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THE CATHOLIC APOSTOLIC CHURCH.
IN 1830 and 1831 several Presbyterians in Scotland and London prayed for a restoration of the “gifts of the Spirit.” Members of the Episcopal Church were at the same time looking for such manifestations. In response, gifts of "tongues and prophesyings" came, it is said, upon a number of people, some of whom were connected with a Presbyterian church in London, of which the Rev. Edward Irving was pastor. Mr. Irving was identified with the movement, and has often been spoken of as the founder of the Catholic Apostolic Church. But its representatives, while cordially recognizing his services, do not so regard him. The spiritual manifestations were “accompanied by many works of divine power, such as the healing of the sick”; and in 1832, after the “reality of the prophetic gift had been fully established by the experience of almost three years," the office of apostle was revived, a layman of the Church of England being the first person designated by the Holy Ghost to fill it. Others were designated from time to time until the number was completed and there were twelve. Several congregations were organized, and in time the movement extended to other countries.
The first church in the United States was constituted in Potsdam, N. Y., and the second in New York City in 1851.
The Catholic Apostolic Church accepts the three ccumenical creeds—the Apostles', Nicene, and Athanasian
holds to the plenary inspiration of the Scriptures, and also to the traditions of the church as sources whence the doctrine of Christ is to be derived. It regards baptism as an ordinance for the conveyance of the new or resurrection life, and the Lord's Supper as a sacrament for the nourishing and strengthening of that life. It believes that the gift of the Spirit is conveyed by the laying on of apostles' hands. The doctrine of predestination is accepted, although it is denied that God's mercies are limited to the elect.
In its system of worship the Eucharist has the central place. It is celebrated every Sunday. There is also a daily service, morning and evening. A full ritual is used in public worship.
Apostles, prophets, evangelists, and angels or chief pastors are recognized as constituting a fourfold ministry. Angels are pastors of local churches, in which there are also elders, deacons, and deaconesses. Each church is regarded as complete in itself.
The Catholic Apostolic Church has 10 organizations and 1394 members.
The average seating capacity of its church edifices is 250, and their average value $22,017. There are 7 halls, with a seating capacity of 350.
EVERY Chinese temple is a house of prayer or worship, but no sermon is preached, no priest installed, no religious instruction given, and no seating accommodations provided. There is always at least one shrine, the more frequented temples having several, so that a number of persons can perform the usual ceremony, each for himself, without being obliged to take turns. The worshipers do not meet in a body, nor is any particular time set for devotions. When about to enter upon a new enterprise or to take a journey, or when in doubt concerning any particular course of action, the Chinese are careful to consult their gods and patron saints. Every worshiper provides himself with incense sticks, candles, and sacrificial papers, which are generally to be had of attendants at small cost. Offerings of wine and meat are added on special occasions. The candles and incense sticks are lighted and placed in their proper receptacles. If wine is used, it is put in minute cups scarcely larger than thimbles, and these are ranged in a row before the shrine. The meat offerings may be roast chicken, roast pig, or any other table luxury. When everything is properly placed the genuflexions begin and the request is presented. If the answer required is a simple affirmative or negative, the worshiper drops a pair of lenticular pieces of wood on the floor a number of times and calculates the answer from the frequency with which each
face turns up.
Another method of obtaining responses, particularly when fuller responses are desired, is by shaking a box filled with numbered slips of bamboo, one of which will fall out, and then consulting a book containing numbered answers in Chinese verse.
The interior of Chinese temples is often highly decorated. The walls and ceilings are hung with tablets having inscriptions in the Chinese character, and there are often rows of lanterns and embroidered silk umbrellas. Fine wood carving is also to be seen. The decorations are the gifts of worshipers.
Most Chinese temples are free to all. No register is kept of members.
Of the four temples in New York City one, Chung-wa-kung-saw, claims 7000 worshipers; Chapsing-tong, 700; Hok-san-kung-saw, 1000; Lung-kongkung-saw, 1000. Chung-wa-kung-saw is an organization in which every Chinaman in New York is supposed to be interested. Chap-sing-tong admits laundrymen only, and the other temples are supported by those who come from Hok-san and Lung-kong respectively. A laundryman from the district of Hok-san may therefore be a member of three of the temples. For this reason no statistics of members can be given.
Chinese temples are usually well supported. The revenues are derived largely from the privilege, sold at auction to the highest bidder, of selling the articles of worship, which every worshiper must have. Thus the privilege of selling for the Lung-kong-kung-saw of San Francisco brought in 1890 $12,365.50, and that for the How-wangmew in the same city $3961.60.
According to the returns of population there are 107,475 Chinese in the United States, of whom 72,472 are in Cali
fornia, 9540 in Oregon, 3260 in Washington, and 2935, the next largest number, in New York. In view of the fact that one of the four temples in New York City claims 7000 worshipers, while the whole State has a Chinese population of less than 3000, there would seem to be a large discrepancy. If that one temple has 7000 worshipers, the number of visitors must be greater than the resident Chinese population. Doubtless 7000 is the number that worship in the temple in the course of a year. In other words, the same individual is counted many times. A considerable number of the Chinese are members of Christian churches,