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divine revelation, and in general the doctrine of the atonement by Christ and sanctification by the Holy Spirit. Belief in the “ immediate influence of the Holy Spirit" is pronounced by President Chase, of Haverford College, the most distinctive feature of their faith. They believe in the guidance of the Holy Spirit in worship and all religious acts. Periods of silence occur in their meetings, when no one feels called upon to speak, and when each worshiper is engaged in communion with God and inward acts of devotion. The Friends believe that a direct call to the ministry comes to persons old or young or of either sex. Those who, after a sufficient probation, give evidence of a divine call are acknowledged as ministers, and allowed seats at the head of the meeting. Besides ministers, there are in the local meetings or congregations, elders of both sexes, who are appointed by Monthly Meetings, and who advise the ministers, and, if necessary, admonish them.

Their societies or congregations are usually called meetings, and their houses of worship meeting-houses. There are Monthly Meetings, embracing a number of local meetings. They deal with cases of discipline, accept or dissolve local meetings, and are subordinate to Quarterly Meetings, to which they send representatives. Quarterly Meetings hear appeals from Monthly Meetings, record certificates of ministers, and institute or dissolve Monthly Meetings. The highest body is the Yearly Meeting. No Quarterly Meeting can be set up without its consent. It receives and determines appeals from Quarterly Meetings, and issues advice or extends care to subordinate meetings.

The Friends are divided into four bodies, popularly distinguished as (1) Orthodox, (2) Hicksite, (3) Wilburite, and (4) Primitive.

1.—THE FRIENDS (ORTHODOX).

These constitute by far the most numerous branch. In 1887, at a General Conference held in Richmond, Ind., they adopted a “Declaration of Christian Doctrine," as an expression of "those fundamental doctrines of Christian truth that have always been professed by our branch of the Church of Christ." This declaration sets forth the evangelical view of the Trinity, the Scriptures, the fall of man, justification and regeneration, the resurrection and the final judgment, the issues of which are eternal. In the article on the Holy Spirit these sentences appear:

"We own no principle of spiritual light, life, or holiness, inherent by nature in the mind or heart of man.

We believe in no principle of spiritual light, life, or holiness, but the influence of the Holy Spirit of God, bestowed on mankind, in various measures and degrees, through Jesus Christ our Lord.”

The article on public worship recognizes “the value of silence, not as an end, but as a means toward the attainment of the end—a silence not of listlessness or of vacant musing, but of holy expectation before the Lord.”

The discipline of the Western Yearly Meeting makes as "disownable offenses," for which members are disowned or excommunicated, denial of the divinity of Christ, the revelation of the Holy Spirit, the divine authenticity of the Scriptures; engaging in the liquor traffic, drunkenness, profanity, joining the army or encouraging war, betting, participating in lotteries, dishonesty, taking or administering oaths, etc.

Each Yearly Meeting has its own discipline, but fellowship is maintained between them by epistolary correspond

ence,

There is also a general agreement between them on the fundamentals of doctrine and discipline. The Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, which is one of the oldest, has a discipline incorporating various decisions and advices adopted since its organization in 1681.

There are 10 Yearly Meetings, with 794 organizations, 725 church edifices, valued at $2,795,784, and 80,655 members. The average seating capacity of their edifices is 297, and their average value $3718. Halls to the number of 90, with a seating capacity of 7035, are occupied.

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This body of Friends is so named from Elias Hicks, a minister who was foremost in preaching doctrines which became a cause of separation. They object to being called Hicksites. Elias Hicks was born in 1748, and died in 1830. He emphasized the principle of "obedience to the light within," and so stated the doctrines of the preëxistence, deity, incarnation, and vicarious atonement of Christ, of the personality of Satan, and of eternal punishment, that he was charged with being more or less in sympathy with Unitarianism.

Those identified with this body of Friends insist that Mr. Hicks's views were “exactly those of Robert Barclay,” an English Friend of the seventeenth century, whose “Apology for the True Christian Divinity” is still regarded as a fair exposition of the doctrinal views of Friends. They decline to make orthodox theology a test of membership.

The separation took place in the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting in 1827, and in New York, Baltimore, Ohio, and Indiana in 1828. There was no separation in New England or North Carolina. The Genesee, in western New York, and the Illinois Yearly Meetings were formed many years later.

They have 7 Yearly Meetings, with 201 organizations, 213 church edifices, valued at $1,661,850, and 21,992 members. The average seating capacity of their church edifices is 341, and their average value $7802. They occupy 4 halls, with a seating capacity of 325.

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