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three miles from the sea. The land bought by Mr. Dawson was similar to our own, separated from it by a rib of trap rock ; both lots were just as Erne described them, but ours was rather the rockier of the two.
It was soon over. Trevittick took a hammer and some gads from behind a rock, and, going up to a low ledge, set them in, and began working furiously. Once he struck aside and hit the rock, and the rock, instead of clinking, gave
forth a dull thud. In a few minutes Trevittick had succeeded in detaching & piece about two feet square, the broken side of which shone strangely in the sun. It was a mass of solid, gleaming, virgin copper.
The murder was out now. With the exception of one on Lake Superior, and one in South Australia, my father was the proprietor of the richest copper mine in the world.
To be continued.
BY WILLIAM BARNES.
WELL ! here we be, woonce mwore at leäst,
But we, wherever wo do come,
CLAUS SEIDELIN: A DANISH APOTHECARY OF THE EIGHTEENTH
BY ANDREW HAMILTON.
We almost shrink now from the bare mention of the name of unhappy Denmark; but what I am going to say has so little to do with Schleswig-Holstein and its attendant calamities (which bid fair to sow the discord of ages between races—ourselves, the Germans, and the Scandinavians — which surely were meant, if ever any on this earthly ball, to live in the harmony and united action of brothers and neighbours), that I venture to beg all who will to turn with me from the present misère of war, wrath, hatred, and all malignity, to à few years of home-baked commonplace, embedded deep in the middle of the last century. The life of an apothecary of that period, in his shop in the quiet grass-grown High Street of a dull little town, or rather village, on a petty island in the Danish waters, will probably prima facie not greatly tempt the curiosity of most English readers. And I do not intend so far to outrage expecta tion. The fact is, this apothecary was a traveller in his youth, at the age when he had to do his Wanderjahre, and saw, in such proximity as was possible for him, some men and things whose figures have acquired a certain familiarity for us through other mediums than the eyes of a druggist's apprentice. But our apprentice, having healthy vision, took his own impression of what he saw, and, as he was at the pains long after to commit to paper what he yet retained, I
believe we should be unthankful if we refused to profit by his “Recollections.”
Several learned doctors have of late years written laborious treatises on the rise and early progress of pharmacy and all things pharmaceutical in Denmark. I have read whatever of the sort I could lay hands on ; yet after much reflection I have been convinced that profound ignorance as to how drugs were compounded and where they were sold in, for instance, the fifteenth century, need not interfere with our interest in the travels of a worthy lad who was striving hard to become skilful in the composition of drugs in the eighteenth. The truth is that the origin of what we should nowa-days call an apothecary's shop is, north of Germany, recent enough. Down to a late period, drugs of manifold ingredients were sent to distinguished persons from France and Italy, and, in course of time, stores, or magazines, came into vogue, in which both simples and compounds could be bought, along with wines, and spices, and other outlandish wares. Ladies and monks, as we all know, dabbled much in medicine ; and a Dr. Gram has, in our own day, written a book-or, at least, an article—to prove that Paracelsus meant Copenhagen when he says Stockholm, and that the matrona quædam nobilis whom he says he saw or heard of there was Sigbrit, Christian II.'s “lady," who worked so successfully at drug-making that she achieved the re
putation of witchcraft. It was not till of wandering — among Papists, and Christian III.'s time, in 1536, that an Frenchwomen, and what not-he spent apothecary became a permanent institu- his easy, useful life, and married, and tion in Copenhagen. His predecessor, brought up his children ; and there, in Frederick I. had twice over vainly ap- his seventy-ninth year, he sat down and plied to Parliament for the necessary began to write his “Recollections." In grant. Once introduced, however, the the following year he died. The manuinstitution spread rapidly. At first, script is now in the hands of his greatthe letters-patent granting the privilege grandson, a parish priest, who has kindly limited it to the holder's lifetime ; but placed it at the disposal of the Historical before the middle of the sixteenth cen- Society of Copenhagen, by which learned tury such property had become freehold body it has been recently edited. I
-it could be bought and sold, and trans- have chosen but few passages for transmitted from father to son, or from lation ; they will in great part require husband to wife. Hence the need of no commentary. They will give us frequent inspections on the part of the glimpses of a certain society of those medical faculty. Hence, too, the neces- years, not, indeed, behind the scenes, sity that one son at least in a family but from the shilling gallery. Or, rather, should follow the father's profession, they will take us up into the dingy
