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the sketches which afterwards came out than against Luther, with his defiance of in the faithful but unbeautiful portraits the Pope, and his Gospel for the people, of the Enchiridion and in the carica- did the friars rage against Erasnius and tures of the Colloquies ; and by the time his antimonastic satires. And, just as in that he had become the most popular his morning promenade under the hedgewriter of all his contemporaries the effect row, a persecuted cat is followed by a was prodigious. Whether in one of his cloud of titmice and sparrows, twittering pithy sentences he spoke of “purgatory out their terror, and warning all the 5 as the fire which they so dearly love, woodland, so it is ludicrous to notice the “for it keeps their kettle boiling," I or swarm of agitated cowls which eventually sketched them at full length as the fluttered after Erasmus in his progress universal usurpers who appropriated the through Europe, shrieking forth their functions of prince, pastor, and bishop, execrations, and in every stealthy moveso that they must have a hand in everyment boding new mischief to the mennational treaty and every matrimonial dicants. To pull down the columns engagement—so that they constituted which supported the papacy needed the themselves the guardians of orthodoxy, passionate strength and self-devotement pronouncing “such a one is a real Chris- of Luther, but the wooden pillar on “tian, but such another is a heretic, and which monkery was perched, already "he again is a heretic and a half- ses- rotten and worm-eaten, quickly yielded “ qui-hæreticus'"-worming out of the to the incisors of the formidable rodent citizens their most secret thoughts and who had somehow got in ;? and, when most private affairs, and making them at last the crazy structure came down, selves so essential that, if either king or and the “happy family” was scattered pope has any dirty work to do, he must in England and Germany, it was not use their unscrupulous agency-a set of without a touch of compunction that busy bodies at once venomous and un- the author of their overthrow witnessed productive, who, like drones furnished the dismay of their dispersion, and the with hornet stings, could not be driven hardships which some of them endured. from the hive, but must be at once du tested and endured, 2-every one recoge
The name of Erasmus was an irresistible
temptation to punning: witness the following nised the correctness of the picture; and, epigram of Stephen Paschasius .with accurate instinct, far more fiercely
“ Hic jacet Erasmus, qui quondam bonus erat i Opp. ii. 1106.
mus; 2 Adagia, chil. ii. cent. viii. 65.
Rodere qui solitus, roditur a vermibus.”.
EXTRACTS FROM LADY DUFF-GORDON'S LETTERS FROM EGYPT.
Now I am settled in my Theban palace it seems more beautiful, and I am quite melancholy that you cannot be here to enjoy it. The house is very large, and has good thick walls, the comfort of which we feel to-day, for it blows a hurricane, but indoors it is not at all cold. I have glass windows and doors to some of the rooms; it is a lovely dwelling. Two funny little owls, as big as my fist, live in the wall under my window, and come and peep in,
walking on tiptoe and looking inquisitive, like the owls in the hieroglyphics; and a splendid horus (the sacred hawk) frequents my lofty balcony. Another of my contemplar gods I sacrilegiously killed last night-a whip-snake. Omar is rather in consternation, for fear it should be “the snake of the house," for Islam has not dethroned the “Dü Lares et tutelares."
Some men came to mend the staircase, which had fallen in, and which
consists of huge solid blocks of stone. One man crushed his thumb, and I had to operate on it. It is extraordinary how these people bear pain ; he never winced in the least, and went off thanking God and the lady quite cheerfully.
I have been working hard at the “Alif Bay"-ABC-to day, under the direction of Sheykh Yussuf, a graceful, sweet · looking young man, with a dark brown face, and such fine manners, in his fellah dress-a coarse brown woollen shirt, a libdeh or felt skull-cap, and a common red shawl round his head and shoulders. Writing the wrong way is very hard work. It was curious to see Sheykh Yussuf's blush from shyness when he came in first; it shows quite as much in the coffee-brown Arab skin as in the fairest European-quite unlike the much lighter-coloured mulatto or Malay, who never change colour at all.
