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4.2 Sample recovery.
4.2.1 Transfer the isopropanol from the first impinger to a 250 ml. graduated cylinder. Rinse the probe, first impinger, and all connecting glassware before the filter with 80% isopropanol. Add the rinse solution to the cylinder. Dilute to 250 ml. with 80% isopropanol. Add the filter to the solution, mix, and transfer to a suitable storage container. Transfer the solution from the second and third impingers to a 500 ml. graduated cyl. inder. Rinse all glassware between the filter and silica gel impinger with deionized, distilled water and add this rinse water to the cylinder. Dilute to a volume of 500 ml. with deionized, distilled water. Transfer the solution to a suitable storage container.
4.3.1 Shake the container holding ison propanol and the filter. If the filter breaks up, allow the fragments to settle for a few minutes before removing a sample. Pipette a 100 ml. aliquot of sample into a 250 ml. Erlenmeyer flask and add 2 to 4 drops of thorin indicator. Titrate the sample with
barium perchlorate to a pink end point. Make sure to record volumes. Repeat the titration with a second aliquot of sample. Shake the container holding the contents of the second and third impingers. Pipette a 25 ml. aliquot of sample into a 250 ml. Erlenmeyer flask. Add 100 ml. of isopropanol and 2 to 4 drops of thorin indicator. Titrate the sample with barium perchlorate to a pink end point. Repeat the titration with a second aliquot of sample. Titrate the blanks in the same manner as the samples.
5.1 Use standard methods and equipment which have been approved by the Administrator to calibrate the orifice meter, pitot tube, dry gas meter, and probe heater.
5.2 Standardize the barium perchlorate with 25 ml. of standard sulfuric acid containing 100 ml. of isopropanol.
6.1 Dry gas volume. Correct the sample volume measured by the dry gas meter to standard conditions (70° F., 29.92 inches Hg) by using Equation 8–1.
where: Vmsta= Volume of gas sample through the
dry gas meter (standard conditions), cu. ft.
equation 8–1 Vm= Volume of gas sample through the
dry gas meter (meter conditions), cu. ft.
CH,80,= Concentration of sulfuric acid
at standard conditions, dry
basis, lb./cu. ft. 1.08 X 10-= Conversion factor including the
number of grams per gram equivalent of sulfuric acid (49 g./g.-eq.), 453.6 g./lb., and
1,000 ml./1., lb.-1./g.-ml. V = Volume of barium perchlorate
titrant used for the sample,
ml. V.- Volume of barium perchlorate
titrant used for the blank. ml.
equation 8-2 N=Normality of barium perchlorate
titrant, g.-eq./1. Von=Total solution volume of sul
furic acid (first impinger and
filter), ml. V=Volume of sample aliquot ti
trated, mi. Vmgta= Volume of gas sample through
the dry gas meter (standard conditions), cu. ft., see Equation 8–1.
equation 8–3 Patton, W. F., and J. A. Brink, Jr., New Equipment and Techniques for Sampling Chemical Process Gases, J. Air Pollution Control Assoc. 13, 162 (1963).
Rom, Jerome J., Maintenance, Calibration, and Operation of Isokinetic Source Sampling Equipment, Environmental Protection Agency, Air Pollution Control Office Publication No. APTD-0576.
Shell Development Co. Analytical Department, Determination of Sulfur Dioxide and Sulfur Trioxide in Stack Gases, Emeryville Method Series, 4516/59a.
METHOD 9--VISUAL DETERMINATION OF THE
OPACITY OF EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES
where: Cso,= Concentration of sulfur dioxide
at standard conditions, dry
basis, lb./cu. ft. 7.05 X 10-5= Conversion factor including the
number of grams per gram equivalent of sulfur dioxide (32 g./g.-eq.) 453.6 g./lb., and
1,000 ml./1., lb.-1./g.-ml. V, - Volume of barium perchlorate
titrant used for the sample,
ml. V =Volume of barium perchlorate
titrant used for the blank, ml. N=Normality of barium perchlorate
titrant, g.-eq./1. V = Total solution volume of sulfur
dioxide (second and third im
pingers), ml. V = Volume of sample aliquot ti
trated, ml. Vmsa=Volume of gas sample through
the dry gas meter (standard conditions), cu. ft., see Equa
tion 8–1. 7. References.
Atmospheric Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Manufacturing Processes, U.S. DHEW, PHS, Division of Air Pollution, Public Health Seryice Publication No. 999-AP-13, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1965.
Corbett, D. F., The Determination of so, and so, in Flue Gases, Journal of the Institute of Fuel, 24:237–243, 1961.
Martin, Robert M., Construction Details of Isokinetic Source Sampling Equipment, Environmental Protection Agency, Air Pollution Control Office Publication No. APTD-0581.
1. Principle and applicability.
1.1 Principle. The relative opacity of an emission from a stationary source is determined visually by a qualified observer.
1.2 Applicability. This method is applicable for the determination of the relative opacity of visible emissions from stationary sources only when specified by test procedures for determining compliance with the New Source Performance Standards.
2.1 The qualified observer stands at approximately two stack heights, but not more than a quarter of a mile from the base of the stack with the sun to his back. From a vantage point perpendicular to the plume, the observer studies the point of greatest opacity in the plume. The data required in Figure 9-1 is recorded every 15 to 30 seconds to the nearest 5% opacity. A minimum of 25 readings is taken.
