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thereof shall be retained at the appropri- (c) Terms. descriptions, and general ate operations base of the air carrier. standards. For the purpose of weight $ 40.51-1 Contents of manual; meth

and balance control, the following terms, ods and procedures for maintaining

descriptions, and general standards will weight and balance control (CAA policies

apply. Deviations from these standards which apply to $ 40.51 (a) (19))-(a)

by the individual operator due to the naGeneral (1) The air carrier may utilize

ture of his operation will be acceptable. any loading schedule, procedure, or (1) Empty weight. The empty weight means by which the air carrier can show

of an aircraft is considered to be the that the aircraft is properly loaded and

maximum gross weight less the followwill not exceed authorized weight and ing: balance limitations during operation.

(1) All fuel and oil, excepting system (2) By whatever method used, the air fuel and oil.8 carrier should account for all probable (ii) Drainable anti-detonant injector loading conditions which may be ex- and de-icing fluids. perienced in service and show that the

(iii) Crew and baggage. loading schedule will provide satisfactory loading. Loading schedules may be

(iv) Passengers and cargo (revenue applied to individual aircraft or to a

and non-revenue). complete fleet. Unless otherwise au- (v) Removable passenger service thorized, a copy of pertinent loading equipment, food, magazines, etc., includdata should be carried in each aircraft. ing drainable washing and drinking When an air carrier operates several water. types or models of aircraft, the loading (vi) Emergency equipment (overschedule, which may be index type, tab- water, tropical, frigid). ular type or a mechanical computer, will

(vii) Other equipment, variable for be identified with the type or model of

flights. aircraft for which it is designed.

(viii) Flight spares (spark plugs, (b) Loading provisions. All seats,

wheel, cylinder, etc.). compartments, and other loading stations will be properly marked, and the

(2) Operating weight. The basic opidentification used will correspond with

erating weight established by the air the instructions established for comput

carrier for a particular model aircraft

will include the following standard items ing the weight and balance of the air

of the operator in addition to the empty craft. When the loading schedule

weight of the aircraft unless otherwise provides blocking off of seats or compartments in order to remain within the cen

specified: ter of gravity limits, effective means will

(i) Normal oil quantity. be provided to assure that such seats or (ii) Anti-detonant injector and de. compartments are not occupied during icing (winter) fluids. operations specified. Cargo compart- (iii) Crew and baggage. ments will be placarded showing the

(iv) Passenger service equipment, inmaximum weight of each compartment,

cluding washing and drinking water, and such placards will be readily legible

magazines, etc. to the loading personnel. Instructions will be prepared for crew members, cargo

(v) Emergency equipment, if required,

for all flights. handlers, and other personnel concerned, giving complete information necessary

(vi) All other items of equipment conregarding distribution of passengers,

sidered standard by the air carrier cargo, fuel and other items. Information concerned. relative to maximum capacities and other (3) Aircraft, zero fuel weight. The pertinent limitations affecting the weight zero fuel weight of an aircraft is the or balance of the aircraft will be included maximum weight authorized for such in these instructions. When it is possible aircraft without fuel. The weight of by adverse distribution of passengers to

fuel carried in the fuselage, or equivalent exceed the approved CG limits of the aircraft, special instructions will be issued * System fuel and oil is that amount reto the appropriate crew members so that

quired to fill both systems and the tanks,

where applicable, up to the tank outlets to the load distribution can be maintained

the engines. When oil is used for propeller within the approved limitations.

feathering, such oil is included as system oil.

locations, will be deducted from such from the established basic operating fleet maximum. When zero fuel weight lim- weight or the CG position varies more itations or equivalent restrictions are than plus or minus one-half of one perspecified, proper provision for loading cent of the MAC from the fleet weight will be made by the operator so that CG, that airplane will be omitted from such structural limitations

are not that group and operated on its actual exceeded.