Wednesday, January 20th, 1864.· We have had a week of piercing winds, but yesterday was fine again, and I mounted old Mustafa's cob pony, and jogged over his farm with him, and lunched on delicious sour cream and fateereh at a neighbouring village, to the great delight of the Fellah. The scene was more biblical than ever; the people were all relations of Mustafa's, and to see Sidi Omar, the head of the household, and the young men "coming in from the field, and the flocks and herds and camels and asses,” was like a beautiful dream. All these people are of high blood, and a sort of “roll of battle” is kept here for the genealogies of the noble Arabs, who came in with Amr, the first Arab conqueror and lieutenant of Omar. Not one of these brown men, who do not own a second shirt, would give his brown daughter to the greatest Turkish Pasha. This country noblesse is more interesting to me by far than the town people, though Omar, who is quite a cockney, and piques himself on being “ delicate," turns up his nose at their beggarly pride, as Londoners used to do at bare-legged Highlanders. The air of perfect equality (except as to the respect due to the head of the clan) with which the
villagers treated Mustafa, and which he fully returned, made it all seem so very gentlemanlike. They are not so dazzled by a little show, and far more manly than the Cairenes. I am already on visiting terms with all the “county families” resident in Luxor. The Nazir (magistrate) is a very nice person, and my Sheykh Yussuf, who is of the highest blood (being descended from Abul Hajjaj himself), is quite charming. There is an intelligent German here as Austrian consul, who draws well. I went into his house, and was startled by hearing a pretty little Arab boy, his servant, say, “Soll ich den Kaffee bringen ?" What next? They are all mad to learn languages, and Mustafa begs me to teach his little child Zehneb, English.
Friday, January 22d.— Yesterday, I rode over to Karnac, with Mustafa's Sais running by my side ; glorious hot sun and delicious air. To hear the Sais chatter away, his tongue running as fast as his feet, made me deeply envious of his lungs. Mustafa joined me, and pressed me to go to visit the sheykh's tomb for the benefit of my health, as he and Sheykh Yussuf wished to say a Fathah for me; but I must not drink wine at dinner. I made a little difficulty on the score of difference of religion, but Sheykh Yussuf, who came up, said he presumed I worshipped God and not stones, and that sincere prayers were good anywhere. Clearly the bigotry would have been on my side if I had refused any longer; so in the evening I went with Mustafa.
It was a very curious sight: the little dome illuminated with as much oil as the mosque could afford, and beneath it the tombs of Abul Hajjaj and his three sons; a magnificent old man, like Father Abraham himself, dressed in white, sat on a carpet at the foot of the tomb; he was the head of the family of Abul Hajjaj. He made me sit by him, and was extremely polite. Then came the Nazir, the Cadi, a Turk travelling on Government business, and a few other gentlemen, who all sat down round us, after kissing the hand of the old sheykh. Every one talked ; in fact, it was a soirée for the entertain
off, to people do not foto think it quite
ment of the dead sheykh. A party little den with bare mud walls, worse of men sat at the further end of the off, to our ideas, than any pauper ; but place, with their faces to the kibleh, these people do not feel the want of and played on a taraboukeh (sort of comforts, and one learns to think it quite small drum stretched on earthonware, natural to sit with perfect gentlemen in which gives a peculiar sound), a tam places inferior to our cattle sheds. I bourine without bells, and little tinkling pulled some blankets up against the cymbals, fitting on thumb and finger wall, and put my arm behind Sheykh (crotales), and chanted songs in honour Mohammed's back, to make him rest of Mohammed, and verses from the while the poultices were on him ; wherePsalms of David. Every now and then, upon he laid his green turban on my one of our party left off talking, and shoulder, and presently held up his prayed a little, or counted his beads. delicate brown face for a kiss, like an The old sheykh sent for coffee and gave affectionate child. As I kissed him, & me the first cup—a wonderful conces- very pious old moollah said Bismillah! sion; at last the Nazir proposed a Fathah “In the name of God!" with an apfor me, which the whole group round proving nod; and Sheykh Mohammed's me repeated alond, and then each said father (a splendid old man in a green to me :-“Our Lord God bless thee, and turban) thanked me with “effusion," “ give thee health and peace, to thee and and prayed that my children might “ thy family, and take thee back to thy always find help and kindness. This “master and thy children;" every one shows how much truth there is in “ Musadding "Ameen," and giving the salaam sulman bigotry, unconquerable hatred," with the hand. I returned it, and said, etc. ; for this family are Seyyids (de“ Our Lord reward theo and all the peo- scendants of the Prophet), and very pious. “ple for kindness to strangers," which Monday. I have just heard that poor was considered a very proper answer. Sheykh Mohammed died yesterday, and
