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4.2 Sample recovery.

4.2.1 Transfer the isopropanol from the first impinger to a 250 ml. graduated cylinder. Rinse the probe, first impinger, and all connecting glassware before the filter with 80% isopropanol. Add the rinse solution to the cylinder. Dilute to 250 ml. with 80% isopropanol. Add the filter to the solution, mix, and transfer to a suitable storage container. Transfer the solution from the second and third impingers to a 500 ml. graduated cyl. inder. Rinse all glassware between the filter and silica gel impinger with deionized, distilled water and add this rinse water to the cylinder. Dilute to a volume of 500 ml. with deionized, distilled water. Transfer the solution to a suitable storage container.

4.3 Analysis.

4.3.1 Shake the container holding ison propanol and the filter. If the filter breaks up, allow the fragments to settle for a few minutes before removing a sample. Pipette a 100 ml. aliquot of sample into a 250 ml. Erlenmeyer flask and add 2 to 4 drops of thorin indicator. Titrate the sample with

AH

barium perchlorate to a pink end point. Make sure to record volumes. Repeat the titration with a second aliquot of sample. Shake the container holding the contents of the second and third impingers. Pipette a 25 ml. aliquot of sample into a 250 ml. Erlenmeyer flask. Add 100 ml. of isopropanol and 2 to 4 drops of thorin indicator. Titrate the sample with barium perchlorate to a pink end point. Repeat the titration with a second aliquot of sample. Titrate the blanks in the same manner as the samples.

5. Calibration.

5.1 Use standard methods and equipment which have been approved by the Administrator to calibrate the orifice meter, pitot tube, dry gas meter, and probe heater.

5.2 Standardize the barium perchlorate with 25 ml. of standard sulfuric acid containing 100 ml. of isopropanol.

6. Calculations.

6.1 Dry gas volume. Correct the sample volume measured by the dry gas meter to standard conditions (70° F., 29.92 inches Hg) by using Equation 8–1.

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where: Vmsta= Volume of gas sample through the

dry gas meter (standard conditions), cu. ft.

equation 8–1 Vm= Volume of gas sample through the

dry gas meter (meter conditions), cu. ft.

Tod= Absolute temperature at standard

conditions, 530° R.
Tm=Average dry gas meter temperature,

°R.
Pbar=Barometric pressure at the orifice

meter, inches Hg.

AH=Pressure drop across the orifice

meter, inches H,0. 13.6= Specific gravity of mercury. Para= Absolute pressure at standard con

ditions, 29.92 inches Hg. 6.2 Sulfuric acid concentration.

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(V.–Ve) (N) (^oola)
Ch280x=(1.08x10-lb.-1. )
"^" g.-ml.)

equation 8-2 CH,80,= Concentration of sulfuric acid

N= Normality of barium perchlorate at standard conditions, dry

titrant, g.-eq./1. basis, lb./cu. ft.

V = Total solution volume of sul1.08 x 10-+= Conversion factor including the

furic acid (first impinger and number of grams per gram

filter), ml. equivalent of sulfuric acid

V,= Volume of sample aliquot ti(49 g./g.-eq.), 453.6 g./lb., and

trated, ml. 1,000 ml./1., lb.-1./g.-ml.

Vmara= Volume of gas sample through V = Volume of barium perchlorate

the dry gas meter (standard titrant used for the sample,

conditions), cu. ft., see Equaml.

tion 8–1. Vin=Volume of barium perchlorate

titrant used for the blank, ml. 6.3 Sulfur dioxide concentration.

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10 g.-ml.)
Vmgtd

equation 8–3 where:

Patton, W. F., and J. A. Brink, Jr., New Cso,= Concentration of sulfur dioxide Equipment and Techniques for Sampling

at standard conditions, dry Chemical Process Gases, J. Air Pollution Conbasis, lb./cu. ft.

trol Assoc. 13, 162 (1963). 7.05 X 10-5= Conversion factor including the

Rom, Jerome J., Maintenance, Calibration, number of grams per gram

and Operation of Isokinetic Source Samequivalent of sulfur dioxide pling Equipment, Environmental Protection (32 g./g.-eq.) 453.6 g./lb., and

Agency, Air Pollution Control Office Publi1,000 ml./1., lb.-1./g.-ml.

cation No. APTD-0576. V = Volume of barium perchlorate Shell Development Co. Analytical Departtitrant used for the sample,

ment, Determination of Sulfur Dioxide and ml.

