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separated from the main body of Mennonites about two centuries ago, on account of differences respecting the enforcement of church discipline. He and his followers insisted that the ban should be more rigorously observed. In Pennsylvania they are very numerous. They used to be called "Hookers,” because they wore hooks instead of buttons on their coats. They are represented in fourteen States, being most numerous in Illinois, Pennsylvania, and Ohio. There are 33 halls, with a seating capacity of 960.
SUMMARY BY STATES.
This branch was the result of a division among the Amish about twenty-five years ago on the question of enforcing church discipline. The Old Amish are very strict in adhering to the ancient forms and practices, opposing the innovations in forms of worship and manner of conducting church work introduced during the present century. There are only about 2000 of them, and they have but one church edifice. Their meetings are all held in private houses, except in one case.
This is properly a branch of the Amish Mennonites, differing from them chiefly in being less strict in the observance of the rules of discipline and forms of worship. There are only 209 of them, belonging to two congregations in Ohio.
In 1812 a movement was begun among the Mennonites for “the restoration of purity in teaching and the maintenance of discipline" under the leadership of John Herr. The "Herrites," as they are sometimes called, are very strict in their observances, severe in the use of the ban, and decline fellowship with other denominations. They are represented in seven States, more than half of their communicants, however, being found in Pennsylvania. Services are held in 4 private houses and in i hall, with a seating capacity of 50.
The beginning of this body is traced to a difficulty which arose in Pennsylvania in 1848, in a matter of discipline. John Oberholzer was charged with attempting to introduce new practices and new doctrines. As the result of the controversy which arose over the matter an organization was formed, called the New Mennonites. This body is less strict than most other branches of Mennonites, and is in favor of an educated and paid ministry. The General Conference was organized in 1860 at West Point, Ia. At its third meeting, in 1863, a plan for an educational institute was adopted, and a theological school was begun at Wadsworth, O. It flourished for a number of years and was then discontinued. The General Conference has missions among the Arapahoe and Cheyenne Indians, in Indian Territory. It also conducts a number of home missions. There are three district conferences, the Central, the Eastern, and the Western. The General Conference meets once every three years. There are 5670 communicants, scattered over ten States. The average seating capacity of the edifices is 323, and the average value $2776. One hall, with a seating capacity of 50, is reported.
This branch was organized by John Holdeman in 1859. Holdeman claimed by the spirit of prophecy “to understand the foreknowledge of God, to know mysteries, to settle difficulties, to keep peace, and to interpret visions and dreams.” This branch has only 18 congregations, with 471 members. It is represented in eight States. There are 2 halls, with a seating capacity of 150.
This branch, which has only 610 communicants, consists of those who are opposed to Sunday-schools and evening meetings and other practices, which they regard as innovations. They are represented by 15 congregations, in Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio.
This body originated in Russia half a century ago, and emigrated to this country in 1873–76. They baptize by immersion and emphasize the importance of evidence of conversion. They are very active and zealous in the performance of their religious duties. They are represented