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be contained in dough. Briefly stated, we have succeeded in obtaining cultures of thirteen different kinds of microbes from bread taken out of the centre of recently baked loaves. Our contention, then, is that baking does not necessarily sterilize a loaf." * * *

“There are two ways in which it is conceivable that a loaf might convey specific organisms capable of causing injury to consumers—viz., organisms that have lodged on the crust of the loaf from surface contamination in an infected bakery, and organisms that have possibly escaped destruction in the interior of the loaf during the process of baking.

"When taken from the oven, a batch of loaves is often allowed to lie about in the bakehouse for considerable time. It is obvious that there is every chance of contamination of the crust by the lodgment of bacteria, either from the air, from the trays or shelves on which the bread is laid, or from the hands of the workmen. The fact that the baked loaf is open to infection in a dirty bakehouse seems to be overlooked by those who insist so loudly that baking sterilizes the loaf. Their assumption appears to be that the loaf, once sterilized, will remain so for an indefinite time. The fallacy of this assumption, on the other hand, is recognized by some few people, who resterilize the crust by putting their loaves into a hot oven for a short while before use."

The unsanitary condition of the shops inspected have been the cause of considerable illness, which fact alone should invoke the aid of the legislature towards providing proper inspection, A number of the employes are suffering from pulmonary complaints, rhematism and malaria.


The fact was also ascertained, that bakers are employed longer hours than any other trade reported to the Bureau. In places where they have a Union the hours have been materially shortened, but even now, under various pretexts they are asked or compelled to work overtime in many places, for which they receive no extra compensation.

Of the 664 men employed in the shops inspected, two work seven hours per day, thirty work eight hours, seventy work nine hours, 352 work ten hours, ninety-seven work eleven hours, 105 work twelve hours, four work thirteen hours, two work fifteen hours and two work seventeen hours.

Of those working ten hours per day, 109 were employed in cracker and pie bakeries and were all day hands. The number working as night hands was found to be 324.

WAGES. The wages received by employes in the shops reported was as follows: Three received $5.00 per week; eleven, $6.00 per week; six, $7.00 per week; sixteen, $8.00 per week; eighteen, $9.00 per week; eighty-three, $10.00 per week; seventeen, $11.00 per week; 183, $12.00 per week; twenty-six, $13.00 per week; thirty-six, $14.00 per week; forty-three, $15.00 per week; forty-seven, $16.00 per week; twenty-four, $17.00 per week; sixteen, $18.00 per week; and four, $20.00 per week.

It will be noticed that the number of employes given above is less than the total number employed in the several shops investigated. This is explained by the refusal of several employers to give the agents of the Bureau the wage-rate paid.

The employes are classified as first, second and third hands and are ğraded in pay by first hands, receiving from fourteen (14) to twenty (20) dollars per week; second hands, from eight (8) to fourteen (14) dollars per week, and third hands, from five (5) to nine (9) dollars per week.

A number of cases were reported in which the employe was boarding with the “boss," and, in such cases, the board has been estimated at four dollars a week, and is included in the prices above given.

SANITARY CONDITIONS In thirty shops, water closets were found in either the work or store room; they were in varying degrees of cleanliness, some of them being untrapped and filthy in the extreme.

Forty-six shops were reported which had sewage pipes in the work or store room. Of this number, sixteen were noted as being in a bad condition and a menace to health and clean products.

In three shops it was found that the employes slept in the shop after working hours were over.

The following is from notes made by the agents of the Bureau while making the inspection and will give a better idea of the conditions found to exist than in any other way.

“Swill bucket in the corner of the room (dimension of room 12x18, height of ceiling seven feet), earthen vessel used as substitute for water closet with its contents under the sink."

“Set kettle holding water used for mixing the dough, covered with slime. Floor and tables very filthy."

“Shop full of foul odors; cockroaches swimming in the lard. Sewer pipes leaking badly.

“Floor and tables very filthy, decaying material scattered about."

“All supplies kept in barn with the horses."

“Floor, table and raising troughs very dirty; rubbish everywhere."

“Molasses, flour and lard standing uncovered amidst barrels of decaying fruit, all close by an uncovered and untrapped water closet, pouring forth foul odors; cockroaches abound on tables and in lard and butter tubs.”

“Stone wall, against which moulding boards are placed very filthy. Barrels filled with swill and other refuse serve as stands on which the moulding board is placed. Rubbish all over the


“Shop in cellar. No windows; artificial light needed all day. Very filthy; boxes of decaying fruit, rags, egg-shells and other refuse scattered about in rich profusion."

“Rags used to grease pans thrown on floor and decaying supplies scattered about."

“A nasty, dirty cellar; artificial light needed all the time; no ventilation.”