Sulfur Trioxide in Stack Gases, Emeryville Vin= Volume of barium perchlorate Method Series, 4516/59a. titrant used for the blank, ml.

METHOD 9-VISUAL DETERMINATION OF THE N=Normality of barium perchlorate

OPACITY OF EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY titrant, g.-eq./1.

SOURCES
Voln= Total solution volume of sulfur
dioxide (second and third im-

1. Principle and applicability.
pingers), ml.

1.1 Principle. The relative opacity of an V = Volume of sample aliquot ti emission from a stationary source is detrated, ml.

termined visually by a qualified observer. Vmata=Volume of gas sample through

1.2 Applicability. This method is applithe dry gas meter (standard

cable for the determination of the relative conditions), cu. ft., see Equa

opacity of visible emissions from stationary tion 8-1.

sources only when specified by test proce

dures for determining compliance with the 7. References. Atmospheric Emissions from Sulfuric Acid

New Source Performance Standards. Manufacturing Processes, U.S. DHEW, PHS,

2. Procedure. Division of Air Pollution, Public Health Serv

2.1 The qualified observer stands at apice Publication No. 999-AP-13, Cincinnati, proximately two stack heights, but not more Ohio, 1965.

than a quarter of a mile from the base of Corbett, D. F., The Determination of so, the stack with the sun to his back. From a and so, in Flue Gases, Journal of the Insti vantage point perpendicular to the plume, tute of Fuel, 24:237–243, 1961.

the observer studies the point of greatest Martin, Robert M., Construction Details of opacity in the plume. The data required in Isokinetic Source Sampling Equipment, En- Figure 9-1 is recorded every 15 to 30 seconds vironmental Protection Agency, Air Pollution to the nearest 5% opacity. A minimum of 25 Control Office Publication No. APTD-0581. readings is taken.

3. Qualifications.

3.1 To certify as an observer, a candidate must complete a smokereading course conducted by EPA, or equivalent; in order to certify the candidate must assign opacity readings in 5% increments to 25 different black plumes and 25 different white plumes, with an error not to exceed 15 percent on any one reading and an average error not to exceed 7.5 percent in each category. The smoke generator used to qualify the observers must be equipped with a calibrated smoke indicator or light transmission meter located in the source stack if the smoke

generator is to determine the actual opacity
of the emissions. All qualified observers must
pass this test every 6 months in order to
remain certified.

4. Calculations.
4.1 Determine the average opacity.
5. References.

Air Pollution Control District Rules and
Regulations, Los Angeles County Air Pollu-
tion Control District, Chapter 2, Schedule 6,
Regulation 4, Prohibition, Rule 50, 17 p.

Kudluk, Rudolf, Ringelmann Smoke Chart, U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines, Information Circular No. 8333, May 1967.

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Figure 9-1. Field data. PART 76—PREVENTION, CONTROL, Sec.

76.5 Sulfur oxides. AND ABATEMENT OF AIR POLLU

76.6 Stacks. TION FROM FEDERAL GOVERN

76.7 Storage and handling of fuels and ash. MENT ACTIVITIES: PERFORMANCE 76.8 Disposal of waste. STANDARDS AND TECHNIQUES OF 76.9 Other pollution producing processes. MEASUREMENT

AUTHORITY: The provisions of this part

76 issued under Executive Order 11507; Sec.

Heorg. Plan 3 of 1970; 3 CFR, 1970 Comp. 76.1 Definitions. 76.2 Intent.

SOURCE: The provisions of this part 76 ap76.3 Applicability.

pear at 36 F.R. 22417, Nov. 25, 1971, unless 76.4 Combustion of fuel.

otherwise noted.

$ 76.1 Definitions.

from such Federal facilities and buildAs used in this part:

ings except as otherwise indicated. (a) “Executive Order" means Execu

(c) Temporary operations that may

result in potential air pollution probtive Order No. 11507. (b) “Nonurban areas” means all areas

lems, such as those associated with reother than urban areas.

search, development, test, evaluation, (c) “Ringelmann Scale" means the

space, and military activities, shall be Ringelmann Scale as published in the

conducted with such precautions and latest U.S. Bureau of Mines Information

safeguards as are needed to achieve the Circular entitled “Ringelmann Smoke

intent of these standards. Chart”.

