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Passengers and freight are transferred between San Francisco and Point Tiburon by the company's steamers “Tiburon” and “James M. Donahue," and the company now has another steamer under construction at Point Tiburon to be used in this service.

The San Francisco and North Pacific Railway is situated in the State of California, running through the important counties of Marin, Sonoma, and Mendocino, and traverses this rich and fertile country from San Francisco north to Ukiah, a distance of about 165 miles, including all branches now constructed.

The properties are all in good physical condition.

EEL RIVER AND EUREKA RAILROAD

Company was incorporated November 14, 1882, for the purpose of carrying freight (principally lumber), logs, and passengers; to be run from a point on the eastern line of Township 1 north, of Range 2 east, of Humboldt Meridian, to Eureka, Humboldt County, distant 40 miles; and was supplied with one passenger car for the purpose of carrying passengers. Although the bulk of the freight is still in carrying lumber, other traffic is gradually increasing, and the road is in first class condition.

SOUTH PACIFIC COAST RAILWAY.

This company was organized May 21, 1887, forming the South Pacific Coast Railway Company, by consolidation of the South Pacific Coast Railroad, Santa Cruz and Felton Railroad, Bay and Coast Railroad, Oakland Township Railroad, San Francisco and Colorado River Railroad, Felton and Pescadero Railroad, and Almaden Branch Railroad. The line extends from San Francisco to Santa Cruz, with several branches, and was opened for traffic from Santa Cruz to Felton, October 13, 1875; from Alameda Point to Los Gatos, June 1, 1878; to Alma, August 1, 1878; to Wrights, May 1, 1879; to Felton, May 15, 1880; from Alameda Point to Twelfth and Webster Streets, Oakland, May 30, 1881"; to Fourteenth and Franklin Streets, Oakland, October 1, 1886; from Newark to Centerville, February 18, 1882; from Alameda Mole to Alameda Point, March 15, 1884; from Felton Junction to Boulder Creek, May 1, 1885; from Campbells to Almaden, June 15, 1886. The mileage as now operated is as follows:

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The above lines are entirely located in California, and are of three-foot gauge.

In connection with its railroad line to San Francisco, the South Pacific Coast Railway maintains a ferry system to carry passengers and freight from the terminal depot on the Alameda mole, across the Bay of San Francisco. The steamers employed in this service are the “Bay City," "Encinal," "Garden City," and "Newark," which make connections with all trains, and make half hourly trips for the benefit of suburban travelers.

NORTH PACIFIC COAST RAILROAD.

Miles.

Line-From San Francisco to Cazadero

San Anselmo to San Quentin... Total

86.75 5.50

92.25

The North Pacific Coast Railroad Company was incorporated under an Act of the Legislature of May 20, A. D. 1861, relative to railroads, on December 16, 1871.

The road was opened fromSan Francisco to Tomales

-January 11, 1875. Tomales to Howards..

October 16, 1876. Howards to Tyrone..

April 2, 1877. Tyrone to Duncans.

May 15, 1877. Duncans to Cazadero.

April 11, 1886.

The road from San Rafael to San Quentin is operated under a lease of forty-three years from March 11, 1885, at an annual rental of $1; and that from Duncans to Cazadero, under one of ten years, from April 1, 1886, at an annual rental of $2,900, with the privilege of purchase of same for the sum of $58,000 any time during the life of the lease.

The capital stock authorized is $3,000,000, of which only $2,500,000 has been issued.

The total cost of the road, from San Francisco to Duncans, is $3,155,373 90.

During the past year several permanent improvements have been made, thereby enabling the company to rapidly and safely transport their increasing passengers and freight.

The road passes through some of the most picturesque scenery, for which this State is so famous, and can boast of having a greater number of summer resorts than any other road out of the City of San Francisco.

Two years ago the management decided to abandon “Sunday picnics” (and was followed the very next year by other railroads), and although at first it was feared that such sudden action might destroy the patronage of the pleasure seekers, it has proved exactly as they hoped, and to-day the records show a steady increase of travel.

PACIFIC COAST RAILWAY.

Miles,

Line-Port Harford, California, to Los Olivos, California

76.1

Consolidation September 22, 1882, of the San Luis Obispo and Santa Maria Valley Railroad Company and the Pacific Coast Railway Company. Rolling stock and roadbed in good condition.

