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must be responsible to an audiologist, otolaryngologist or physician.
(4) All audiograms obtained pursuant to this section shall meet the requirements of Appendix C: Audiometric Measuring Instruments.
(5) Baseline audiogram. (i) Within 6 months of an employee's first exposure at or above the action level, the employer shall establish a valid baseline audiogram against which subsequent audiograms can be compared.
(ii) Mobile test van exception. Where mobile test vans are used to meet the audiometric testing obligation, the employer shall obtain a valid baseline audiogram within 1 year of an employee's first exposure at or above the action level. Where baseline audiograms are obtained more than 6 months after the employee's first exposure at or above the action level, employees shall wearing hearing protectors for any period exceeding six months after first exposure until the baseline audiogram is obtained.
(iii) Testing to establish a baseline audiogram shall be preceded by at least 14 hours without exposure to workplace noise. Hearing protectors may be used as a substitute for the requirement that baseline audiograms be preceded by 14 hours without exposure to workplace noise.
(iv) The employer shall notify employees of the need to avoid high levels of non-occupational noise exposure during the 14-hour period immediately preceding the audiometric examination,
(6) Annual audiogram. At least annually after obtaining the baseline audiogram, the employer shall obtain a new audiogram for each employee exposed at or above an 8-hour timeweighted average of 85 decibels.
(7) Evaluation of audiogram. (i) Each employee's annual audiogram shall be compared to that employee's baseline audiogram to determine if the audiogram is valid and if a standard threshold shift as defined in paragraph (g)(10) of this section has occurred. This comparison may be done by a technician.
(ii) If the annual audiogram shows that an employee has suffered a standard threshold shift, the employer may obtain a retest within 30 days and con
sider the results of the retest as the annual audiogram.
(iii) The audiologist, otolaryngologist, or physician shall review problem audiograms and shall determine whether there is a need for further evaluation. The employer shall provide to the person performing this evaluation the following information:
(A) A copy of the requirements for hearing conservation as set forth in paragraphs (c) through (n) of this section;
(B) The baseline audiogram and most recent audiogram of the employ. ee to be evaluated;
(C) Measurements of background sound pressure levels in the audiometric test room as required in Appendix D: Audiometric Test Rooms.
(D) Records of audiometer calibrations required by paragraph (h)(5) of this section.
(8) Follow-up procedures. (i) If a comparison of the annual audiogram to the baseline audiogram indicates a standard threshold shift as defined in paragraph (g)(10) of this section has occurred, the employee shall be informed of this fact in writing, within 21 days of the determination.
(ii) Unless a physician determines that the standard threshold shift is not work related or aggravated by occupational noise exposure, the employer shall ensure that the following steps are taken when a standard threshold shift occurs:
(A) Employees not using hearing protectors shall be fitted with hearing protectors, trained in their use and care, and required to use them.
(B) Employees already using hearing protectors shall be refitted and retrained in the use of hearing protectors and provided with hearing protectors offering greater attenuation if necessary.
(C) The employee shall be referred for a clinical audiological evaluation or an otological examination, as appropriate, if additional testing is necessary or if the employer suspects that a medical pathology of the ear is caused or aggravated by the wearing of hearing protectors.
(D) The employee is informed of the need for an otological examination if a medical pathology of the ear that is unrelated to the use of hearing protectors is suspected.
(iii) If subsequent audiometric testing of an employee whose exposure to noise is less than an 8-hour TWA of 90 decibels indicates that a standard threshold shift is not persistent, the employer:
(A) Shall inform the employee of the new audiometric interpretation; and
(B) May discontinue the required use of hearing protectors for that employee.
(9) Revised baseline. An annual audiogram may be substituted for the baseline audiogram when, in the judgment of the audiologist, otolaryngologist or physician who is evaluating the audiogram:
(i) The standard threshold shift revealed by the audiogram is persistent; or
(ii) The hearing threshold shown in the annual audiogram indicates significant improvement over the baseline audiogram.
(10) Standard threshold shift. (i) As used in this section, a standard threshold shift is a change in hearing threshold relative to the baseline audiogram of an average of 10 dB or more at 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz in either ear.
(ii) In determining whether a standard threshold shift has occurred, allowance may be made for the contribution of aging (presbycusis) to the change in hearing level by correcting the annual audiogram according to the procedure described in Appendix F: Calculation and Application of Age Correction to Audiograms.
(h) Audiometric test requirements. (1) Audiometric tests shall be pure tone, air conduction, hearing threshold examinations, with test frequencies including as a minimum 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz. Tests at each frequency shall be taken separately for each ear.
(2) Audiometric tests shall be conducted with audiometers (including microprocessor audiometers) that meet the specifications of, and are maintained and used in accordance with, American National Standard Specification for Audiometers, S3.61969.
(3) Pulsed-tone and self-recording audiometers, if used, shall meet the requirements specified in Appendix C: Audiometric Measuring Instruments.
(4) Audiometric examinations shall be administered in a room meeting the requirements listed in Appendix D: Audiometric Test Rooms.
(5) Audiometer calibration. (i) The functional operation of the audiometer shall be checked before each day's use by testing a person with known, stable hearing thresholds, and by listening to the audiometer's output to make sure that the output is free from distorted or unwanted sounds. Deviations of 10 decibels or greater require an acoustic calibration.