or calculated operating weight and CG (d) Aircraft weights. Aircraft weight position. If it falls within the limits of and balance control, will contain pro- another fleet or group, it may then bevisions for determining aircraft weights

come part of that operating fleet weight. in accordance with the following pro- In cases where the aircraft is within cedures:

the operating fleet weight tolerance but

the CG position varies in excess of the (1) Individual aircraft weights and

tolerance allowed, the aircraft may still changes. The loading schedule may

be utilized under the applicable operating utilize the individual weight of the air

fleet weight but with an individual CG craft in computing pertinent gross

position. weight and balance. The individual

(iii) Re-establishment of the operaweight and balance of each aircraft will be re-established at the specified re

tor's empty fleet weight or the operating weighing periods. It also will be re- fleet weight and corresponding CG posiestablished whenever the accumulated tions may be accomplished between changes to the operating weight exceed weighing periods by calculation based on plus or minus one-half of one percent

the current empty weight of the aircraft of the maximum landing weight or the

previously weighed for fleet weight purcumulative change in CG position ex- poses. Weighing for re-establishment of ceeds one-half of one percent of the

all fleet weights will be conducted on a MAC.

two-year basis unless shorter periods are

desired by the air carrier. (2) Fleet weights, establishment and changes. For a fleet or group of air

(3) Establishing initial weight before craft, of the same model and configura- use in air carrier service. Prior to being tion, an average operating fleet weight

used in air carrier service, each aircraft may be utilized if the operating weights will be weighed and the empty weight and CG positions are within the limits and center of gravity location estabestablished in this paragraph. The fleet

lished. New production transport cateweight will be calculated on the follow- gory aircraft delivered to air carriers ing basis:

normally are weighed at the factory and (1) An operator's empty fleet weight

are eligible for air carrier operations

without reweighing if the weight and will be determined by weighing aircraft according to the following table:

balance records have been adjusted for

alterations or modifications to the airFor fleet of 1 to 3, weigh all aircraft.

craft Aircraft transferred from one air For fleet of 4 to 9, weigh 3 aircraft plus

carrier to another need not be weighed at least 50 percent of the number over 3.

prior to utilization by the latter unless For fleet of over 9, weigh 6 aircraft plus at least 10 percent of the number over 9.

more than twenty-four calendar months

have elapsed since last weighing. (ii) In choosing the aircraft to be

(4) Periodic weighing; aircraft using weighed, the aircraft in the fleet having

individual weights. Aircraft operated the highest time since last weighing

under a loading schedule utilizing indishould be selected. When the average

vidual aircraft weights in computing the empty weight and CG position has been

gross weight will be weighed at intervals determined for aircraft weighed and the

of twenty-four calendar months. An basic operating fleet weight (winter and

air carrier may, however, apply for exsummer, if applicable) established, nec

tension of this weighing period for a essary data should be computed for

particular model aircraft, when pertiaircraft not weighed but which are considered eligible under such fleet weight.

nent records and actual routine weighing If the basic operating weight of any air

during the preceding twenty-four craft weighed or the calculated basic months of air carrier operation show operating weight of any of the remaining

that weight and balance records mainaircraft in the fleet varies by an amount

tained are sufficiently accurate to inmore than plus or minus one-half of one dicate aircraft weights within the estabpercent of the maximum landing weight lished limitations. Such application

should be limited to increases in incre. is to include minor articles carried on ments of twelve months and must be board by the passenger. If such articles substantiated in each instance with at are not weighed, the estimated weight least two aircraft weighings. Increases is to be accounted for. The actual pasmay not be granted which exceed a time senger weight may also be determined by which is equivalent to the aircraft over- asking each passenger his weight and haul period.

adding thereto, a pre-determined con(5) Periodic weighing, aircraft using stant to provide for hand-carried articles "fleet weights." Aircraft operating un- and also to cover possible seasonal effect der fleet weights should be weighed in upon passenger weight due to variance accordance with procedures outlined for in clothing weight. This constant may the establishment of fleet weights. Since be approved for an air carrier on the each fleet weight will be re-established

basis of a detailed study conducted by every two years and a specified number the operator over the particular routes of aircraft weighed at such periods, no

involved and during the extreme seasons additional weighing is considered nec

when applicable. essary. A rotation program should, (2) Average passenger weight. (1) however, be incorporated so all aircraft An average weight of 160 pounds (sumin the fleet will be reweighed periodically. mer) may be used for each adult pas

(6) Weighing procedure. Normal senger during the calendar period of precautions, consistent with good prac

May 1 through October 31. tices in the weighing procedure, such as (ii) An average weight of 165 pounds checking for completeness of the air- (winter) may be used for each adult craft and equipment, determining that passenger during the calendar period fluids are properly accounted for, and November 1 through April 30. that weighing is accomplished in an (iii) An average weight of 80 pounds enclosed building preventing the effect of may be used for children between the the wind, will prevail. Any acceptable ages of 3 and 12. Children above 12 scales may be used for weighings pro

years of age are classified as adults for vided the are properly calibrated, zeroed the purpose of weight and balance comand used in accordance with the manu- putations. Children less than 3 years facturer's instructions. Each scale old are considered "babes in arms." should have been calibrated, either by