(d) The Administrator may, upon ap(d) “Administrator” means the Ad

plication of the relevant department, ministrator of the Environmental Pro

agency or establishment, exempt any tection Agency or his authorized repre

Federal facility or building from any or sentative.

all of these standards whenever he de(e) “Urban areas” means those areas

termines that the activities of such buildclassified as urban in the latest available

ing or facility will not significantly con

flict with the intent of the Executive Federal census, or as Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas.

order and that such an exemption is in (f) "Unit” means all indirect heat ex

the public interest. changers connected to a single stack. $ 76.4. Combustion of fuel.

(g) “Particulate matter” means any . (a) The following standards apply to material, except uncombined water, that

the combustion units of facilities and exists as a solid or liquid at standard buildings having a heat input of less than conditions.

1,000 million B.t.u./hour, other than fire(h) “Standard conditions” means a

places, stoves, or grills burning wood or temperature of 70° Fahrenheit and a

charcoal: pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch, (1) Manually fired equipment shall absolute.

not be installed as new or replacement (i) “Waste” means any solid, liquid,

equipment, except for the burning of or gaseous substance, the disposal of

anthracite, coke, or smokeless fuel. which may create an air pollution

(2) (i) For new units, except during problem.

startup, cleaning of fires, or soot blow$ 76.2 Intent.

ing, the density of any emission to the It is the intent of these standards that

atmosphere shall not exceed No. 1 on

the Ringelmann Scale. emissions to the atmosphere from Federal facilities and buildings shall not be

(ii) For existing units, except during permitted if such emissions endanger

startup, cleaning of fires, or soot blowhealth or welfare and that emissions

ing, the density of any emission to the which are likely to be injurious or haz

atmosphere shall not exceed No. 2 on ardous to people, animals, vegetation, or

the Ringelmann Scale.

(3) A photoelectric or other type property shall be minimized.

smoke detector, recorder, or alarm shall $ 76.3 Applicability.

be installed on units larger than ten (a) Unless otherwise indicated, the

million BTU per hour input, except standards in this part apply to both new where gas or light oil (No. 2 or lighter), and existing Federal facilities and is burned. buildings.

(4) During routine operation, the (b) Except for discharges of radio- emission of particles larger than 60 active efluents which are regulated by microns shall not normally occur. the Atomic Energy Commission, Federal (5) Means shall be provided in all facilities and buildings shall conform to newly constructed units and wherever the air pollution standards prescribed practicable in existing units to allow by the State or community in which they the periodic measurement of flyash and are located. If State or local standards other particulate matter. are not prescribed for a particular loca- (6) All new or replacement spreader tion, or if the State or local standards stoker installations shall be of a type are less stringent than the standards that automatically discharges ashes to prescribed herein, the standards in this the ash pit either continuously or in part shall be applicable to discharges very frequent small increments, and fly

ash shall be reinjected only from boller passes.

(7) For units of less than 10 million BTU/hour heat input, the emission of flyash and other particulate matter shall not exceed 0.6 pounds of particulate matter per million BTU heat input, as measured by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Power Test Code No. 27 for “Determining Dust Concentrations in a Gas Stream,” or equivalent test method.

(8) For units between 10 million and

1,000 million BTU/hour heat input, the emission of flyash and other particulate matter shall not exceed that specified in figure 1, as measured by the test method specified in subparagraph (7) of this paragraph.

(b) For units having a heat input of more than 1,000 million BTU/hour, the appropriate department, agency, or establishment shall seek special advice from the Administrator with regard to smoke, flyash, and other particulate emissions.

FIGURE 1

MAXIMUM EMISSION OF PARTICULATE MATTER

FROM FUEL BURNING INSTALLATIONS

MAXIMUM PARTICULATE EMISSIONPOUNDS PARTICULATE PER MILLION BTU HEAT INPUT

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1,000

TOTAL INPUT-MILLIONS OF BTU PER HOUR

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