Nothing could well lie further from lumber-room of a house now silent and the world's great highways, than the tenantless, and show us Czar Peters and petty island of Falster. It is situated Friedrich Wilhelms, and other motes to the south of Zealand, separated by and midges of the eighteenth century, a strait just broad enough to cut it oft floating in the quaint sunbeams that even from such claims to publicity as straggle through the dusty attic window.. the mother-island may think herself in possession of. The population at the “Into-this sinful world was I, Claus present day may be about 20,000, and Seidelin, born of godly and honourable the chief town is what we should call parents. My late father was the worthy, the village of Nykjöbing, although the skilful, and honourable man, Frederick geography-book says it has seven streets. Seidelin, by appointment apothecary to Yet the islanders wore not wholly denied His Majesty for Nykjöbing, in Falster, the blessing of an occasional glimpse of son of Hans Seidelin, Master of Arts, some of those exalted forms which fill formerly priest and dean at the Holm's earth's high places. Nykjöbing and the Church in Copenhagen. My late country round it were a royal demesne, mother was the God-fearing, and virand had for ages been the prescriptive tuous matron Karen, youngest daughter appanage of dowager-queens, where they of Claus Iversen, sometime alderman in were wont to pass their villeggiatura ; Copenhagen. And my birth fell upon the and we may well fancy that the annual twenty-sixth day of January, anno 1702." arrival of widowhood, in all its majesty, The baptism comes next, with five must have solemnized the natives not godfathers and godmothers. Then he a little. There was also, as we shall see, goes to school, and gets nine floggings in at the period of which I am going to one forenoon. What follows is pleaspeak, an utterly unhoped-for glimpse santer :of an even greater personage. With “In my tender years came his late such exceptions, life in the little market- Majesty King Christian V.'s widowed town passed with fewer events, with queen, Charlotte Amalie, once in the bigger rumours, and with greater con- year to Nykjöbing by the space of tentment, probably, than in most places. three or four months, the palace of
Claus Seidelin was a native of Nyk- Nykjöbing, with what pertained thereto, jöbing. There he was born; there he forming part of her jointure, whereby was bred; there, after his apprentice- my late father had occasion to supply ship in the metropolis, and his six years no small quantity of medicine to Her Majesty, as also to her suite. Now it quit his prison, well knowing that it was also happened that my revered father his duty to submit to God's holy will, did one Sunday permit a lad in our em- and that it lay upon him to convey the ployment to conduct me to the château remains of the blessed departed unto for my amusement, on which occasion their resting-place, the which he then we had scarce entered the outermost set about with all the more diligence, guard-room when the queen, rising from causing them to be interred very honourtable, caused the doors of that apartment ably in a vault which he had but lately to be thrown open, and, followed by her purchased under the choir of Nykjöbing whole court, proceeded to cross the church. He himself chose the text for guard-room. Ī, nowise deterred, ran the funeral sermon, as well as the introstraightway up to her, kissed her hand ductory words, and subsequently begged and the hands of all her ladies, and then, Magister Zimmer for a copy of the displacing myself alongside of a dwarf- course. I doubt not it is yet to be found woman whom the queen had, thinking among the books which I left behind her to be a child like myself, I followed me to my successor on retiring from with the rest of the train. My father's business." lad had well-nigh swooned at his care- Two years afterwards the widower lessness in not looking better after me; found consolation. His “ dear brother" but the queen was very gracious, in- wrote to him from Copenhagen, proquiring whose child that was, and being posing a likely widow there who had informed it was the apothecary's child, already lost an apothecary in the plague, she opened a little closet in which she and seemed not disinclined to take kept some orange trees and other fine another. The negotiation advanced so plants, from which she herself gathered far that the bridegroom proceeded to a bouquet—as they call it-and gave it Copenhagen to arrange preliminaries, to me, with orders that I should be whereupon “their first meeting was very restored to my father's messenger. When loving." Subsequent meetings must we came home, and related what had have been less so, for the project was passed to my revered father, the lad given up; on which “he immediately received a reprimand, and my father sought himself another bride, a maid of said to me, 'It is very well, my son, that thirty,” and “the wedding took place in the queen has given thee a bouquet, but the house of his dear mother." I had rather she had given thee half a “Anno 1716, we had a visit, at Nykscore of ducats.'”