CARSON AND COLORADO RAILROAD.

Miles.

Line-Mound House, Nevada, to Keeler (Owens Lake), Inyo County, California.
Branch-Junction to Candelaria, Nevada

293

6

Line in Nevada, 191 miles; in California, 108 miles. Follows, in the main, the open country of the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevadas, traversing a number of extensive and productive farming and grazing valleys, well watered by the Carson, Walker, and Owens Rivers, and their tributaries, all having source in the Sierras.

The mountain ranges on each side of the line embrace a number of well known mining districts, producing gold, silver, lead, and copper, while large deposits of salt, borax, and soda are found in the low valleys, or "alkali flats," as they are termed, adjacent to the line.

At Owens Lake extensive earth vats have been built, into which the alkaline water of the lake is pumped, thousands of tons of soda being made by precipitation. The waters of this lake contain decided curative powers, particularly for catarrh and cutaneous affections.

The line runs about seventy-five miles through Owens River Valley, which contains many fine farms and many thousands of acres of unappropriated government land, suitable for farming, fruit raising, and grazing. Apples, pears, peaches, plums, apricots, nectarines, figs, as well as grapes, flourish finely. No valley on the coast contains such a bountiful water supply, coming from the Owens River and the many creeks having their source in the Sierras, which here rise precipitously and reach their greatest height, Mount Whitney having an altitude of fifteen thousand and eightyeight feet, being the highest summit in the United States. This summit can be reached by a good trail from the village of Lone Pine. A well known mountain traveler, who lately made the ascent of Mount Whitney, writes as follows: "The panorama from such a height was exceedingly expansive. We stood on the first born sun of light of the State and country, where at sunrise he can daily literally see the opening eyelids of the morn.' The look over the edge of the mountain was down the most profound gorge seen in the Sierras. That from Glacier Point, or over the clean-cut wall of the South Dome, Yosemite Valley, does not equal it.” The “Whitney region,” embracing Whitney and other creeks, and the head waters of Kern River, about 40 miles from Lone Pine, affords the finest fishing grounds for brook and river trout to be found in the entire Sierras.

The Carson and Colorado Railroad is maintained in A1 condition, the equipment being first class throughout, and consists of eight locomotives, nine passenger and express, and one hundred and eighty freight cars.

Without doubt the road will soon be extended southerly to a connection with the several trunk lines running into Southern California, when a marked increase of traffic, arising from the development of this new and heretofore almost unheard of section, can be expected.

ARCATA AND MAD RIVER RAILROAD.

First railroad in Humboldt County, California. Incorporated in this State, December 15, 1854; called Union Plank Walk Rail Track Company. Building the track from Arcata to the flats in Humboldt Bay, to the ship channel, two miles long, for carrying passengers and merchandise. This track was made of wooden rails; gauge, forty-five inches, with a fourwheeled car, drawn by one-horse power. In the year 1875 the railroad was extended from Arcata northeast three quarters of a mile to Jolly Giant, for the purpose of hauling lumber from the mill to the wharf. In the year 1876 the railroad was extended northwest to the “Dolly Varden Mill," one half mile from Arcata, for hauling lumber. During these years all lumber and merchandise were hauled on wooden track rails, four by four pine, on cars drawn by a horse. This year they built the first steam dummy, called the “ Black Diamond,"working by two oscillating engines, pulling about six cars on a level track; capacity of cars, two thousand five hundred feet. This was the first locomotive in the county.

In the year 1878 the Union Plank Walk Railroad was sold. The company then formed, and incorporated on the fifteenth of June, 1878, and was called the Arcata Transportation Company. This company extended the railroad, for the purpose of hauling lumber from Dolly Varden north four miles into the woods, where a mill was built, called the “Warren Creek Mill," cutting about thirty thousand feet per day.

In the year 1881 the first locomotive was ordered from Pittsburg, weighing four tons, and called the Arcata. This year the Arcata Transportation was sold, and a new company was organized, called the Arcata and Mad River Railroad Company, incorporated in this State, December 30, 1881.