After that we went away, and the was, as usual, buried at once. I had not worthy Nazir walked home with me to been well for a few days, and Sheykh take a pipe and a glass of sherbet, and Yussuf took care that I should not know enjoy a talk about his wife and eight of his brother's death. He went to Muschildren, who are all in Foom-el-Bachr; tapha Aga, and told him not to tell any except two boys at school at Cairo. In one of my house till I was better, beCairo or Lower Egypt, it would be quite cause he knew “what was in my stomach impossible for a Christian to enter a towards them, and feared I should be sheykh's tomb at all ;-above all, at his made worse by the news. And how birthday festival, and on the night of often I have been advised not to meddle Friday,
with sick Arabs, because they are sure Saturday.--My poor Sheykh Yussuf to suspect a Christian of poisoning those is in great distress about his brother, who die! I do grieve for the graceful also a young sheykh (i.e. one learned handsome young creature and his old in theology, and competent to preach father. Omar was vexed at not knowing in the mosque). Sheykh Mohammed is of his death, because he would have liked come home from studying in El-Azhar to help to carry him to the grave. at Cairo, I fear, to die. I went with Friday, January 29th.—The last week Sheykh Yussuf, at his desire, to see has been very cold here, the thermometer if I could help him, and found him 599 and 60°, with a nipping wind and gasping for breath, and very, very ill; bright sun. I was obliged to keep my I gave him a little soothing medicine, bed for three or four days, as a palace and put mustard plasters on him, and, without doors or windows to speak of as they relieved him, I went again was very trying, though far better than a and repeated them. All the family boat. Yesterday and to-day are better and a number of neighbours crowded in not much warmer, but a different air. to look on. There he lay in a dark The Moolid (festival) of the sheykh terminated last Saturday with a pro- opposite, and think, if only you and the cession, in which the new cover of his children were here, it would be “the best tomb, and the ancient sacred boat, were o life.” The beauty of Egypt grows carried on men's shoulders; it all seemed on one, and I think it far more lovely to have walked out of royal tombs, only this year than I did last. dusty and shabby, instead of gorgeous. My great friend the Maõhn (he is not These festivals of the dead are such as the Nazir, who is a fat little pig-eyed jolly Herodotus alludes to as held in honour Turk) lives in a house which also has a of “ Him whose name he dares not superb view in another direction, and I mention, Him who sleeps in Philæ ;" *often go and sit “on the bench;” , e. the only the name is changed, and the mustabah in front of his house, and do mummy is absent. For a fortnight every what little talk I can, and see the one who had a horse and could ride, people come with their grievances. I came and “made fantasia" every after- don't understand much of what goes on, noon for two hours before sunset, and as the patois is broad, and doubles the very pretty it was. The people here difficulty, or I would send you a Theban show their good blood in their riding. police-report ; but the Maõhn is very For the last three days, all strangers pleasant in his manner to them, and were entertained with bread and cooked they don't seem frightened. We have meat, at the expense of the Luxor people. appointed a very small boy our Bowab Every house killed a sheep and baked or porter, or rather he has appointed bread. As I could not do that for want himself, and his assumption of dignity of servants enough, I sent a hundred is quite delicious; he has provided himpiastres (about twelve shillings) to the self with a huge staff, and he behaves servants of Abul Hajjaj at the mosque, like the most tremendous janissary. to pay for the oil burnt at the tomb, &c. He is about the size of a child of five, I was not well, and in bed, but I hear as sharp as a needle, and possesses the that my gift gave immense satisfaction, remains of a brown shirt, and a ragged and that I was again well prayed for. kitchen duster as turban. I am very
The Coptic bishop came to see me, but fond of little Achmet, and like to see he was a tipsy old monk. He sent for him doing tableaux vivants after Murillo, tea, complaining that he was ill; so I with a plate of broken victuals. went to see him, and perceived that his The children of this place have become disorder was too much arrakee. He has so insufferable about backsheesh, that I a very nice black slave, a Christian have complained to the Maõhn, and he (Abyssinian, I think), who is a friend will assemble a committee of parents and of Omar's, and who sent Omar a hand- enforce better manners. It is only here, some dinner, all ready cooked ; among and just where the English go. When other things, a chicken stuffed with green I ride into the little villages, I never wheat was excellent.
