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from the injurious effects of borough mongering malpractices and political jobbery.

Mr. Henry Berkeley, the member for Bristol, who has worn for many years the ballot-mantle of Mr. Grote, and annually delivers a clever and amusing speech on the iniquities of bribers and intimidators, has excluded the Berkeley examples from his catalogues. That is not surprising. His brother Grantley supplies the omission. The many public admirers of the present parliamentary apostle of the Ballot will read with interest some of the notices in this volume of Mr. Henry Berkeley's younger days. He was, it appears, “ before his severe illness, of his weight, the best amateur boxer in the kingdom," and, when only sixteen, “went to the Fives Court, under the special introduction of the late Mr. Berkeley Craven and Colonel Berkeley, and with the trial gloves on, set to, and had a great deal the best of it, with one of the well-known pugilists of the day, Caleb Baldwin." It is further related that the member for Bristol never went to bed, in his youthful days, without suspending the clothesbag, full of linen, to a nail, and hitting at it, right and left, by way of practice, for half an hour together. “The chi!d is father of the man,” and the youthful pugilist who tried his prentice hand in punishing dirty-clothes bags has ripened into the hard hitter of the House of Commons against the foul practices of intimidation and corruption.

P.S.-Since the above article was in type, we have seen a small pamphlet, which is a Reply to some passages of Mr. Grantley Berkeley's book by his four surviving brothers. The passages replied to exclusively relate to the conduct of their parents and the question of the legitimacy of the elder children under an alleged secret first marriage, which the late Lord Fitzhardinge failed to prove to the satisfaction of the House of Lords. As in the introduction to our article we have incidentally stated the illegitimacy of a portion of the family as a fact, in accordance with Mr. Grantley Berkeley's statements and the

decision of the House of Lords, it is, perhaps, fair, in so delicate a matter, that we should give currency to the following declaration of Mr. Grantley's four surviving brothers, one of them being Mr. Moreton Berkeley :

“The surviving brothers do not desire here to discuss the questions involved in the decision of the House of Lords; they simply desire to give to the world their united testimony as against that of their brother--that in their belief the history of the matter given by the late Earl and Countess, under sanction of their oaths, was the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth. Their father solemnly, in his place in the House of Lords, made his declaration that the first marriage had been solemnised and registered, and confirmed that statement by his oath. Their sons believe devoutly their parents' solemn declaration. In this belief Mr. Moreton Berkeley shares as strongly as his elder brothers, and they have a perfect knowledge that their brother Craven up to the time of his death held the same conviction.”

It is further stated in this panıphlet. that. long after Mr. Grantley Berkeley became a member of Parliament, “he professed to share the belief of the other members of his family in the due celebration of the first marriage."

The four brothers also say :

“Mr. Grantley Berkeley knows that his father, within a few days of his death, and while in full possession of his intellect, and mindful of the Presence in which he must soon appear, too weak to write, dictated, and with his own hand signed, a letter to the Prince Regent, containing the following words:-'Your Royal Highness was well acquainted with the situation which I had placed my wife and children in by concealing my first marriage in 1785.' This letter was handed to the Prince Regent, who endorsed on it these words,-'I certify the whole of these particulars to be true. G. P.R.' The Prince made a statement to the same effect to Mr. Sergeant Best, counsel for the claimant, but His Royal Highness was not called as a witness by counsel, they supposing his evidence to be a declaration made post litem motam, instead of being, as in fact it was, ante litem motam. The mistake was fully explained in letters now extant, and which have been seen by Mr. Grantley Berkeley.

With the main object of our article this question has nothing to do ; the reply of the four brothers does not touch election matters ; for ourselves and the public the decision of the House of Lords must settle the question of legitimacy.

STRONG WATERS :.

A CHAPTER FROM THE SOCIAL HISTORY OF THE PAST.

BY THOMAS WRIGHT, F.S.A.

