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machine or system; and, in each case, under such conditions as to establish that the invention is being utilized and that its benefits are, to the extent permitted by law or Government regulations, available to the public on reasonable terms.

f. The term “made" when used in relation to any invention means the conception or first actual reduction to practice of such invention.

g. The term “small business firm” means a small business concern as defined at section 2 of Public Law 85-536 (15 U.S.C. $ 632) and implementing regulations of the Administrator of this Circular, the size standards for small business concerns involved in Government procurement and subcontracting at 13 CFR 121.3-8 and 121.3-12, respectively, will be used.

h. The term "nonprofit organization” means universities and other institutions of higher education or an organization of the type described in section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (26 U.S.C. $ 501(c)) and exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. $ 501(a)) or any nonprofit scientific or educational organization qualified under a state nonprofit organization statute.

7. Use of the Patent Rights (Small Business Firm or Nonprofit Organization) (March 1982) Clause.

a. Each funding agreement awarded to a small business firm or domestic nonprofit organization which has as a purpose the performance of experimental, developmental or research work shall contain the “Patent Rights (Small Business Firm or Nonprofit Organization) (March 1982)" clause set forth in Attachment A with such modifications and tailoring as may be authorized in Part 8, except that the funding agreement may contain alternative provisions

(1) When the funding agreement is for the operation of a Government-owned research or production facility; or

(2) In exceptional circumstances when it is determined by the agency that restriction or elimination of the right to retain title to any subject invention will better promote the policy and objectives of Chapter 38 of Title 35 of the United States Code; or

(3) When it is determined by a Government authority which is authorized by statute or executive order to conduct foreign in. telligence or counterintelligence activities that the restriction or elimination of the right to retain title to any subject invention is necessary to protect the security of such activities.

b. (1) Any determination under Part 7.a.(2) of this Circular will be in writing and accompanied by a written statement of facts justifying the determination. The statement of facts will contain such information as the

funding Federal agency deems relevant and, at minimum, will (i) identify the small busi

firm or nonprofit organization involved, (ii) describe the extent to which agency action restricted or eliminated the right to retain title to a subject invention, (iii) state the facts and rationale supporting the agency action, (iv) provide supporting documentation for those facts and rationale, and (v) indicate the nature of any objections to the agency action and provide any documentation in which those objections appear. A copy of each such determination and written statement of facts will be sent to the Comptroller General of the United States within 30 days after the award of the applicable funding agreement. In cases of determinations application to small business firms, copies will also be sent to the Chief Counsel for Advocacy of the Small Business Administration.

(2) To assist the Comptroller General to accomplish his or her responsibilities under 35 U.S.C. $ 202, each Federal agency that enters into any funding agreements with nonprofit organizations or small business firms during the applicable reporting period shall accumulate and, at the request of the Comptroller General, provide the Comptrol. ler General or his or her duly authorized representative the total number of prime funding agreements entered into with small business firms or nonprofit organizations that contain the patent rights clause of Attachment A during each period of October 1 through September 30, beginning October 1, 1982.

c. (1) Agencies are advised that Part 7.a. applies to subcontracts at any tier under prime funding agreements with contractors that are other than small business firms or nonprofit organizations. Accordingly, agencies should take appropriate action to ensure that this requirement is reflected in the patent clauses of such prime funding agreements awarded after March 1, 1982.

(2) In the event an agency has outstand. ing prime funding agreements that do not contain patent flow-down provisions consistent with either this Circular or OMB Bulletin 81-22 (if it was applicable at the time the funding agreement was awarded), the agency shall take appropriate action to ensure that small business firms or domestic nonprofit organizations subcontractors under such prime funding agreements that received their subcontracts after July 1, 1981, will receive rights in their subject inventions that are consistent with P.L. 96517 and this Circular. Appropriate actions might include (i) amendment of prime contracts and/or subcontracts; (ii) requiring the inclusion of the clause of Attachment A as a condition of agency approval of a subcontract; or (iii) the granting of title to the subcontractor to identified subject inventions on terms substantially the same as contained in the clause of Attachment A in the event the subcontract contains a “deferred determination” or “acquisition by the Government” type of patent rights clause.

d. To qualify for the clause of Attachment A, a prospective contractor may be required by an agency to certify that it is either a small business firm or a domestic nonprofit organization. If the agency has reason to question the status of the prospective contractor as a small business firm or domestic nonprofit organization, it may file a protest in accordance with 13 C.F.R. 121.3-5 if small business firm status is questioned or require the prospective contractor to furnish evidence to establish its status as a domestic nonprofit organization.

