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agents of the Bureau in which it was alleged that money due for wages had been withheld from the laborer making the complaint. In cases of this nature the amounts alleged to be due have been so small, and under the meaning of the statute the Bureau assumed that it had no authority in the matter of the collection of claims, no prosecutions were instituted, the complaining parties being advised that the remedy lay in process at law instituted only by themselves.

BAKE-SHOPS. The Twelfth Annual Report of the Bureau exposed, in a measure, the unsanitary condition of the cellar bakeries, which at that time were said to exist in many localities in the State. The result of the investigations made developed a more serious and dangerous condition than was deemed possible, and with slight changes a proposed statute recomiended by the Bureau, and which appeared in that report, was enacted into law by the General Assembly at the January Session of 1897 (the law as passed will be found on page 206 of this report). The effect of this law, although the period of its operation covers but a few months, has been most salutary, and under its provisions the remedies prescribed have resulted in the abolition, by the authorities, of several cellar bakeries, and closer observance of the laws of health by the proprietors of others, a result which cannot fail but be of incalculable benefit to all citizens.

MEDIATION AND ARBITRATION. The State Board of Mediation and Arbitration have prepared no official report, the services of the Board not having been required for the adjustment of difficulties between employer and employed. This is a most gratifying condition, and must also be a source of much satisfaction to all citizens who should be congratulated that the industrial conditions have not been disturbed by differences which would need the intervention of an official board of arbitration. The entire absence of labor disturbances is an evidence that there is a mutual recognition by both employers and employés, that though the period of business depression has been long and hard, yet there existed between them a community of material interest which is the safest and surest guaranty for mutual confidence and prosperity.

FORMER REPORTS OF THE BUREAU. The demand for former reports of the Bureau has been extremely large, coming from professors of colleges and students of economics generally, and in order that the subjects treated upon in the various reports may be made known, it has been thought wise that an analytical abstract of the contents of each report of the Bureau, since its establishment under the provisions of the present law, be given a place in this chapter. In this connection it should be stated that the edition of the report for some of the years has become nearly exhausted, but few copies remaining. Still no effort has been spared to supply the demand, by calling in from all sources any uncalled for reports which could be found.

FIRST ANNUAL REPORT-1885. The First Annual Report contains a treatise upon the subject of cheap labor, presenting accounts of the various forms of child and untrained labor, labor of foreigners, of convicts, labor-saying machinery and long hours, together with a consideration of time and piece-work, contract system and the manner and time of payment, to which are added discussions on the inequality of wages and on the difficulty experienced in determining the various standards of living, with comparisons.

SECOND ANNUAL REPORT-1886. The subjects treated upon in this report embrace the enforcement of labor legislation, the legality and powers of labor organizations, also refers to the advantages of the system of weekly payments over the then existing system of infrequent payments, and includes statistical tables showing, by industries and counties, the number of employés and the time and manner of payment of wages, and also gives information furnished by labor organizations concerning the wages, sex, age and hours of labor of employés in various small establishments throughout the State.

THIRD ANNUAL REPORT—1887. This report contains a review of industrial legislation in the State from the settlement of the Colony to 1887, including partnership and corporation laws; regulation of prices of wages; protection of consumers and legislation relating to education of children; to the suppression of slavery ; to peddlers and hawkers ; to the employment of apprentices; relating to savings and building associations; providing for exemption from execution and attachment; inspection of factories; relating to imprisonment for debt; presents papers on discontent among the laboring classes, its extent, its causes, its remedies—these papers being written from the standpoint of a capitalist, of a knight of labor, of the land and labor party, of the more radi. cal socialist party, and of a professional man, to which is added statistical tables, showing all available facts relating to strikes in Connecticut from 1881 to 1886, inclusive.

FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT-1888. This report presents the results of an inquiry concerning manufacturers, and is based on information secured directly from the books of ninety establishments in twenty-two lines of industry in 1887, to ascertain what portion of production goes to labor and what proportion to employers' profits. The report also includes reports made by workingmen from all parts of the State, concerning their receipts and expenditures in detail, and statistics relating to agriculture in Connecticut, giving for each county and town, by farms, the size of the farm, and of the farmer's family, the rate of wages paid hired help, the amount of mortgage carried and of capital invested, and the receipts and expenditures of the farmers in detail.

FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT—1889. The statistics of manufactures presented in this report give the number of establishments considered, capital invested, value of product, cost of materials, number of employés and their wages, with comparisons with the corresponding statistics for 1887 and 1880, the latter data being taken from the United States census, followed by an exhaustive consideration of the oyster industry of the State, in which among other things, the methods of propagating and gathering oysters, and of destroyng their enemies, and of locating oyster beds, are described.

SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT-1890. Statistical comparisons relating to manufactures for three preceding years are given in this report, the facts for the compilation being gathered from typical establishments and industries; a chapter also being devoted to a consideration of the Subject of the wages and hours of labor of employés in the street railways in the State, and methods of preventing and. adjusting labor difficulties.

SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT-1891. The statistics contained in this report relating to manufactures, are presented, in the main, on the same plan as that. of the report of the Bureau for the year 1890. The report also presents the results of a comprehensive special inquiry into the growth and extent of co-operative benefit societies doing business in the State, and separated into life societies, sick and funeral benefit societies, trades unions with sick and funeral benefits, and endowment societies.


The reports for the years 1892 and 1893 appear in one volume and contains in the first part an analysis of the manufacturing industries of the State on practically the same lines. as in the reports of the preceding years. The second part of the report for the year 1893 covers the subject of hours of labor, giving a history of the movement in favor of a shorter working day, the effect of general economic progress of the force of public opinion, and of the effort of labor organizations to bring about a shorter hour working day is shown by a textual analysis where the reduction was most marked, and a statement of reduced hours by industries from 1860 to 1880, com-paring the present conditions with those of 1885, and showing also the reduction in hours of labor between 1880 and 1892.

TENTH ANNUAL REPORT-1894. The condition and the good accomplished by building and loan associations occupies a leading position in this report, and the subject is exhaustively treated in the text and analysis ac

companying the tables. The report advises that all building and loan associations be placed under State supervision, and it might be stated here that the recommendation has been since adopted. The report also treats upon the effect of industrial depression, decreased hours and production, and the subject of child-labor.

ELEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT-1895. An abstract of the contents of the more recent reports of the Bureau would seem unnecessary. Suffice it to say that the larger portion of the report for 1895 was devoted to a statistical consideration of the subject of poor relief or almsgiving in the several towns of the State, the effect of the act concerning alien laborers, of manual training in the public schools, and the age limit at which children may be employed; the condition of manufacturers also being treated, comparison being made of number employed in the same establishments in the years 1892, 1894 and 1895, and the average weekly hours of labor in the latter year.

TWELFTH ANNUAL REPORT-1896. In this report the inequalities of assessments for purposes of taxation is made the leading subject, and covers a large field of inquiry, showing by tables and analysis the per cent. of true market value at which property throughout the State is as. sessed, comparisons of appraised value of probated estates with the assessments for taxation of the same, and returns made by corporations as to amount of taxable property are also compared with the amount at which the same is assessed. The report refers to early methods and suggested remedies for existing inequalities, in addition to which a part of the report is devoted to statistics of manufactures relating to number employed, average hours of labor, amount paid in wages, wage rates, and proportion of business done.

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