THE two agents which have. perhaps firmity, and that it would prolong his exerted the greatest influence on the life. But no good in this world is social condition of man are printing and without its alloy, and even this foralcohol, both of which were unknown tunate discovery brought with it a cause to the ancients. To whatever extent of alarm. There were those who conthey may have indulged in other ex sidered that a novelty so wonderful citements, neither Greeks, nor Romans. could betoken nothing less than the were brandy-drinkers or gin-drinkers; near approach of the consummation of and our mediæval forefathers were all things, the end of this world. obliged to restrict themselves to.ale, or Thus was brandy discovered. At mead, or wine, till the impatient, cu- first the alchemists modestly gave it the riosity of medieval science hit upon one name, in their technical nomenclature, of the most notable of modern dis- of aqua vini, water of wine, but this coveries. We owe it to those old was soon changed to aqua vita, water of searchers after hidden principles and life, which expressed better their estihidden, powers, the alchemists, who in- mate of its qualities, and which many cessantly tried experiment after experi- of them relished all the better, because ment in pursuit of that quintessence of they imagined ingeniously that it inquintessences and elixir of elixirs, the volved a sort of equivoque, or pun, upon elixir of life. After almost every ima- aqua vitis, the water of the vine, or of ginable substance had been called into the grape. One of the famous phyrequisition, one day it. came into the sicians of the middle ages, Arnaldus de head of an adventurous investigator to. Villanova, who is said to have been put wine in the alembic; and there born about the year 1300, is the earliest came from it a spirit of such extra- writer who mentions aqua vitæ; and he ordinary purity, and, which displayed speaks of it as though it had not then such remarkable qualities, that he re- been long known (et jam virtutes ejus joiced in the conviction that he had at notæ sunt apud multos). In a treatise length reached the object of his vows. which bears the significant title, De The exact date of this event, and the conservanda juventute et retardanda sename of the discoverer, are equally nectute, dedicated to Robert, King of unknown, but it is believed to have Jerusalem and Sicily, Arnaldus speaks taken place in the course of the thirteenth of this liquor, which lie says was effeccentury. It was no doubt at first com tive in nourishing youth (juventutem municated only to a few, and then nutrit) and in keeping off the approach gradually became known to the many; of old age. “It prolongs life," he says, and all, equally impressed with its im- “and on account of its operation in this portance, believed they saw in it a “respect, it has merited the name of special intervention of God's provi- “aqua vitæ" (prolmgat vitam, et ex ejus dence. They imagined at first that the operatione dici mcruit aqua vita). It new agent was destined to be the grand was best kept, he adds, in vessels of regenerator of mankind, which was sup- gold, and could be preserved in no otlier posed to be greatly fallen from its ori material except glass. Only one of the ginal perfection—that it would free man anticipations of the old alchemists in from his liability to disease and in regard to their aqua vitæ has been

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fulfilled--it has produced a vast effect conceal the true character of the liquor upon social life ; but it has certainly they were drinking under disguises, and neither tended to prolong youth nor to an immense quantity of brandy was retard old age.

consumed indirectly in making what These early alchemists, indeed, do were usually termed “cordial waters," not appear to have foreseen the usage because they were supposed to be taken of their newly-discovered spirit as an for medicinal purposes, though some exciting and intoxicating drink, nor people were plain enough to call them does it appear to have been employed strong waters. It must be remembered for this purpose to much extent before that one of the greatest accomplishthe sixteenth century. It was con- ments of the lady of the house in the sidered as a medicinal potion, and, per- sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was haps, in course of time, it began to be skill in the art of distilling, and that taken as a cordial" on the sly.” It was every well-ordered household of any probably very expensive, and no doubt respectability possessed its alembic or a great mystery was made about it; but still, until the exciseman came to suppeople who could possess it, and were press the practice. In that curious book persuaded that it would preserve youth for the illustration of social manners, and keep off old. age, would be fre- the “ Ladies' Dictionary," published by quently tempted to take a dose, when John Dunton, the bookseller, at the they might not in outward appearance close of the seventeenth century, we be in want of it. The use of aqua vitæ are told, under the head of “Distillaas a drink appears to have increased tion,” that. “Every young gentlewoman rapidly during the sixteenth century, “is to be furnish'd with very good stills, until the regular consumption must “ for the distillations of all kinds of have become very considerable. It is “waters—which stills must be either of spoken of as a thing in common use in "tin, or sweet earth ; and in them she the plays of Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, "shall distil all manner of waters meet and Beaumont and Fletcher; and the “for the health of her household.” The “aqua-vitæ man," who carried it about essential of these waters always confor sale, is introduced as a common cha- sisted of brandy ; but it was disguised racter. In the comedy of the “Beggar's and flavoured by a great variety of inBush,” by the two last-mentioned drama- gredients, consisting, however, chiefly of tists, the aqua-vitæ man calls his mer- herbs. We know tolerably well the chandize“ brand wine,” which (meaning composition of most of these cordials, simply burnt wine) was the name by from the receipts for making them, which it was known in Dutch, and was which were soon collected and printed the origin of its modern name, brandy. in small books-a continuous series of The earliest large manufacture of brandy, which exist, beginning with the sixin fact, was seated in the Low Countries teenth century. These books appear and Germany. At the close of the under rather quaint names. One of the seventeenth and the commencement of earliest I know, printed in 1595, is the eighteenth centuries Strasburg and entitled, “ The Widdowes Treasure." Nantes were celebrated for this manu- The “ waters” it contains are called by facture, at least, it was from those two Latin names rosa solis, aqua .composita, cities that the best brandies were brought and aqua rosæ solis. The title of another to England