“Side walls reeking with filth and moisture.”
“ Filthy sink and floor; all tools in same condition.”
“All tools and raising troughs very dirty.”

“Has no floor; all supplies stand on the ground; everything about in worst possible condition.”

“Walls hung with cobwebs; vermin everywhere; sink crusted with grease and refuse scattered about. Sink and tables littered with rotten truck. ”

“ Storage room is exceedingly damp; pails of pie material standing about uncovered while the sewage pipes from above empty through an open tank.”

"Very filthy; baking pans scattered about on the floor, which is littered with rotten stuff; the dough is kneaded on dirty tables against smutty walls."

“Molasses and lard uncovered under a greasy sink; cockroaches in abundance.”

“Water closet in workroom untrapped, emptying into an open drain leading to the river."

“ With heavy rainfall water rises from the sewer and covers floor of work room; water used in mixing is brought into the room in an open filthy trough. ”

“Sink where tools are cleaned is very nasty; malodorous refuse is scattered all around.”

The following is the text of the proposed law to be introduced at the January session of the General Assembly of 1897, and which is similar to those in force in many other States. The bill, as proposed, has received the endorsement of the International Bakers' Union, and the approval of the State Federation of Labor.


FLOUR AND MEAL FOOD PRODUCTS. 1. This Act may be cited as the “The Bakery Inspection Law.”

2. In the construction of this law the word "bakeshop" shall mean any building, premises, workshop, structure, room or place wherein is carried on the manufacture, for sale, of confectionery, or bread, biscuits, cake or any other food product made from flour or from meal, or from both, in wbole or in part, and the said bakeshop shall include also, any room or rooms used for storing the flour or meal, and also any room or rooms used for storing the confectionery, bread, cakes, biscuits and other food products.

3. All buildings in which bakeshops are situated shall be drained and plumbed in a manner conducive to the proper and healthful sanitary condition thereof, and constructed with air shafts, windows or ventilating pipes, sufficient to insure ventilation, as the inspector or any of the deputies shall direct. No cellar or basement, not now used as a bakery, shall hereafter be occupied and used as a bakeshop, and a basement bakeshop when once closed shall not be reopened unless the proprietor shall have previously complied with the sanitary provisions of this act.

4. Every bakeshop shall be at least eight feet in height and shall have, if deemed necessary by the inspector, an impermeable floor, constructed of cement or of tiles laid in cement, with an additional flooring of wood properly saturated in linseed oil. The side walls and ceiling of such a bakeshop shall be plastered or wainscoted, and if required by the inspector, shall be whitewashed at least once in three months. The furniture and utensils in the bakeshops shall be so arranged that the furniture and floor may at all times be kept in a proper and healthful sanitary and clean condition.

5. The manufactured flour or meal food products shall be kept in perfectly dry and airy rooms, so arranged that the floors, shelves, and all other facilities for storing the same can be easily and perfectly cleaned.

6. Every bakeshop shall be provided with a proper wash room and water closet or closets apart from the bakeroom or

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rooms where the manufacturing of such food products is conducted; and no water closet, earth closet, privy or ash pit shall be within or communicate directly with the bakeroom of any bakery, hotel or public restaurant.

7. No employe shall be required, permitted or suffered to work in a bakeshop more than ten hours in any one day, nor more than six days in any one week.

8. The sleeping places for persons employed in a bakeshop shall be kept separate from the room or rooms where flour or meal food products are manufactered or stored.

9. Any person who violates any of the provisions of this act or refuses to comply with any requirement of the authority vested with its enforcement, as provided herein, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction shall be punished by a fine of not less than twenty or more than fifty dollars for the first offense, and for the secoud offense by a fine of not less than fifty nor more than one hundred dollars, or by imprisonment for not more than ten days, and for the third offense by a fine of not less than two hundred and fifty dollars and by imprisonment for not more than thirty days, or by both such fine or imprisonment.

10. For the purpose of enforcing this law, the inspector may appoint deputies, each of whom shall receive - together with his necessary travelling and other expenses incurred in discharging the duties of his office. Under the direction of the Inspector, such deputies shall inspect all bakeshops and see that the provisions of this law are enforced. The inspector or a deputy inspector authorized by him shall issue a certificate to a person conducting a bakery where such bakery is conducted in compliance with all the provisions of this act.

II. The owner, agent or lessee of any property affected by the provisions of sections three, four or five of this act, shall within thirty days after service of notice, requiring any alterations to be made in or upon such premises, comply therewith. Such notice shall be in writing and may be served upon such owner, agent or lessee either personally or by mail, and a notice mailed to the last known address of such owner, agent or lessee, shall be deemed sufficient for the purpose of this act.

12. This law shall take effect thirty days after its passage.

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