jöbing, from Czar Peter of Russia, called " Anno 1712.-On October 18th it the Great. He came ashore in the pleased God, according to His all-wise middle of the night at a place about two counsel, to remove by a happy death miles from Gjedesbye, and had Prince from this troublesome world to the glory Menzicoff and a lot of other Russian and blessedness of His heavenly king- princes and generals with him in two dom, my tender and pious mother Karen, or three open boats. They all directly Claus's daughter, in child-bearing of my threw themselves on some plough-horses youngest sister, unto the great sorrow that were going loose in the fields, and and distress of my late father, myself, rode into the village, where they stopped and my eldest brother, none of my other at the innkeeper's, who was also the brothers or sisters being old enough to village justice. Him and his wife the give much heed thereto. My honoured Czar turned out of their bed, and jumped father was well-nigh inconsolable ; for into it himself, with his boots on, warm two days he shut himself up in his as it was. Meantime, the innkeeper had chamber to give free course to his tears, to see about the others as best he could ; refusing to eat or drink, or speak with after which he sent a messenger on any person, until, by the visits and com- horseback to Nykjöbing to give notice forting discourses of our clergyman and of the Czar's arrival, whereupon everyother kind friends, he was moved to thing was done to prepare a suitable
reception. [Here he enumerates all the provincial dignitaries who were hurried together.]... They proceeded straightway to Gjedesbye, and took all the hackney coaches, private carriages, and horses that were in the town, to place then at the Czar's service; the towncrier went through, summoning all the inhabitants to meet in parade at his entry; and all the best housewives in Nykjöbing had to repair to the castle to cook his dinner. He arrived the follow ing forenoon at eleven o'clock, yet not in a coach, but in a kind of little open chaise which he had with him, drawn by two horses. He was driven to the castle, but waxed wroth thereat, having designed to take his dinner at an inn; and, finding his cook on the steps of the castle, he gave him a sound thrashing. At length, however, he consented to abide where he was, but insisted on dining alone, so that the Danish lords had to withdraw. He looked like a sergeant, or rather hangman. He was tall of stature, wore a dirty blue cloth coat with brass buttons, had a big broad cutlass like a hangman's sword at his side in a leathern sword-belt outside his coat, great boots on his legs, a little velvet cap on his head, a middling-sized moustache, and a long cane in his hand; but did not look so much amiss after all. He did not sit long at dinner, and, as soon as he had done, he went down with his lords to the smithy, where he had ordered a boat to be got ready. On the road from the castle two or three of the townsfolks, who had ventured too near, got a taste of his stick; and, as he could not get into the boat dryshod, Claus Wendt had to carry him out to it, for which he gave him eight skillings sabout twopence] As soon as he and his lords had embarked, they pushed from land, but, coming to the pier, he got ashore again to take a look at the position. He then sailed to Haselöe and further, to fetch the galleys in which he had come from Mecklenburg : now these were not to be counted for number, for he had on board an army of 36,000 men. He then returned to Nykjöbing, about five or six in the afternoon, and came ashore with
his lords. Yet would he not sup in the castle, where everything had been got ready, but went to the house of the postmaster, Iver Rosenfeldt, and there caused himself to be served with both rye and wheaten bread, butter, Dutch cheese, strong ale, brandy, and wine; and there was in particular some Dantzig liquor which he greatly liked; other than that they had not to place before him. Now some of the townsfolks, and myself among the number, managed to slip into Rosenfeldt's house to see the Czar sup, which indeed he did with much elegance, for every time he buttered himself a piece of bread he licked the butter clean off the knife again. At my parent's house there were a number of his suite, who were served in a like fashion. As soon as the galleys arrived, all the crews came ashore, so that every street and house was so crowded that nobody could stir ; and in a few hours there was not a bit of bread, nor any bacon, butter, eggs, beer, or spirits to be found in the town. Towards night the Czar and his lords went back to the galleys, and on a signal given the rest had also to retire on board. Early in the morning we saw some thousands of camp-kettles on the beach, with fire underneath, to feed which the soldiers stole whatever would burn; and then they gathered all the nettles and hemlock and other green things that they could find, and chopped them up quite small, and threw them into the kettles. The next thing was to cut one salt herring into little bits to each kettle, after which, when the whole came a-boil, the kale was ready, which they ate as fast as they could, and then went on board again with their kettles. The Czar immediately set the fleet under sail towards Guldborg, and thence to Copenhagen, so that by noon not a galley was to be seen. The Czar's consort came here a few days after his departure : she had travelled from Mecklenburg, through Holstein and Laaland. When she arrived in the ferry-boat, the governor and sheriff were standing on the landing-place to receive her, but she was not very gracious to them. On the other hand, when she