(iv) The average passenger weight inthe manufacturer or by a civil Depart

cludes minor items normally carried by ment of Weights and Measures, within

a passenger. one year prior to weighing any aircraft

(3) Non-standard weight groups of for this purpose unless the air carrier

passengers. The average can show evidence which warrants a


weight method will not be used in the longer period between calibrations.

case of flights carrying large groups of (e) Passenger weights. The air car

passengers whose average weight obvirier may elect to use either the actual

ously does not conform with the normal passenger weight or the average passen

standard weight. Actual weights will be ger weight to comput passenger loads

used when a passenger load consists to a over any route, except in those cases

large extent of athletic squads or other where non-standard weight passenger

special group which is smaller or larger groups are carried. Both methods may

than the U. S. average. Where such a be used interchangeably provided only

group forms only a part of the total one method is used for any flight from

passenger load, the actual weights may originating to terminating point of the

be used for such group and average particular trip or flight involved, except as indicated in subparagraph (3) of

weights used for the balance of the pasthis paragraph. Provisions will be in

senger load. In such instances, a notacorporated in the load manifest to clearly

tion will be made on the load manifest, indicate to personnel concerned whether

indicating number of persons in the speactual or average passenger weights are cial group and identifying the group to be used in computing the passenger (i. e., football squad, Blank Nationals, load.

etc.). (1) Actual passenger weight. Actual (f) Crew weight. The actual weight passenger weight may be determined by of crew members may be used or the scale weighing of each passenger prior following approved average weights may to boarding the aircraft, and such weight be utilized :

(1) Male cabin attendants 150 pounds; female cabin attendants 130 pounds.

(2) All other crew members 170 pounds.

(g) Passenger and crew baggage. Procedures should be provided so that all baggage, including that carried on board by the passengers, is properly accounted for. If desired by the air carrier, a standard crew baggage weight may be used.

(h) Center of gravity travel during flight. The air carrier will show that the procedures fully account for the extreme variations in center of gravity travel during flight caused by all or any combination of the following variables:

(1) The movement of a number of passengers and cabin attendants equal to the placarded capacity of the lounges or lavatories from their normal position in the aircraft cabin to such lounge or lavatory. If the capacity of such compartment is one, the movement of either one passenger or one cabin attendant, whichever most adversely affects the CG condition will be considered. When the capacity of the lavatory or lounge is two or more, the movement of that number of passengers or cabin attendants from positions evenly distributed throughout the aircraft may be used, Where seats are blocked off, the movement of passengers and/or cabin attendants evenly distributed throughout only the actual loaded section of the aircraft will be used. The extreme movements of the cabin attendants carrying out their assigned duties within the cabin will be considered. The various conditions will be combined in such a manner that the most adverse effect on the CG will be obtained and so accounted for in the development of the loading schedule to assure the aircraft being loaded within the approved limits at all times during flight.

(2) Landing gear retraction. Possible change in CG position due to landing gear retraction will be investigated and results accounted for.

(3) Fuel. The effect on the CG travel of the aircraft during flight due to fuel used down to the required reserve fuel or to an acceptable minimum reserve fuel established by the air carrier will be accounted for.

(i) Fuel allowance for taxiing and run-up. The weight and balance system may provide for a weight allowance of 3 pounds of fuel for each 100 horse

power (maximum continuous) available to the aircraft from all of its engines to be added to the maximum gross weight of the aircraft to compensate for fuel used during run-up and taxiing.

(j) Records. The weight and balance system will include methods by which the air carrier will maintain a complete, current and continuous record of the weight and center of gravity of each aircraft, Such records should reflect all alterations and changes affecting either the weight or balance of the aircraft, and will include a complete and current equipment list. When fleet weights are used, pertinent computations should also be available in individual aircraft files.

(k) Weight of fluids. The weight of all fluids used in aircraft may be established on the basis of actual weight, a standard volume conversion or a volume conversion utilizing appropriate temperature correction factors to accurately determine the weight by computation of the quantity of fluid on board. [Supp. 4, 18 F. R. 8609, Dec. 22, 1953, as amended by Supp. 15, 20 F. R. 3560, May 21, 1955)

§ 40.52 Distribution of manual. (a) Copies of the entire manual, or appropriate portions thereof, together with revisions thereto shall be furnished to the following:

(1) Appropriate ground operations and maintenance personnel of the air carrier;

(2) Flight crew members; and

(3) Authorized representatives of the Administrator assigned to the air carrier to act as aviation safety agents.

