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Figure 3. Nitrogen oxides emission rates from urban vehicles in United States projected from 1967 base of 1. [36 F.R. 23398, Nov. 25, 1971, as amended at 36 F.R. 25233, Dec. 30, 1971]

APPENDIX J

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REDUCTION IN HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS REQUIRED TO ACHIEVE NATIONAL STANDARD

FOR PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDANT, percent

NOTE: NO HYDROCARBON OR PHOTOCHEMICAL

OXIDANT BACKGROUND ASSUMED

150

200

500

550

600

250 300 350 400 450

MAXIMUM MEASURED 1. hour PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDANT CONCENTRATION, Mg/m3 Figure 1. Required hydrocarbon emission control as a function of photochemical oxidant concentration. (Reference: Air Quality Criteria for Nitrogen Oxides, AP-84, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., January 1971.)

APPENDIX K—CONTROL AGENCY FUNCTIONS Man-year estimates by function for State of ------------ portion of ------- ----- AQCR.

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Fund estimates by function for State of ------------ portion of ------------ AQCR.

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APPENDIX L-EXAMPLE REGULATIONS FOR PRE

VENTION OF AIR POLLUTION EMERGENCY
EPISODES

The example regulations presented herein reflect generally recognized ways of preventing air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to the health of persons. States are required to have emergency episode plans for Priority I regions, but they are not required to adopt the regulations presented herein.

1.0 Air pollution emergency. This regulation is designed to prevent the excessive buildup of air pollutants during air pollution episodes, thereby preventing the occurrence of an emergency due to the effects of these pollutants on the health of persons.

1.1 Episode criteria. Conditions justifying the proclamation of an air pollution alert, air pollution warning, or air pollution emergency shall be deemed to exist whenever the Director determines that the accumulation of air pollutants in any place is attaining or has attained levels which could, if such levels are sustained or exceeded, lead to a substantial threat to the health of persons. In making this determination, the Director will be guided by the following criteria:

(a) “Air Pollution Forecast”: An internal watch by the Department of Air Pollution Control shall be actuated by a National Weather Service advisory that Atmospheric Stagnation Advisory is in effect or the equivalent local forecast of stagnant atmospheric condition.

(b) “Alert”: The Alert level is that concentration of pollutants at which first stage control actions is to begin. An Alert will be declared when any one of the following levels is reached at any monitoring site: S0,-800 ug./m3 (0.3 p.p.m.), 24-hour

average. Particulate—3.0 COHs or 375 ug./m3, 24

hour average. So, and particulate combined-product

of SO, p.p.m., 24-hour average, and COHs equal to 0.2 or product of so,ug/m3, 24-hour average, and particulate

ug./m3, 24-hour average equal to 65 X 103. CO—17 mg./m3 (15 p.p.m.), 8-hour average. Oxidant (O3) -200 mg./m3 (0.1 p.p.m.)—

1-hour average. NO,—1130 ug/m3 (0.6 p.p.m.), 1-hour

average, 282 ug./m3 (0.15 p.p.m.), 24

hour average. and meteorological conditions are such the pollutant concentrations can be expected to remain at the above levels for twelve (12) or more hours or increase unless control actions are taken.

(c) “Warning": The warning level indicates that air quality is continuing to degrade and that additional control actions are

necessary. A warning will be declared when any one of the following levels is reached at any monitoring site: S02—1,600 mg./m.3 (0.6 p.p.m.), 24-hour

average. Particulate 5.0 COH's or 625 ug./m.', 24

hour average. SO, and particulate combined-product of

SO2 p.p.m., 24-hour average and COH's equal to 0.8 or product of SO2 ug./m.3, 24-hour average and particulate ug./m.3,

24-hour average equal to 261 X 103. CO—34 mg./m.3 (30 p.p.m.), 8-hour average. Oxidant (03)-800 ug./m.3 (0.4 p.p.m.), l

hour average. NO:-2,260 ug./m.3 (1.2 p.p.m.)-1-hour av

erage; 565 ug./m.3 (0.3 p.p.m.), 24-hour

average. and meteorological conditions are such that pollutant concentrations can be expected to remain at the above levels for twelve (12) or more hours or increase unless control actions are taken.

