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more became an independent nation.

No nation has ever gained its whole freedom by one eifort; and Germany, by that one victorious campaign, has not obtained the fulness of liberty. The endeavours of that country are now again directed to internal freedom, to a common government, and a parliamentary representation of the whole nation. Thus the early aspirations of Schiller's youth have once more become the task of an entire nation. Schiller's spirit is still in full work; and so much is his influence dreaded, that the reading of several of his works at school is prohibited by the Prussian government. Can we wonder that the Germans in London, who breathe the air of a free country, should have assembled by thousands on the anniversary of his birth, to pay homage to the genius of the great Departed ?

The English, when they learn German, usually commence with Schiller's dramatic works. No wonder; for, although a paradox, it is true that the two greatest authors of Germany are also the easiest to understand. Of Schiller's lyrical productions and smaller poems, if we are not mistaken, only the ‘Lay of the Bell’ and most of the ballads are generally known in this country. It is, however, just to them that we should like to draw the attention of German scholars.* They do not, on

* The poems of Schiller exist in English in two translations: •Schiller's Poems, complete, attempted in English by E. A. Bowring,' and · The Poems and Ballads of Schiller, translated by Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton.' The former translation keeps very close to the letter of the original, and besides the poems acknowledged by Schiller, gives also those published by him anony. mously in the « Anthologie' of 1782. The poem from this latter collection, The Bad Monarchs,' will be a strong proof of what we said above concerning the revolutionary enthusiasm of Schiller's younger days. But Sir E. B. Lytton's translation, with the author's fine criticism on Schiller's lyrics, is the work of a deep German scholar, com bined with all the powers of a poet; and from him we beg to borrow the translation at the close of our essay. There is only one phrase in it, the “starry juice' of the lemon, which an English reader might mis

the whole, recommend themselves to the musical composer, being too weighty in thought for bearing accompaniment; but, besides being marvellously rich in sound by themselves, and full of truly oratorical rhythm, they are, for the most part, tinged with a philosophical vein, elevating the heart and brightening the intellect of the reader. Perhaps no poet has ever circumscribed the whole circle of life, individual and social, so completely in one comparatively short poem, as Schiller did in the 'Lay of the Bell.' Yet with the same completeness is the historical development of our race encompassed in his 'Spatziergang,' the origin of civilization in the · Festival of Eleusis,' and the idea of humanity, liberating, ennobling, and assisting humankind, in his glorious · Hymn to Joy.' To Schiller's profound mind even slight things were symbolical of great things. It might be difficult in London to be philosophical and poetical over a glass of punch; yet Schiller was so in his small house at Jena. We have two ‘Punch songs' of his, probably written on the occasion of merry Christmas' or jolly New Year's celebrations. One of them bears the title A Punch Air, to be sung in a Northern country.' The poet compares the glowing purple wine of the South to nature, the pallid and troubled drink of the North to art; but art, too, is a gift of Heaven, although obliged to borrow an earthly fire; she sends her keel far to the Fortunate Islands for the golden fruit, and with the flame 01 of the hearth imitates the lofty god of the sun in dissolving and combining elements at will. The other Punch song is that to which our illustration belongs, where the four ingredients of which punch is made are used as types of the elements that constitute the world and all that lives in it. understand. The Germans call the network in the lemon, when you cut it through the middle, the star of the lemon ;' and these four lines might therefore run like this,

• From the star of the lemon

The harsh juice pour;
Harsh is life in its

Innermost core,

The graceful ease of these short lines must needs be lost to the English reader ; but even in this punch of a translation, which we offer instead of the bright wine of the original, the strength of thought will not be completely diluted ; and many of our readers will believe us right in saying that Schiller, as every true poet, is no less admirable in thus ennobling a little thing, as he is in the finest and grandest speeches of heroes in his tragedies.