8. Instructions for Modification and Tailoring of the Clause of Attachment A.

a. Agencies should complete the blank in paragraph g.(2) of the clause of Attachment A in accordance with their own or applicable Government-wide regulations such as the FPR or DAR. The flow-down provisions of the clause cited by the agency should, of course, reflect the requirement of Part 7.c.(1).

b. Agencies should complete paragraph 1. “Communications” at the end of the clause of Attachment A by designating a central point of contact for communications on matters relating to the clause. Additional instructions on communications may also be included in paragraph 1.

c. Agencies may replace the italicized or underlined words and phrases with those appropriate to the particular funding agreement. For example contractcould be replaced by "grant", "contractor" by "grantee", and “Contracting officerby “grants officer." Depending on its use, Federal agencycan be replaced either by the identification of the agency or by the specification of the particular office or official within that agency.

d. When the agency head or duly authorized designee determines at the time of contracting with a small business firm or nonprofit organization that it would be in the national interest to acquire the right to sublicense foreign governments or international organizations pursuant


any existing treaty or agreement, a sentence may be added at the end of paragraph b. of the clause of Attachment A as follows:

"This license will include the right of the Government to sublicense foreign governments and international organizations pursuant to the following treaties or international agreements: --; or pursuant to any future treaties or agreements with foreign governments or international organizations.” The blank in the above should be completed with the names of applicable existing treaties or international agreements. The above

language is not intended to apply to treaties or agreements that are in effect on the date of the award which are not listed. The above language may be modified by agencies by deleting the reference to future treaties or agreements or by otherwise more narrowly defining classes of future treaties or agreements. The language may also be modified to make clear that the rights granted to the foreign government or international organization may be for additional rights beyond a license or sublicense if so required by the applicable treaty or international agreement. For example, in some cases exclusive licenses or even the assignment of title in the foreign country involved might be required. Agencies may also modify the language above to provide for the direct licensing by the contractor of the foreign governmer or international organization.

e. To the extent not required by other provisions of the funding agreement, agencies may add additional subparagraphs to paragraph (f) of the patent rights clause of Attachment A to require the contractor to do one or more of the following:

(1) Provide periodic (but no more frequently than annually) listings of all subject inventions required to be disclosed during the period covered by the report;

(2) Provide a report prior to the close-out of a funding agreement listing all subject inventions or stating that there were none;

(3) Provide notification of all subcontracts for experimental, developmental, or research work; and

(4) Provide, upon request, the filing date, serial number and title; a copy of the patent application; and patent number and issue date for any subject invention in any county in which the contractor has applied for patents.

Part 9. Publication or Release of Invention Disclosures.

a. 35 U.S.C. § 205 provides as follows:

"Federal agencies are authorized to withhold from disclosure to the public information disclosing any invention in which the Federal Government owns or may own a right, title, or interest (including a nonexclusive license) for a reasonable time in order for a patent application to be filed. Furthermore, Federal agencies shall not be required to release copies of any document which is part of an application for patent filed with the United States Patent and Trademark Office or with any foreign patent office."