(d) “Emergency”: The emergency level indicates that air quality is continuing to degrade toward a level of significant harm to the health of persons and that the most stringent control actions are necessary. An emergency will be declared when any one of the following levels is reached at any monitoring site: S0.,—2,100 mg./m.3 (0.8 p.p.m.), 24-hour

average. Particulate—7.0 COH's or 875 Mg./m.3, 24

hour average. SO, and particulate combined--product of

SO2 p.p.m., 24-hour average and COH's equal to 1.2 or product of SO2 ug./m.3, 24-hour average and particulate ug./m.3,

24-hour average equal to 393 x 103. CO-46 mg./m.3 (40 p.p.m.), 8-hour average. Oxidant (O3)—1,200 ug./m.3 (0.6 p.p.m.),

1-hour average. N0,

43,000 ug./m.3 (1.6 p.p.m.), 1-hour average; 750 ug./m.3 (0.4 p.p.m.), 24-hour average. and meteorological conditions are such that this condition can be expected to remain at the above levels for twelve (12) or more hours.

(e) "Termination": Once declared, any status reached by application of these criteria will remain in effect until the criteria for that level are no longer met. At such time, the next lower status will be assumed.

1.2 Emission reduction plans. (a) Air Pollution Alert-When the Director declares an Air Pollution Alert, any person responsible for the operation of a source of air pollutants as set forth in Table I shall take all Air Pollution Alert actions as required for such source of air pollutants and shall put into effect the preplanned abatement strategy for an Air Pollution Alert.

(b) Air Pollution Warning—When the Director declares an Air Pollution Warning, any

person responsible for the operation of a (b) Any person responsible for the operasource of air pollutants as set forth in Tabletion of a source of air pollutants not set II shall take all Air Pollution Warning ac forth under section 1.3(a) shall, when retions as required for such source of air pol quested by the Director in writing, prepare lutants and shall put into effect the standby plans for reducing the emission of preplanned abatement strategy for an Air air pollutants during periods of an Air PolPollution Warning.

lution Alert, Air Pollution Warning, and Air (c) Air Pollution Emergency-When the Pollution Emergency. Standby plans shall be Director declares an Air Pollution Emer designed to reduce or eliminate emissions of gency, any person responsible for the opera air pollutants in accordance with the obtion of a source of air pollutants as described jectives set forth in Tables I-III. in Table III shall take all Air Pollution Emer (c) Standby plans as required under secgency actions as required for such source of tions 1.3(a) and 1.3(b) shall be in writing air pollutants and shall put into effect the and identify the sources of air pollutants, preplanned abatement strategy for an Air the approximate amount of reduction of Pollution Emergency.

pollutants and a brief description of the (d) When the Director determines that a manner in which the reduction will be specified criteria level has been reached at achieved during an Air Pollution Alert, Air one or more monitoring sites solely because Pollution Warning, and Air Pollution of emissions from a limited number of Emergency. sources, he shall notify such source(s) that (d) During a condition of Air Pollution the preplanned abatement strategies of Alert, Air Pollution Warning, and Air PolTables, I, II, and III or the standby plans lution Emergency, standby plans as required are required, insofar as it applies to such by this section shall be made available on source(s), and shall be put into effect until the premises to any person authorized to the criteria of the specified level are no enforce the provisions of applicable rules longer met.

and regulations. 1.3 Preplanned abatement strategies, (e) Standby plans as required by this sec(a) Any person responsible for the opera tion shall be submitted to the Director upon tion of a source of air pollutants as set forth request within thirty (30) days of the rein Tables I-III shall prepare standby plans ceipt of such request; such standby plans for reducing the emission of air pollutants shall be subject to review and approval by during periods of an Air Pollution Alert, Air the Director. If, in the opinion of the DiPollution Warning, and Air Pollution Emer rector, a standby plan does not effectively gency. Standby plans shall be designed to carry out the objectives as set forth in Table reduce or eliminate emissions of air pol I-III, the Director may disapprove it, state lutants in accordance with the objectives his reason for disapproval and order the set forth in Tables I-III which are made a preparation of an amended standby plan part of this section.

within the time period specified in the order.