3.1 To certify as an observer, a candidate must complete a smokereading course conducted by EPA, or equivalent; in order to certify the candidate must assign opacity readings in 5% increments to 25 different black plumes and 25 different white plumes, with an error not to exceed 15 percent on any one reading and an average error not to exceed 7.5 percent in each category. The smoke generator used to qualify the observers must be equipped with a calibrated smoke indicator or light transmission meter located in the source stack if the smoke
generator is to determine the actual opacity
Air Pollution Control District Rules and
Kudluk, Rudolf, Ringelmann Smoke Chart, U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines, Information Circular No. 8333, May 1967.
Figure 9-1. Field data. PART 76—PREVENTION, CONTROL, Sec.
76.5 Sulfur oxides. AND ABATEMENT OF AIR POLLU
76.6 Stacks. TION FROM FEDERAL GOVERN
76.7 Storage and handling of fuels and ash. MENT ACTIVITIES: PERFORMANCE 76.8 Disposal of waste. STANDARDS AND TECHNIQUES OF 76.9 Other pollution producing processes. MEASUREMENT
AUTHORITY: The provisions of this part
76 issued under Executive Order 11507; Sec.
Heorg. Plan 3 of 1970; 3 CFR, 1970 Comp. 76.1 Definitions. 76.2 Intent.
SOURCE: The provisions of this part 76 ap76.3 Applicability.
pear at 36 F.R. 22417, Nov. 25, 1971, unless 76.4 Combustion of fuel.
8 76.1 Definitions.
from such Federal facilities and buildAs used in this part:
ings except as otherwise indicated.
(c) Temporary operations that may (a) "Executive Order" means Executive Order No. 11507.
result in potential air pollution prob(b) “Nonurban areas" means all areas
lems, such as those associated with re
search, development, test, evaluation, other than urban areas. (c) “Ringelmann Scale" means the
space, and military activities, shall be Ringelmann Scale as published in the
conducted with such precautions and latest U.S. Bureau of Mines Information
safeguards as are needed to achieve the Circular entitled "Ringelmann Smoke
intent of these standards. Chart”.
(d) The Administrator may, upon ap(d) “Administrator” means the Ad
plication of the relevant department, ministrator of the Environmental Pro
agency or establishment, exempt any
Federal facility or building from any or tection Agency or his authorized repre
all of these standards whenever he desentative. (e) "Urban areas” means those areas
termines that the activities of such build
ing or facility will not significantly conclassified as urban in the latest available Federal census, or as Standard Metro
flict with the intent of the Executive politan Statistical Areas.
order and that such an exemption is in (f) "Unit” means all indirect heat ex
the public interest. changers connected to a single stack. $ 76.4 Combustion of fuel.
(g) “Particulate matter" means any (a) The following standards apply to material, except uncombined water, that
the combustion units of facilities and exists as a solid or liquid at standard
buildings having a heat input of less than conditions.
1,000 million B.t.u./hour, other than fire(h) “Standard conditions" means a
places, stoves, or grills burning wood or temperature of 70° Fahrenheit and a
charcoal: pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch,
(1) Manually fired equipment shall absolute.
not be installed as new or replacement (i) “Waste” means any solid, liquid,
equipment, except for the burning of or gaseous substance, the disposal of
anthracite, coke, or smokeless fuel. which may create an air pollution (2) (i) For new units, except during problem.
startup, cleaning of fires, or soot blow§ 76.2 Intent.
ing, the density of any emission to the It is the intent of these standards that
atmosphere shall not exceed No. 1 on
the Ringelmann Scale. emissions to the atmosphere from Federal facilities and buildings shall not be
(ii) For existing units, except during
startup, cleaning of fires, or soot blowpermitted if such emissions endanger health or welfare and that emissions
ing, the density of any emission to the
atmosphere shall not exceed No. 2 on which are likely to be injurious or haz
the Ringelmann Scale. ardous to people, animals, vegetation, or
(3) A photoelectric or other type property shall be minimized.
smoke detector, recorder, or alarm shall $ 76.3 Applicability.
be installed on units larger than ten (a) Unless otherwise indicated, the
million BTU per hour input, except standards in this part apply to both new where gas or light oil (No. 2 or lighter), and existing Federal facilities and is burned. buildings.
(4) During routine operation, the (b) Except for discharges of radio emission of particles larger than 60 active effluents which are regulated by microns shall not normally occur. the Atomic Energy Commission, Federal (5) Means shall be provided in all facilities and buildings shall conform to newly constructed units and wherever the air pollution standards prescribed practicable in existing units to allow by the State or community in which they the periodic measurement of flyash and are located. If State or local standards other particulate matter. are not prescribed for a particular loca- (6) All new or replacement spreader tion, or if the State or local standards stoker installations shall be of a type are less stringent than the standards that automatically discharges ashes to prescribed herein, the standards in this the ash pit either continuously or in part shall be applicable to discharges very frequent small increments, and flyFIGURE 1
ash shall be reinjected only from boller passes.
(7) For units of less than 10 million BTU/hour heat input, the emission of flyash and other particulate matter shall not exceed 0.6 pounds of particulate matter per million BTU heat input, as measured by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Power Test Code No. 27 for “Determining Dust Concentrations in a Gas Stream,” or equivalent test method.
(8) For units between 10 million and
1,000 million BTU/hour heat input, the emission of flyash and other particulate matter shall not exceed that specified in figure 1, as measured by the test method specified in subparagraph (7) of this paragraph.
(b) For units having a heat input of more than 1,000 million BTU/hour, the appropriate department, agency, or establishment shall seek special advice from the Administrator with regard to smoke, flyash, and other particulate emissions.
MAXIMUM EMISSION OF PARTICULATE MATTER
FROM FUEL BURNING INSTALLATIONS
MAXIMUM PARTICULATE EMISSIONPOUNDS PARTICULATE PER MILLION BTU HEAT INPUT
TOTAL INPUT-MILLIONS OF BTU PER HOUR