similar book, printed in the year followIn Shakespeare's “Twelfth Night," ing, is: “ The Good Huswifes Jewell,” Sir. Toby Belch, talks. of brandy as a and its cordials are, rosemary water, favourite drink with: midwives; and water imperiall, cinnamon water; Dr. from that time forwards we may trace Stephens's water, aqua composita, and among female society in all ranks a: water of life-this latter stated to be a gentle leaning towards the exhilarating great cordial, good especially “for to stimulant. But the ladies sought, to quicken the memory of man." As will

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be seen, in these treatises we can trace from date to date the increase in number and variety of these favourite cordials.

These earlier books were merely destined for the use of good housewives, who were their own distillers; but the manufacture and sale of strong waters became soon a public and extensive trade. In 1639, appeared the “Distiller of London," a work put forth by authority by the Distillers' Company. This book contains receipts for no less than thirty-two different waters. A reprint of it, with fuller explanations and directions, but the same title, appeared in 1652. In the more numerous list of waters given in this work, we find aniseed water, “a famous surfeit water” (in which poppies form one of the ingredients), aqua cælestis, horseradish water, aqua imperialis, and snail water. Larger and more full works on the subjects of distilling were published in the earlier part of the last century; among which one of the best was the “ Complete Body of Distilling," compiled by George Smith, of Kendal," and printed in 1725, and again in 1738.

A remarkable characteristic of many of these cordials is the number of ingredients, mostly herbs, which are mixed up to produce one water. There are thus no less than sixty-two ingredients, besides sugar and aqua vitæ (brandy), in the aqua cælestis of the “Distiller of London " of 1652. In an earlier book. known by the title of “ The Ladies Cabinet Opened,” and printed in 1639, we have the following receipt :

A WATER. "Take a gallon of Gascoigne wine; of ginger, gallingall, sinamon, nutmegs, graines, cloves, mace, annis-seeds, caraway-seed, coriander-seed, fennell-seed, and suger, of every one a dramme; then take of sacke and ale a quart a peece, of cammomill, sage, mint, red roses, tinie, pellitorie of the wall, wilde majorame, rosemary, wilde time, lavendir, pene. royall, fennell rootes, parsly rootes, and set. wall rootes, of each hálfe a handfull : Then beate the spice small, and bruise the hearbes. and put them altogether into the wine, and so let it stand sixteene houres, stirring it now and then : Then distill it in a limbecke with a soft fire, and keepe the first pinte of the water by itselfe, for it is the best, and the rest by itselfe, for it is not so good as the first."

Some of these cordial-makers appear to have regarded their “waters” with feel. ings similar to those of the old alchemists in regard to their aqua vitæ; and the compiler of this book assures us that the water here described was good against “all cold diseases-it preserveth youth, comforteth the stomacke;" and he adds, "it preserved Dr. Stevens tenne yeares bed-red, that he lived to ninety-eight yeares.” In fact, it was a water which, under the name of Dr. Stephens's water, was popular from the days of Queen Elizabeth until the middle of the last century.

“The Ladies' Directory," by Hanna Wolley, printed in 1662, furnishes us with the following receipt for a water, which is stated to be good to “comfort the spirits :”—

"ANOTHER CORDIAL-WATER. “Take cellondine, sage, coursmary, rue, wormwood, mugwort, scordian, pimpernel, scabious, agrimony, betony, balm, cardus, centory, pennyroyal, elecampane roots, tormentel with the roots, horehound, rosa-solis, marygold flowers, angellico, dragon, margerum, time, camomile, of each two good handfulls; licorice, zeduary, of each an ounce; slice the roots, shred the herbs, and steep them in four quarts of white wine, and let it stand close covered two dayes, then put it in an ordinary still close detted; when you use it, sweeten it with sugar, and warm it.” Here, no doubt, the brandy is, as boys say in construing their Latin, “understood.” This is not the case in the following receipt, taken from “ The Closet of Rarities," printed in 1706 :

