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2.—THE GREEK CATHOLIC CHURCH (UNIATES).
The Greek Catholic Church, commonly called Uniates, represents a body quite numerous in Austria, Hungary, and other eastern countries in Europe. This body is in communion with the Church of Rome, holding, contrary to the other Greek churches of the East, to the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Son as well as from the Father, in accordance with the belief of the Latin Church, but maintaining otherwise its ancient discipline, allowing the lower clergy to marry, administering the communion in both kinds (bread and wine) to the laity, and using the Greek language in its ritual. The congregations, whose statistics are given herewith, are not in full ecclesiastical connection with the dioceses of the Roman Catholic Church, and are therefore given separately.
The full title of this body is the “Holy, Orthodox, Catholic, Apostolic, Oriental Church.” It arose in the middle ages from the Filioque controversy, there being a difference of doctrine between the eastern and western Christians of Europe concerning the procession of the Holy Spirit. The Western Church maintains that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son; the Eastern that the procession is from the Father alone. The chief governing body of the Russian branch of the Greek Church is the holy synod at St. Petersburg. The churches of this faith in California and Alaska are under the ecclesiastical oversight of Bishop Vladimir, of San Francisco, and many of them are supported financially by the imperial government of Russia.
4.—THE GREEK ORTHODOX CHURCH (GREECE).
This is the national church of the kingdom of Greece. It is the same in faith as the Orthodox Church of Russia. It has one chapel in this country, in connection with the consulate of Greece in New Orleans. This chapel is under the care of Archimandrite Misael.
The Armenian Church of Turkey is separate from both the Latin and Greek Catholic churches. As many
As many Armenians have come to this country, congregations of them have been gathered during the past ten years in New York, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island. They have no churches of their own, but meet for worship in chapels owned by the Protestant Episcopal Church. Their services are held in the Armenian language.
The Old Catholic churches in this country are due to the Old Catholic movement in Europe, with which they are in sympathy in doctrine and polity. They have a bishop or archbishop-Vilatte-consecrated May 1, 1892, by a prelate of the Jacobite Church in India. Archbishop Vilatte received orders in Switzerland as deacon and priest in 1885 at the hands of the Old Catholic bishop of Berne, in that city. The Old Catholics hold that the pope is a bishop simply, but is entitled to the primacy of honor. They agree with the Greek Church in rejecting filioque in the Creed, acknowledge seven sacraments, revere the monastic life, and venerate saints, angels, and sacred icons.
This body is Catholic only in name and origin. It is the result of a movement begun in New York City ten or twelve years ago. Priests of the Roman Catholic Church who had renounced that communion adopted Protestant doctrines, and entered upon an evangelical work, chiefly among Roman Catholics. There are congregations in connection with the movement in New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Illinois. It has no church edifices.
As the Roman is the chief Catholic body, the other six branches having in all only 45 organizations, it seems unnecessary to give a table of all Catholic bodies by States. The totals are as follows: organizations, 10,276; church edifices, 8816; seating capacity, 3,374,907; value of church property, $118,371,366; communicants, 6,257,871.