TABLE I-ABATEMENT STRATEGIES EMISSION REDUCTION PLANS

ALERT LEVEL

Part A. General 1. There shall be no open burning by any persons of tree waste, vegetation, refuse, or debris in any form.

2. The use of incinerators for the disposal of any form of solid waste shall be limited to the hours between 12 noon and 4 p.m.

3. Persons operating fuel-burning equipment which required boiler lancing or soot blowing shall perform such operations only between the hours of 12 noon and 4 p.m.

4. Persons operating motor vehicles should eliminate all unnecessary operations.

Part B. Source curtailment Any person responsible for the operation of a source of air pollutants listed below shall take all required control actions for this Alert Level. Source of air pollution

Control action 1. Coal or oil-fired electric power generat- a. Substantial reduction by utilization of ing facilities.

fuels having low ash and sulfur content. b. Maximum utilization of mid-day (12 noon

to 4 p.m.) atmospheric turbulence for

boiler lancing and soot blowing. c. Substantial reduction by diverting electric

power generation to facilities outside of Alert Area.

TABLE I-ABATEMENT STRATEGIES EMISSION REDUCTION PLANS—Continued

Part B. Source curtailment-Continued

Source of air pollution 2. Coal and oil-fired process steam gener

ating facilities.

8. Manufacturing industries of the follow-
ing classifications:

Primary Metals Industry.
Petroleum Refining Operations
Chemical Industries.
Mineral Processing Industries.
Paper and Allied Products.
Grain Industry.

Control action a. Substantial reduction by utilization of

fuels having low ash and sulfur content. b. Maximum utilization of mid-day (12 noon

to 4 p.m.) atmospheric turbulence for

boiler lancing and soot blowing. c. Substantial reduction of steam load demands consistent with continuing plant

operations. a. Substantial reduction of air pollutants

from manufacturing operations by curtailing, postponing, or deferring produc

tion and all operations. b. Maximum reduction by deferring trade

waste disposal operations which emit solid particles, gas vapors or malodorous

substances. C. Maximum reduction of heat load demands

for processing. d. Maximum utilization of mid-day (12 noon

to 4 p.m.) atmospheric turbulence for boiler laniing and soot blowing.

TABLE II-EMISSION REDUCTION PLANS

WARNING LEVEL

Part A. General 1. There shall be no open burning by any persons of tree waste, vegetation, refuse, or debris in any form.

2. The use of incinerators for the disposal of any form of solid waste or liquid waste shall be prohibited.

3. Persons operating fuel-burning equipment which requires boiler lancing or soot blowing shall perform such operations only between the hours of 12 noon and 4 p.m.

4. Persons operating motor vehicles must reduce operations by the use of car pools and increased use of public transportation and elimination of unnecessary operation.

Part B. Source curtailment Any person responsible for the operation of a source of air pollutants listed below shall take all required control actions for this Warning Level.

Source of air pollution 1. Coal or oil-fired electric power generating

facilities.

Control action a. Maximum reduction by utilization of

fuels having lowest ash and sulfur content. b. Maximum utilization of mid-day (12 noon

to 4 p.m.) atmospheric turbulence for

boiler lancing and soot blowing. c. Maximum reduction by diverting electric

power generation to facilities outside of Warning Area. a. Maximum reduction by utilization of

fuels having the lowest available ash and

sulfur content. b. Maximum utilization of mid-day (12 noon

to 4 p.m.) atmospheric turbulence for boiler lancing and soot blowing. C. Making ready for use a plan of action

to be taken if an emergency develops.

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