b. To the extent authorized by 35 U.S.C. $ 205, agencies shall not disclose to third parties pursuant to requests under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) any information disclosing a subject invention for a reasonable time in order for a patent application to be filed. With respect to subject inventions of contractors that are small business firms or nonprofit organizations, a reasonable time shall be the time during which an initial patent application may be filed under paragraph c. of the clause of Attachment A or such other clause that may be used in the funding agreement. However, an agency may disclose such subject inventions under the FOIA, at its discretion, after a contractor has elected not to retain title or after the time in which the contractor is required to make an election if the contractor has not made an election within that time. Similarly, an agency may honor an FOIA request at its discretion if it finds that the same information has previously been published by the inventor, contractor, or otherwise. If the agency plans to file itself when the contractor has not elected title, it may, of course, continue to avail itself of the authority of 35 U.S.C. $ 205.

c. As authorized by 35 U.S.C. $ 205, Federal agencies shall not release copies of any document which is part of an application for patent filed on a subject invention to which a small business firm or nonprofit organization elected to retain title.

d. A number of agencies have policies to encourage public dissemination of the results of work supported by the agency through publication in Government or other publications of technical reports of contractors or others. In recognition of the fact that such publication, if it included descriptions of a subject invention, could create bars to obtaining patent protection, it is the policy of the executive branch that agencies will not include in such publication programs, copies of disclosures of inventions submitted by small business firms or nonprofit organizations, pursuant to paragraph c. of the clause of Attachment A, except that under the same circumstances under which agencies are authorized to release such information pursuant to FOIA requests under Part 9.b. above, agencies may publish such disclosures.

e. Nothing in this part is intended to preclude agencies from including in the publication activities described in the first sentence of Part 9.d., the publication of materials describing a subject invention to the extent such materials were provided as part of a technical report or other submission of the contractor which were submitted independently of the requirements of the patent rights provisions of the contract. However, if a small business firm or nonprofit organization notifies the agency that a particular report or other submission contains a disclosure of a subject invention to which it has elected or may elect title, the agency will use reasonable efforts to restrict its publication of the material for six months from date of its receipt of the report or submission or, if earlier, until the contractor has filed an initial patent application. Agencies,

of course, retain the discretion to delay publication for additional periods of time.

f. Nothing in this part 9 is intended to limit the authority of agencies provided in 35 U.S.C. $ 205 in circumstances not specifically described in this part 9.

10. Reporting on Utilization of Subject Inventions.

a. Paragraph h. of the clause of Attachment A provides that agencies have the right to receive periodic reports from the contractor on utilization of inventions. In accordance with such instructions as may be issued by the Department of Commerce, agencies shall obtain such information from their contractors. Pending such instructions, agencies should not impose reporting requirements. The Department of Commerce and the agencies, in conjunction with representatives of small business and nonprofit organizations, shall work together to establish a uniform periodic reporting system.

b. To the extent any such data or, information supplied by the contractor is considered by the contractor, or its licensee or assignee, to be privileged and confidential and is so marked, agencies shall not, to the extent permitted by 35 U.S.C. § 202(c)(5), disclose such information to persons outside the Government.

11. Retention of Rights by Inventor. Agencies which allow an inventor to retain rights to a subject invention made under a funding agreement with a small business firm or nonprofit organization contractor, as authorized by 35 U.S.C. $ 202(d), will impose upon the inventor at least those conditions that would apply to a small business firm contractor under paragraphs d. (ii) and (iii); f. (4); h.; i.; and j. of the clause of Attachment A.

12. Government Assignment to Contractor of Rights in Invention of Government Employee. In any case when a Federal employ. ee is a co-inventor of any invention made under a funding agreement with a small business firm or nonprofit organization and the Federal agency employing such co-inventor transfers or reassigns the right it has acquired in the subject invention from its employee to the contractor as authorized by 35 U.S.C. 202(e), the assignment will be made subject to the same conditions as would apply to the contractor under the clause of Attachment A.

13. Exercise of March-in Rights.

a. The following procedures shall govern the exercise of the march-in rights of the agencies set forth in 35 U.S.C. § 203 and the clause at Attachment A.

b. Whenever an agency receives information that it believes might warrant the exercise of march-in rights, before initiating any march-in proceeding in accordance with the procedures of Part 13.c.-h. below, it shall notify the contractor in writing of the information and request informal written or oral comments from the contractor. In the absence of any comments from the contractor within 30 days, the agency may, at its discretion, proceed with the procedures below. If a comment is received, whether or not within 30 days, then the agency shall, within 60 days after it receives the comment, either initiate the procedures below or notify the contractor, in writing, that it will not pursue march-in rights based on the information about which the contractor was notified.