On the occasion of the Schiller Jubilee, the great publishing firm of Cotta, at Stuttgart, to whom the copyright of his works belongs, began to issue a splendid edition of the poems, which was to be a specimen as well of typography as of the art of illustration. The illustrations consist of photographs from elaborate drawings, and of elegant marginal decorations. From one of the photographs, made by Von Ramberg, our woodcut is taken Behind the table stands Schiller, and to him, in fairness, the element of the spirit' is given. This is not the ideal, quiet head of the bust, but the fiery young man of about thirtyone years, shortly after his marriage. We think we see his bushy red hair rise round the bold and defiant face. By his side stands his sweet young wife, Charlotte von Lengefeld. They had married in 1789, and into their bridal feast sounded the thunder of the French Revolution. To her the office of sweetening the bowl is given. The woman in front of the table, and holding the lemons, with the dark hair and sharp cut of the face, is Schiller's sisterin-law, Caroline von Wolzogen, who in her youth attracted Schiller by the charms of her elevated mind and her extensive reading, and after his death wrote the most important and authentic of all his biographies. Opposite to her the fourth element, that of the water, is represented by a friend of the house, in whom even the German critics find it difficult to recognize a distinct person.

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* Es sind nicht alle Jäger, die das Horn gut blasen.'
• Hasty climbers have sudden falls.'


TOWN BELLES AND COUNTY BELLES. IT would be impossible to find a been committed, but which error we I more highly respectable place now forgave. than Holcroft; respectable in every We had in Holcroft that inestisense of the word. It was not a mable blessing, a rector who loved not large town, scarcely more than a vil- changes. 'If they came, they were lage ; but it was a borough, and sent not of his seeking,' he said, and most & member to parliament. And in people believed him. In such a this was seen one feature of its re- place he was a man of no little imspectability—it always sent a good portance, and had the power of givTory: Church and State always for ing a tone to society in general. Holcroft, and it had done so since it Not that he ever interfered with first had the honour of being repre any man ; for he allowed every one sented in the imperial parliament. to go his own way in peace and None of your upstart, loose-thinking quietness. He took the world what radicals for Holcroft: we were con- is called 'easy,' and the world, with servative to the very backbone. exceeding great politeness, returned

We thanked heaven frequently the compliment, and took him easy that we lay far away from any great too. manufacturing district, farther away His daughter, Miss Seeley, was still from sea and sea-ports, which sometimes a little sharp and dictabring innovations one after the other, torial in her manner to those she and miscall them improvements. supposed delinquents; but that was We did not court novelty, save in ascribed to her youth, for she had one point, that of dress; and we not seen more than fifty summers in ladies were not exempt from the Holcroft. usual folly of our sex in this respect. But now a time was coming in As ' year after year the cowslips which changes were to be; but they filled the meadows,' we pursued the came so naturally, so easily, so graceeven tenor of our ways. The rest of fully, that not one dissentient voice the world sped on at its usual speed; was raised. These changes were, we stood still. We led such tranquil like Argyle's head of old, of which lives, and died such tranquil deaths, the old woman said, “No great thing and kept up old customs and stories, of a head; but a sair loss to him, and reverently handed them down puir man.' to our descendants, to be kept with Ours, however, were not losses, sacred care, before we left our little but gains, and great gains, too. They world on earth for the greater one did not subvert the government, above.

they did not even put out a ministry; Few people who left Holcroft for but they were wonderful changes to schools or professions ever returned us of Holcroft. We had a ‘Hall'in again to settle and have their home our neighbourhood—what place of in it. They seemed to like the outer respectability has not ?---but it had world better, and Holcroft generally been for nearly ten years uninhapitied their delusion. Ever after bited. I was but a child when Uncle wards, these individuals who had Geoffrey, to whom it belonged, went turned their back on us were spoken abroad. After his wife's death he of with an apologetic wave of the took his little girl away, for her eduhand, as men now speak of the inis- cation, he said, and they had never takes in the Crimea or the misgo- lived at Holcroft since. vernment of India as a thing of the Laura Holcroft was now grown past, in which a great error had up, and I dare say they had had

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