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In 1874 the Temple Society established four colonies in Palestine—at Joppa, Sharon, Haifa, and Jerusalem. The cost of these colonies has been met in large part by voluntary contributions.

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CHAPTER XXIII.

THE GERMAN EVANGELICAL PROTESTANT CHURCH.

This is a body of scattered congregations, with a center in Cincinnati. Some of its churches are a century old, and some are quite new. The German language is almost exclusively spoken. In theology it is very liberal, rationalistic views generally prevailing. It has no synodical organization, but there are non-ecclesiastical associations, or vereine, of ministers.

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CHAPTER XXIV.

THE GERMAN EVANGELICAL SYNOD.

The German Evangelical Synod of North America represents in this country the State church of Prussia, which is a union of Lutheran and Reformed elements. The first ecclesiastical organization was formed October 15, 1840, at a meeting held at Gravois Settlement, in Missouri, by six evangelical ministers. Out of the principles then agreed upon the constitution of the Synod has been gradually developed. In 1850 the Society formed in Missouri and the German Evangelical Society of Ohio, formed in 1850, united. To this union there was a further addition in 1860, when the United Evangelical Society of the East was consolidated with it. In 1872 two other bodies—the Evangelical Synod of the Northwest and the United Evangelical Synod of the East-entered and completed the union. All were kindred bodies, holding the same doctrines and governed by the same ecclesiastical principles.

The Synod accepts the Bible as the only rule of faith and practice, holding to the Augsburg Confession, Luther's Catechism, and the Heidelberg Catechism, in so far as they agree with one another, as correct interpretations of it. Concerning those points on which these symbols do not agree the Synod stands upon the Scripture passages relating to them, and allows liberty of conscience.

The church is divided into districts, of which there are fifteen. They correspond as nearly as possible to synods in the Lutheran Church. A General Conference representing the whole church meets once every three years. It is composed of the presidents of the districts, and of delegates, clerical and lay, in the proportion of one for every nine ministers and one for every nine churches.

Since 1872, when the union of the various Evangelical Societies was completed, the church has grown rapidly. It had then 219 organizations and 8032 communicants. Now it has 870 organizations and 187,432 communicants —the organizations having been multiplied by 4 in this period of eighteen years, and the communicants by 23. It is represented in twenty-two States, being strongest in Illinois, 37,138; Ohio, 31,617; Missouri, 25,676; and New York, 17,409.

The average seating capacity of its church edifices is 313, and the average value $5878. It also holds meetings in 83 halls, which have a seating capacity of 5970.

SUMMARY BY STATES.

STATES.

zations.

337,660

California.
Colorado.
Illinois..
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Michigan
Minnesota.
Missouri
Nebraska

Seating
Organi- Church

Ca-
Edifices.

pacity.
4 4

618
2
I

250
164 155

47,081 75 75 22,635 59 43 11,413 28 19% 3,794 II IO

5,525 3 3 1,550 12 II 6,300 50 43 14,710 53 40 9,072 124 115% 31,922 23

19 3,290

Value of Com
Church

muniProperty. cants. $8,460 315

18,000 135 813,450

37,138

15,274 110,300 6,902

37,750 2,053 137,400 4,912

26,450 1,250 223,500 4,405 242,450 10,926

97,900 5,567 575,650 25,676 43,500 2,142

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26 80

$380,650

65

32 73

59

DISTRICTS. Atlantic Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska New York.. North Illinois. Ohio South Illinois. Texas West Missouri Wisconsin...

23 11,490 79

31,890 49 12,973 2234 4,254 66

21,180 44 9,842 8714 25,030 17

3,080 48 79 26,340 93 76

21,671 14

2,380 30 6,810 57

93 21 48 83 95 81 19 33

20,680

9,825 25,444 7,885 2,248 15,937

6,127 21,566

2,082 17,284 22,814 23,875 15,216 1,864 3,975 11,290

33,645

62

724,600

127,625

57,250 332,410 101,700 424,650

42,000 639,070 511,675 582,000 318,900

36,300 153,460 182,200

14,516

Total ......... 870

785 245,781 $4,614,490 187,432

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