C. A march-in proceeding shall be initiated by the issuance of a written notice by the agency to the contractor and its assignee or exclusive licensee, as applicable, stating that the agency is considering the exercise of march-in rights. The notice shall state the reasons for the proposed march-in in terms sufficient to put the contractor on notice of the facts upon which the action would be based and shall specify the field or fields of use in which the agency is considering requiring licensing. The notice shall advise the contractor (assignee or exclusive licensee) of its rights, as set forth in this Circular and in any supplemental agency regulations. The determination to exercise marchin rights shall be made by the head of the agency or designee, except as provided in part 13.j. below.

d. Within 30 days after receipt of the written notice of march-in, the contractor (assignee or exclusive licensee) may submit, in person, in writing, or through a representative, information or argument in opposition to the proposed march-in, including any additional specific information which raises a genuine dispute over the material facts upon which the march-in is based. If the information presented raises a genuine dispute over the material facts, the head of the agency or designee shall undertake or refer the matter to another official for fact-finding.

e. Fact-finding shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures established by the agency. Such procedures shall be as informal as practicable and be consistent with principles of fundamental fairness. The procedures should afford the contractor the opportunity to appear with counsel, submit documentary evidence, present witnesses and confront such persons as the agency may present. A transcribed record shall be made and shall be available at cost to the contractor upon request. The requirement for a transcribed record may be waived by mutual agreement of the contractor and the agency. Any portion of a fact-finding hearing that involves testimony or evidence relating to the utilization or efforts at obtaining utilization that are being made by the contractor, its assignee, or licensees shall be

closed to the public, including potential licensees.

f. The official conducting the fact-finding shall prepare written findings of fact and transmit them to the head of the agency or designee promptly after the conclusion of the fact-finding proceeding. A copy of the findings of fact shall be sent to the contractor (assignee or exclusive licensee) by registered or certified mail.

g. In cases in which fact-finding has been conducted, the head of the agency or designee shall base his or her determination on the facts found, together with any other information and argument submitted by the contractor (assignee or exclusive licensee), and any other information in the administrative record. The consistency of the exercise of march-in rights with the policy and objectives of 35 U.S.C. $ 200-206 and this Circular shall also be considered. In cases referred for fact-finding, the head of the agency or designee may reject only those facts that have been found that are clearly erroneous. Written notice of the determination whether march-in rights will be exercised shall be made by the head of the agency or designee and sent to the contractor (assignee or exclusive licensee) by certified or registered mail within 90 days after the completion of fact-finding or the proceedings will be deemed to have been terminated and thereafter no march-in bas on the facts and reasons upon which the proceeding was initiated may be exercised.

h. An agency may, at any time, terminate a march-in proceeding if it is satisfied that it does not wish to exercise march-in rights.

i. The procedures of this part shall also apply to the exercise of march-in rights against inventors receiving title to subject inventions under 35 U.S.C. § 202(d) and, for that purpose, the term “contractor" as used in this part shall be deemed to include the inventor.

j. Notwithstanding the last sentence of Part 13.c., a determination to exercise march-in in cases where the subject invention was made under a contract may be made initially by the contracting officer in accordance with the procedures of the Contract Disputes Act. In such cases, the procedures of the Contract Disputes Act will apply in lieu of those in Parts 13.d.-g. above (except that the last sentence of Part 13.e. shall continue to apply). However, when the procedures of this Part 13.j. are used, the contractor, assignee, or exclusive licensee will not be required to grant a license and the Government will not grant any license until after either: (1) 90 days from the date of the contractor's receipt of the contracting officer's decision, if no appeal of the decision has been made to an agency board of contract appeals, or if no action has been brought under Section 10 of the Act within

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