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cesan, in character. They are appointed by the general synod or under its authority. The American Province has the'right to nominate those for this country. Bishops are members of the general synod and also of provincial synods. They are chosen almost invariably to sit on provincial boards and in the Unity's Elders' Conference. They have the exclusive right to ordain to the ministry. Deacons are those who assist in preaching the gospel, administering the sacraments, and other church services. When deacons are appointed to preside over congregations they are ordained as presbyters.

The lot is not now used in the selection of bishops and appointments to office. Formerly it was used in the appointment of ministers and in connection with marriage. Marriage by lot was abolished by the general synod in 1818, and it is long since it was used in the United States in the appointment of ministers.

In public worship a liturgy is used. In addition to prescribed forms for baptism, the Lord's Supper, confirmation, ordination, etc., there is a litany to be used every Sunday morning; also special liturgical services for ecclesiastical festivals. Love-feasts are held preparatory to the Lord's Supper.

The Moravians accept the Scriptures as the only rule of faith and practice. They hold that it is not for them to " define what Scripture has left undefined, or to contend about mysteries,” such as the Holy Trinity and the sacraments, “which are impenetrable to human understanding. They emphasize the doctrine of the “total depravity of human nature"; the love of God in the gift of his Son as the Redeemer of the world; the real Godhead and manhood of Christ; the atonement and satisfaction made by Christ as the ground for forgiveness of sins; the work of the Holy Ghost in convicting of sin, inspiring faith in Christ, and bearing witness of adoption as children of God; the fruits of faith as shown in willing obedience to God's commandments. Christ is the center of Moravian theology, and his death is proclaimed as “made of God unto us wisdom and righteousness and justification and redemption."

The Moravians have 94 organizations, scattered among seventeen States and the Indian and Alaska Territories. The total of members is 11,781. Of these, 4308 are in Pennsylvania, 1734 in North Carolina, and 1477 in Wisconsin. In no other State are there as many as 900. Half of the total valuation of church property, $681,250, is reported for the 24 edifices in Pennsylvania. The average seating capacity of the 114 edifices returned for the denomination is 277, the average value $5975; 4 halls, with a seating capacity of 715, are occupied.

SUMMARY BY STATES.

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Communicants.

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36

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19

2

336 346

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40 101

Seating

Capacity. 100 100

600 1,150

150 650 325 620

375 1,480

500

800 2,500 6,750

440

Alaska...
California
Illinois..
Indiana,
Indian Territory
Iowa
Kansas
Maryland
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
New Tersey.
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota

Value of
Church
Property.
$5,000

700
4,000
17,600

400 4,500 2,500 3,950 4,500 20,600

5,500 13,500 127,200 58,900 6,500

19

150

3 2 9 3 4 Io

168 696

9 3 4 7 13 2

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20

2

SUMMARY BY STATES.—Continued.

Organi- Church zations. Edifices.

Communi cants.

6

Seating

Capacity. 2,200 9,770

200 2,905

6 24

I 16

Value of Church Property. $37,400 340,400

200 27,900

14

I 19

94

114

31,615

$681,250

11,781

SUMMARY BY DISTRICTS.

79 15

92 22

24,515 7,100

$621,750

59,500

9,962

1,819

STATES.

Ohio
Pennsylvania
Virginia
Wisconsin

822 4,308

45 1,477

Total ..

DISTRICTS.

Northern
Southern.

Total ......

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CHAPTER XXXI.

THE PRESBYTERIANS.

THE Presbyterians are those who hold to a system of ecclesiastical government by presbyters. They believe that bishops and presbyters, or elders, as spoken of in the New Testament, are of the same order, being different designations for the same office. Bishops were presbyters in charge of congregations. Presbyters both taught and governed. They were both in and over the congregations. The Presbyterians are Calvinistic in doctrine. The Cumberland Presbyterian Church, with its colored branch, holds to a modified Calvinism, rejecting a limited atonement and the Westminster statement respecting the decrees; but it is considered sufficiently in accord with what is called the Reformed system to be admitted to membership in the council of the Reformed churches, which includes the Continental Reformed churches and their branches, as well as the British, American, and other Presbyterian bodies.

The Presbyterian polity provides for the following courts : the session, the presbytery, the synod, and (usually) the general assembly, and recognizes as officers, bishops or pastors, ruling elders and deacons. Candidates are ordained to the ministry and installed as pastors by the presbytery. There is but one order in the ministry, that of presbyter. Ruling elders are laymen chosen by congregations to exercise government and discipline therein, together with the pastor. Deacons are also laymen chosen by congregations to care for the poor, raise and distribute alms, and manage the temporal affairs of the church. Elders and deacons are ordained by ministers. The session is the court of the congregation. It is composed of the pastor or pastors, and the ruling elders. The pastor is ex officio moderator. The session is charged with the care of the spiritual interests of the church. It receives members, inquires into their conduct, has power to admonish or suspend them for offenses, and elects representatives to the presbytery. The presbytery consists of all the ministers and one ruling elder from each church within its bounds. It has power to entertain and decide appeals from church sessions; examine and license candidates for the ministry; ordain, install, remove, and judge ministers; decide questions of discipline and doctrine; unite or divide congregations, or receive new congregations; condemn erroneous opinions; and in general to care for the welfare of the churches within its limits. The synod is constituted of delegates, ministerial and lay, elected by the presbyteries belonging to it. It hears and decides appeals from the presbyteries, constitutes new presbyteries, and in general exercises supervision over presbyteries and sessions. The general assembly is the supreme legislative and judicial court in the Presbyterian system. It is composed of commissioners, ministerial and lay (bishops and elders), elected by the presbyteries. It receives and decides appeals from presbyteries or synods, and decides all questions of doctrine and discipline. It meets yearly.

There are twelve Presbyterian bodies in the United States, as follows:

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