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was the policy of the Conservatives to deal leniently with those who wanted more liberty, and to conciliate, if possible, those who wanted a more rigorous enforcement of the discipline. The Old Order Brethren, however, felt that the Progressive Brethren had already departed from the ancient order of the church. The principle of dress as held by the Conservatives was that plainness, modesty, and economy in dress is a gospel principle, and that to retain the form of plainness was to insure the retention of the principle of plainness. The Progressive Brethren believed in the principle of plainness, but declared that there was no merit in adhering to a particular form of plainness. The Progressives, therefore, became a distinct branch.

One of the points of disagreement between the Conservatives and the Old Order Brethren was that of the introduction of Sunday-schools. The Old Order Brethren stoutly opposed this as an innovation, while the Conservatives held that it was simply an application of the principle of the fathers that the children should be religiously educated. The Old Order Brethren were likewise opposed to educational institutions. The Conservatives say on this point that the fathers themselves, if they were now living, would be favorable to Sunday-schools and highschools, and also to missionary work. This, then, is the position of the Conservative body. They are in favor of retaining the principle of nonconformity to the world, but of not enforcing it so rigorously as was done twenty-five or fifty years ago. They believe in Sabbath-schools and missionary work, and also in educating their own people. They are represented in twenty-eight States and two Territories, being strongest in Pennsylvania, Indiana, and Ohio, where more than one half of their cominunicants are found. There are 180 halls, with a seating capacity of 15,048. The average value of the houses of worship is $1313, and the average seating capacity 414.

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Seating

Capacity. 400 375 300 200

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Value of ComChurch muniProperty cants.

$300 78 2,200 211 1,200 IIO 600

41 1,000 40 96,860

3,701 179,870 10,224

27 49,505 2,769 53,425

3,228

IO

17 60,200 2,446 11,425

560 1,500 104 23,025 1,845 14,500

998 5,000 191

2,000 510 153,365 8,490

I

Arkansas California Colorado, Florida Idaho Jllinois.. Indiana Indian Territory Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska New Jersey.. North Carolina Ohio ... Oklahoma. Oregon Pennsylvania South Dakota. Tennessee. Texas Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin

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2 32 28 3 9 95 2

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4 19

6 42

3 33 5

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250 14, 194

102 1,249

95 6,659

7,450

150 40,635

11,700

300 73,523

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The reasons for the division which resulted in the formation of this branch of the Dunkards have already been given. They constitute the most advanced section of the body of Dunkards. Their rules respecting nonconformity to the world are far less strict than those of the Conservatives. They call themselves simply Brethren, or The Brethren, and do not wish to be known as Dunkards. The number of their communicants is but a little more than one eighth of that of the Conservatives. They occupy 37 halls, which have a seating capacity of 4455. The average value of their edifices is $1521, and the average seating capacity 342.

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This is the smallest of the three branches into which the Dunkards were divided about ten years ago. The Old Order Brethren aim to prohibit conformity to the fashions of the world as rigorously as did the fathers fifty years ago. They are opposed to Sunday-schools, missionary endeavor, and high-schools or colleges. The census authorities had much difficulty in getting returns from them. They were opposed to the numbering of their people for Scriptural reasons, and refused in many cases to give information, which was otherwise obtained. There are 62 halls, with a seating capacity of 2330, occupied as places of worship. The average value of the church edifices is $1279, average seating capacity 408.

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Arkansas
California
Illinois..
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Maryland
Michigan
Missouri
Nebraska
North Carolina
Ohio ...
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Virginia
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

1,200

150 200

I 2 I

1,600

9 13

I 6 3 9 4

I 31

I 4 4 12 I

350

600

44 155 47

15 1,766

IO

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This is the oldest secession from the body of Dunkards. As already stated, Conrad Beissel founded it in 1728. Only a very few members are now reported. These observe the seventh day as the Sabbath, and some features of the communal life. They are found in Bedford, Franklin, Lancaster, and Somerset counties, Pa.

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2 I I I 65

400 525 300 200

200 24,775 69,490

156

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Arkansas California Colorado. Florida Idaho Illinois. Indiana. Indian Territory lowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska New Jersey. North Carolina Ohio Oklahoma. Oregon Pennsylvania South Dakota Tennessee Texas Virginia Washington. West Virginia Wisconsin.. Wyoming

I 71 150

I 68 91 2

I 36 21

2 44 37

3 10 153

2

8 134

4 19

6 50

3 51 6 I

47 17

2 29 16 3

5 173

5,448

600 10,070 5,950

950 1,625

$300 82 2,450 290 1,200

127 600

41 1,000 40 105,330 4,119 218,890 12,350

27 58,955 3,470 61,625 4,067

13

17 65,800 2,974 17,475

1,500 104 24,625 2,090 24,000 1,441 5,000 191

2,000 525 228,065 11,798

46

280 423,958 16,707

102 11,700 1,249 300

95 78,473 7,244

26 24,785

199 21

68,445

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4,600

107,933

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3,216

Total..

989 1,016 414,036 $1,362,631 73,795

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