In 1883 the Arcata and Mad River Railroad was sold, and a new company organized. Improvements were made; cars and engines ordered; new passenger coaches between Arcata and the wharf, running with locomotive; general repairs made over the entire road; the railroad extended from Warren Creek north seven miles to the redwoods, where a sawmill was erected; new town settlement made, and called North Fork. This mill cuts about seventy thousand feet per day. Roadbed was constructed of six by eight inches by eight feet long redwood ties; thirty-five-pound steel rails. All the wooden track between Arcata and Warren Creek was exchanged for steel rails. Ordered a new locomotive of eighteen tons weight. A new combination bridge, over seven hundred feet long, was built over Mad River. Passenger travel was commenced in December of this year, from North Fork to Arcata, and general freight and lumber carried.

In the year 1885 a sidetrack was built, one quarter of a mile long, to Glendale, where a mill was built, cutting forty-five thousand feet per day. In the year 1886 a sidetrack was built to Riverside, also one quarter of a mile long, to the sawmill, cutting about forty thousand feet per day. This railroad is built for the purpose of hauling lumber from mills built along the line, to the railroad company's wharf, which is 2 miles long, trestle work; mooring thirteen sailing vessels conveniently. Length of main line from Arcata to North Fork, 12 miles, with 3 miles of sidetrack; thirty-five-pound steel rails. The fences are kept in good repair. System of locks prevents the switches being left open on the line.

NATIONAL CITY AND OTAY RAILWAY.

Miles.

Line-San Diego to Oneonta

Sweetwater Junction to La Presa
Tia Juana Junction to Tia Juana

16.32

7.89 4.45

This road was constructed under two charters, one known as the National City and Otay Railway Company, and the other as the Otay Railway Company, later consolidated, October, 1888, under the name of the National City and Otay Railway Company,” all the said charters being under the general laws of the State of California.

Work began upon this road in 1886, and proceeded until June, 1888, the various sections being opened for traffic as construction advanced, from May, 1887, to June, 1888. Its cost, including equipment, to date, is about $446,493 44, all of said money being advanced by the San Diego Land and Town Company, with a view to the development of the agricultural and commercial territory south of the line of San Diego upon San Diego Bay, and with reference to its possible extension to some eastern point. The track is of standard gauge, and is equipped at present with light material and rolling stock, adapted to the economical conduct of local business, both freight and passenger. The principal branches of its traffic are the local travel between National City, Chula Vista, Tia Juana, on the Mexican boundary, and the Sweetwater Valley, together with the hauling to market of fruit, hay, grain, brick, ores for reduction, coal, and stone for paving purposes, a valuable quarry of this material being situated in the Sweetwater Valley. All the securities issued by the company are owned by and held in the treasury of the San Diego Land and Town Company, and the property is maintained in excellent condition.

NEVADA COUNTY NARROW GAUGE RAILROAD.

Miles,

Line-Colfax, Placer County, to Nevada City, Nevada County

22.50

This road was built under a special charter or franchise granted by the Legislature of the State of California, approved by the Hon. Newton Booth, Governor, March 20, 1874. The construction was commenced in January, , 1875, and the road opened for travel and freight to Grass Valley April 17, 1876, and to Nevada City May 24, 1876. Colfax, the initial point, is a station on the Central Pacific Railroad, 54 miles northeasterly from Sacramento; thence the road runs through Grass Valley, a town of some seven thousand population, to Nevada City, a place of nearly six thousand population. The road is a heavy piece of construction, owing to the mountainous character of the country, and has about 7,000 degrees of curvatures, and an almost continuous succession of heavy grades, both ascending and descending, as it passes over two ridges, one two thousand eight hundred and sixty feet, and the other two thousand seven hundred and seventy-two feet above sea level; whilst the height of Colfax is two thousand four hundred and sixteen, Bear River, two thousand and seventysix, Grass Valley, two thousand four hundred and forty-eight, and Nevada City two thousand five hundred and twenty-four feet above the same base. The road was originally laid with thirty-five-pound iron rails, but six miles have been relaid with thirty-five-pound steel; the roadbed, bridges, etc., are in first class condition, and it is the intention to put down some three miles of thirty-five-pound steel during the present year. Some seven thousand cedar ties were used in renewal during the past year, and it is proposed to use cedar ties in future for such renewals as may be needed. Three round trips daily are made by the passenger trains, connecting with the Southern Pacific trains.

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