(b) All copies of the manual shall be kept up to date.

§ 40.53 Airplane Flight Manual. (a) The air carrier shall keep current an approved Airplane Flight Manual for each type of transport category airplane which it operates.

(b) An approved Airplane Flight Manual or a manual complying with § 40.50 and containing information required for the Airplane Flight Manual shall be carried in each transport category airplane.

AIRPLANE REQUIREMENTS § 40.60 General. Airplanes shall be identified, certificated, and equipped in accordance with the applicable airworthiness requirements of the regulations in this subchapter. No air carrier

shall operate any airplane in scheduled § 40.63 Proving tests. (a) A type of operation unless such airplane meets the airplane not previously proved for use requirements of this part and is in an in scheduled operation shall have at airworthy condition.

least 100 hours of proving tests, in addi§ 40.61 Airplane certification require

tion to the airplane certification tests, ments-(a) Airplanes certificated on or

accomplished under the supervision of before June 30, 1942. Airplanes certif

an authorized representative of the Ad

ministrator. icated as a basic type on or before June

As part of the 100-hour

total at least 50 hours shall be flown 30, 1942, shall either:

over authorized routes and at least 10 (1) Retain their present airworthi- hours shall be flown at night. ness certification status and meet the

(b) A type of airplane which has been requirements of $ 40.90, or

previously proved shall be tested for at (2) Comply with either the perform- least 50 hours, of which at least 25 hours ance requirements of $ $ 4a.737-T shall be flown over authorized routes, through 4a.750-T of this subchapter or unless deviations are specifically authorthe performance requirements of ized by the Administrator on the ground $$ 4b.110 through 4b.125 of this sub- that the special circumstances of a parchapter and in addition shall meet the ticular case make a literal observance of requirements of $ 40.70: Provided, That the requirements of this paragraph unshould any type be so qualified, all air- necessary for safety, when the airplane: planes of any one operator of the same (1) Is materially altered in design, or or related types shall be similarly quali

(2) Is to be used by an air carrier who fied and operated.

has not previously proved such a type. (b) Airplanes certificated after June

(c) During proving tests only those 30, 1942. Airplanes certificated as a

persons required to make the tests and basic type after June 30, 1942, and used

those designated by the Board or the in passenger operation shall be cer

Administrator shall be carried. Mail, tificated as transport category airplanes

express, and other cargo may be carried and shall meet the requirements of

when approved by the Administrator. § 40.70.

$ 40.63-1 Materially altered in design § 40.62 Airplane limitation for type

(CAA interpretations which apply to of route. All airplanes used in pas- § 40.63 (b) (1)). A type of airplane will senger air transportation shall be multi- be considered to be materially altered in engine airplanes and shall comply with

design when the alterations include, but the following requirements:

are not necessarily limited to: (a) Two- or three-engine airplanes. (a) Installation of powerplants other Two- or three-engine airplanes shall not than the powerplants of a type similar be used in passenger-carrying opera- to those with which the aircraft is tions unless adequate airports are so certificated. located along the route that the air- (b) Major alteration to the aircraft planes will at no time be at a greater or its components which materially afdistance therefrom than one hour of fects the flight characteristics. flying time in still air at normal cruising [Supp. 4, 18 F. R. 8611, Dec. 22, 1953) speed with one engine inoperative:


TIONS; TRANSPORT CATEGORY specify distances greater or less than those set forth herein when he deter

$ 40.70 Transport category airplane mines that the character of the terrain,

operating limitations. (a) In operating

any passenger-carrying transport catethe type of operation, or the perform

gory airplane the provisions of $$ 40.71 ance of the airplanes to be used so permit

through 40.78 shall be complied with, or require.

unless deviations therefrom are specifi(b) Land airplanes on extended over- cally authorized by the Administrator on water routes. Land airplanes operated the ground that the special circumon flights involving extended overwater stances of a particular case make a literal operations shall be certificated as ade- observance of the requirements unnecesquate for ditching in accordance with sary for safety. the ditching provisions of Part 4b of this (b) For transport category airplanes subchapter.

the performance data contained in the

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