“TO MAKE SURFEIT-WATER. - Take two gallons of brandy, or good spirit; steep in it the flowers of red poppies a night and a day, then squeeze them out hard into the liquor, and so put fresh ones in till it becomes of a deep red; then put in nutmeg, cinnamon, and ginger, of each half an ounce, grosly bruised, and to each quart four ounces of fine sugar; set it in a warm place twenty days, often shaking it; then strain it." : 16 Thien we are told among othe qualities,“ removes surfeits.” It, or nearly the same thing, is given in the “ Distiller of London" of 1652, as "a famous surfeit-water ;” meaning, I presume, that it was a corrective in the morning for those who had indulged to

excess the night before. This purpose these ; lay all these to steep in a glass still all appears to have been served also by

have been served also by night, close covered, and the next day still it : another of these liqueurs, called spirit

it is a most delicious cordial.” of clary. In Shadwell's comedy of

At the earlier period of the history of “The Scowrers,” in the opening scene,

“strong waters,” England appears to Sir William Rant, waking after a night's

have been richer in the number and violent debauch, says to his domestic,

variety of liqueurs than France or any “But go into my closet, and fetch me a

and fetch me other country on the Continent-perhaps “ bottle of spirit of clary, and a lusty

through the ingenuity and industry of “ glass.” Ralph, returning, says, "Here's

the fair matrons who ruled our houseyour spirit of clary." In another scene

holds. In the “ Distiller of London," in of the same play (Act ü. sc. 1), Tope,

1639, thirty-two different waters are bragging of himself, says, “Hem, hem, enumerated. Subsequently, however, “ I'll scowre in the Mall now, if you will,

most of the new varieties were intro“ without the help of spirit of clary,

duced from France. Such was the spirit “ fasting, and in cold blood.”

of clary, just mentioned, called in French After the Restoration, the passion for

eau clairette, but derived from Italy, and these liqueurs extended itself much, and

composed chiefly of cinnamon, roseseveral new waters became very popular water, and sugar, with brandy. Such One of these was called aqua mirabilis ;

was the ros solis, so named from a plant the other was the much more celebrated

which formed its chief ingredient, and ratafia. Aqua mirabilis, we are told in

much beloved by Louis XIV. Such, Smith's “Complete Body of Distilling,"

especially, were the ratafias, or in the was a drink which “cheers the heart.” French form of the word) ratafiats, which It appears to have been a favourite dose

appear to have been introduced into at night. In Durfey's comedy of “The England in the time of Charles II. The Virtuous Wife," published in 1980 ingredients in the older liqueurs had (Act iv. sc. 3), one of the characters, Sir been principally herbs ; in the ratafias Lubberly, talking of his country mode they were fruits, and especially kernels, of passing the day, concludes, “And at or fruits and kernels mixed. What we “night tell old stories, then drink a dose

now call noyeau would be a ratafia. “of (mirabilis, go to bed, and snore

Ratafia, once brought hither, soon be“heartily.” It was a favourite cordial for

came a favourite liqueur with our an old woman; as we learn from Dilke's English ladies of fashion. Pope says of comedy of “The Pretenders ” (1698), the fine woman of his time,in which, at the close of the second act, " Or who in sweet vicissitude appears, Nickycrack says, “Come, now, let me Of mirth and opium, ratafia and tears, “ alone with her; I'll take her and give

The daily anodyne, and nightly draught,

To kill those foes to fair ones, time and “ her a turn or two in the air, and a draw

thought.” “ of aqua mirabilis, which is the life of

Moral Essays, Ep. ii. “ an old woman, and I'll warrant ye all And Cibber, in his comedy of the " will be well again.” And so again, “Double Gallant,” brought out in 1707 in “ The Reformation, a Comedy” (Act (Act i. sc. 2), introduces one of his iv. sc. 1), a nurse recommends this water characters, Sir Solomon, talking of his -" Wil't please you to have a little wife's extravagance,—“She will cercordial water, or some aqua mirabilis ?” “ tainly ruin me in china, silks, ribbons, In the “Ladies' Directory,” printed in "fans, laces, perfumes, washes, powder, 1662, we find the following receipt: “patches, jessamine, gloves, and ratafia;"

to which Supple replies: “Ah! sir, “TO MAKE AQUA MIRABILIS.

that's a cruel liquor with 'em.” In “ Take three pints of sack [or, white wine], Wilkinson's comedy of the “ Passionate one pint of aqua-vitæ ; half a pint of the juice of cellondine; cloves, mace, nutmegs, ginger,

Mistress," 1703 (Act iii. sc. 1), Apish citbebees (cubebs), cardumus, gallingal, mul says, “I vow 'tis as familiar to me as lets (mellilot flowers), one dram of each of ratafia to a lady.”

No. 66.-VOL. XI.

II

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