hear the word, but am always offered February 12th, 1864.—We are in milk to drink; I have taken it two or Ramadan now, and Omar really enjoys three times and not offered to pay, and a good opportunity of “making his soul.” the people always seemed quite pleased. He fasts and washes vigorously, and Yesterday, Sheykh Yussuf came again, prays his five times a day, and goes to the first time since his brother's death; mosque on Fridays, and is quite merry he was evidently deeply affected, but over it, and ready to cook infidels' spoke in the usual way, “It is the will dinners with exemplary good humour. It of God, we must all die." I wish you is a great merit in Muslims that they are could see Sheykh Yussuf; I think ho not at all grumpy over their piety. is the sweetest creature in look and
The weather has set in since five or manner I ever beheld, so refined and so six days like Paradise ; I sit on my lofty simple, and with the animal grace of a balcony and drink in the sweet northerly gazelle. A high-bred Arab is as graceful breeze, and look at the glorious mountain as an Indian, but quite without the feline geschmeidigkeit, or the look of light amusements were proper for an dissimulation ; the eye is as clear and Alim-el-deen of the religion. We Eurofrank as a child's.
peans did not know that, of course, as our · Luxor, March 1st.The glory of the religion was to enjoy ourselves; but he climate now is beyond description, must not make merry with diversions or and I feel better every day. I go out music or droll stories. (See the mutual as early as seven or eight o'clock on my ignorance of all ascetics.) He has a tiny donkey, and come in to breakfast little girl of six or seven, and teaches at about ten, and go out again at four. her to write and read. No one else, he The sun is very hot in the middle of believes, thinks of such a thing out of the day, yet the people in boats say it Cairo; there many of the daughters of is still cold at night. In this large the. Alim learn, those who desire it. house I feel neither heat nor cold. ... His wife died two years ago, and six
I want to photograph Yussuf for you; months ago he married again a wife the feelings and prejudices and ideas of twelve years old! (Sheykh Yussuf is a cultivated Arab, as I get at them, little thirty, he tells me; he looks twenty-two.) by little, are curious beyond compare. What a stepmother, and what a wife! It won't do to generalize from one man, He can repeat the whole Koran without of course, but even one gives some very book; it takes twelve hours to do it. new ideas. The most striking thing is He has read the Tourach (the Old Testathe sweetness and delicacy of feeling, ment), and the Gospels (el Aangele), the horror of hurting any one (this must of course. “Every Alim reads them: be individual, of course; it is too good to " the words of Seyyidna Issa are the be general). For example, I apologized “ true faith; but Christians have altered to him two days ago for inadvertently "and corrupted their meaning. So we answering the “Salaam aleykoom," “Muslims believe. We are all the which he, of course, said to Omar on “ children of God.” I ask if Muslims coming in, and which is sacramental call themselves so, or only the slaves to Muslims. Yussuf blushed crimson, of God. “It is all one-children or touched my hand and kissed his own, “slaves. Does not a good man care for and looked quite unhappy. Yesterday “both tenderly alike?” (Pray observe evening he walked in, and startled me the Oriental feeling here. Slave is a by a “Salaam aleykee,” addressed to me; term of affection, not contempt; and he had evidently been thinking it over, remember the Centurion's servant whether he ought to say it to me, and (slave), whom he loved.”) “Had heard had come to the conclusion that it was “ from Fodl Pasha how a cow was cured not wrong. “Surely it is well for all “ of the prevailing disease in Lower “ the creatures of God to speak peace “Egypt by water, weighed against a “ (Salaam) to each other,” said he. “Mushaf (copy of the Koran); no Now, no uneducated Muslim would “doubt it was true. Fodl Pasha had have arrived at such a conclusion. “ tried it.” Yet Yussuf thinks the Arab Omar would pray, work, lie, do any doctors, who also use verses of the Koran, thing for me-sacrifice money even: of no use at all. but I doubt whether he could utter M. de Ronge, the great Egyptologue, “ Salaam aleykoom” to any but a Muslim. came here one evening; he speaks I answered as I felt—“Peace, oh my Arabic perfectly, and delighted Sheykh brother, and God bless thee !” It was Yussuf, who was much interested in almost as if a Catholic priest had felt the translations of the hieroglyphics, impelled by charity to offer the com- and anxious to know if he had found munion to a heretic.
anything about Moussa (Moses) or Yussuf I observed that the story of the Barber (Joseph). He looked pleased and gratewas new to him, and asked if he did not ful to be treated like " a gentleman and know the Thousand and One Nights. No; a scholar," by such an alim as M. de he studied only things of religion; no Ronge, and such an “elmeh" (for a