° F. soak area, the vehicle shall be moved onto the dynamometer stand for the subsequent part of the test. The fuel tank thermocouple may be temporarily disconnected to permit moving the test vehicle. Plugs shall be removed from the exhaust pipe(s) and inlet pipe to the air cleaner.
(b) Running loss test, (1) The vehicle shall be placed on the dynamometer and the fuel tank thermocouple reconnected. The fuel temperature and the ambient air temperature shall be recorded at a chart speed of approximately 12 inches per hour (or equivalent record).
(2) Where the only external vent(s) is located in the immediate vicinity of the carburetor air horn, such that any "running loss" emissions would be in. ducted into the engine, there is no requirement to collect any vapor losses during this part of the test and the vapor-loss measurement system shall be temporarily disconnected and clamped.
(3) The vehicle shall be operated on the dynamometer according to the requirements and procedures of $ $ 85.7585.85. The engine and fan shall be turned off upon completion of the dynamometer run and the exhaust and air cleaner inlet pipes shall be replugged.
(4) Any vapor collection systems employed during this part of the test shall
be left intact for their continued use during the following part. Any part of the vapor collection system disconnected during this phase of the test shall be reconnected for the following phase.
(c) Hot soak test. Upon completion of the dynamometer run, the test vehicle shall be permitted to soak with ho down for a period of 1 hour at an ambient temperature between 76° F. and 86° F. This operation completes the test. The traps are disconnected and weighed according to § 85.82. § 85.75 Dynamometer driving schedule.
(a) The dynamometer driving schedule to be followed consists of a nonrepetitive series of idle, acceleration, cruise, and deceleration modes of various time sequences and rates. The driving schedule is defined by a smooth transition through the speed vs. time relationships listed in Appendix A. The time sequence begins upon starting the vehicle according to the startup procedure described in $ 85.80.
(b) A speed tolerance of +2 m.p.h. and a time tolerance of +1 second (or an algebraic combination of the two) from either the speed-time relationship prescribed in Appendix A or as printed on a driver's aid chart approved by the Administrator are acceptable. Speed tolerances greater than 2 m.p.h. (such as occur when shifting manual transmission vehicles) are acceptable provided they occur for less than 2 seconds on any one occasion. Speeds lower than those prevehicle is operated at maximum available power during such occurrences. Further, speed deviations from those prescribed due to stalling are acceptable provided the provisions of $ 85.80(f) are adhered to. $ 85.76 Dynamometer procedure.
(a) The dynamometer run consists of two tests, a "cold” start test after a minimum 12-hour soak according to the provisions of $$ 85.73-85.74, and a “hot” start test with a 10-minute soak between the two tests. Engine startup, operation over the driving schedule, and engine shutdown make a complete cold start test. Engine startup and operation over the first 505 seconds of the driving schedule complete the hot start test. The exhaust emissions are diluted with air to a constant volume and a portion is sampled continuously during each test. The composite samples collected in bags are analyzed for hydrocarbons, carbon