(ii) Audiometer calibration shall be checked acoustically at least annually in accordance with Appendix E: Acoustic Calibration of Audiometers. Test frequencies below 500 Hz and above 6000 Hz may be omitted from this check. Deviations of 15 decibels or greater require an exhaustive calibration.
(iii) An exhaustive calibration shall be performed at least every two years in accordance with sections 4.1.2; 4.1.3.; 22.214.171.124; 4.2; 4.4.1; 4.4.2; 4.4.3; and 4.5 of the American National Standard Specification for Audiometers, S3.61969. Test frequencies below 500 Hz and above 6000 Hz may be omitted from this calibration.
(i) Hearing protectors. (1) Employers shall make hearing protectors available to all employees exposed to an 8hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels or greater at no cost to the employees. Hearing protectors shall be replaced as necessary.
(2) Employers shall ensure that hearing protectors are worn:
(i) By an employee who is required by paragraph (b)(1) of this section to wear personal protective equipment; and
(ii) By any employee who is exposed to an 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels or greater, and who:
(A) Has not yet had a baseline audiogram established pursuant to paragraph (g)(5)(ii); or
(B) Has experienced a standard threshold shift.
(3) Employees shall be given the opportunity to select their hearing protectors from a variety of suitable hearing protectors provided by the employer.
(4) The employer shall provide training in the use and care of all hearing protectors provided to employees.
(5) The employer shall ensure proper initial fitting and supervise the correct use of all hearing protectors.
(j) Hearing protector attenuation. (1) The employer shall evaluate hearing protector attenuation for the specific noise environments in which the protector will be used. The employer shall use one of the evaluation methods described in Appendix B: Methods for Estimating the Adequacy of Hearing Protection Attenuation.
(2) Hearing protectors must attenuate employee exposure at least to an 8hour time-weighted average of 90 decibels as required by paragraph (b) of this section.
(3) For employees who have experienced a standard threshold shift, hearing protectors must attenuate employee exposure to an 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels or below.
(4) The adequacy of hearing protector attenuation shall be re-evaluated whenever employee noise exposures increase to the extent that the hearing protectors provided may no longer provide adequate attenuation. The employer shall provide more effective hearing protectors where necessary.
(k) Training program. (1) The employer shall institute a training program for all employees who are exposed to noise at or above an 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels, and shall ensure employee participation in such program.
(2) The training program shall be repeated annually for each employee included in the hearing conservation program. Information provided in the training program shall be updated to be consistent with changes in protective equipment and work processes.
(3) The employer shall ensure that each employee is informed of the fol. lowing:
(i) The effects of noise on hearing;
(ii) The purpose of hearing protectors, the advantages, disadvantages, and attenuation of various types, and instructions on selection, fitting, use, and care; and
(iii) The purpose of audiometric testing, and an explanation of the test procedures.
(1) Access to information and training materials. (1) The employer shall make available to affected employees or their representatives copies of this standard and shall also post a copy in the workplace.
(2) The employer shall provide to af. fected employees any informational materials pertaining to the standard that are supplied to the employer by the Assistant Secretary.
(3) The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials related to the employer's training and education program pertaining to this standard to the Assistant Secretary and the Director.
(m) Recordkeeping-(1) Exposure measurements. The employer shall maintain an accurate record of all employee exposure measurements required by paragraph (d) of this section.
(2) Audiometric tests. (i) The employer shall retain all employee audiometric test records obtained pursuant to paragraph (g) of this section:
(ii) This record shall include:
(A) Name and job classification of the employee;
(B) Date of the audiogram; (C) The examiner's name;
(D) Date of the last acoustic or exhaustive calibration of the audiometer; and
(E) Employee's most recent noise exposure assessment.
(F) The employer shall maintain accurate records of the measurements of the background sound pressure levels in audiometric test rooms.
(3) Record retention. The employer shall retain records required in this paragraph (m) for at least the following periods. (1) Noise
exposure measurement records shall be retained for two years.
(ii) Audiometric test records shall be retained for the duration of the affected employee's employment.
(4) Access to records. All records required by this section shall be provided upon request to employees, former employees, representatives designated by the individual employee, and the Assistant Secretary. The provisions of
29 CFR 1910.20 (a)-(e) and (g)-(i) apply to access to records under this section.
(5) Transfer of records. If the employer ceases to do business, the employer shall transfer to the successor employer all records required to be maintained by this section, and the successor employer shall retain them for the remainder of the period prescribed in paragraph (m) (3) of this section.
(n) Appendices. (1) Appendices A, B, C, D, and E to this section are incorporated as part of this section and the contents of these appendices are mandatory.
(2) Appendices F and G to this section are informational and are not intended to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligations.
(0) Exemptions. Paragraphs (c) through (n) of this section shall not apply to employers engaged in oil and gas well drilling and servicing operations.
(p) Startup date. Baseline audiograms required by paragraph (g) of this section shall be completed by March 1, 1984. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 12180048)
32 27.9 24.3
16 13.9 12.1 10.6
APPENDIX A TO $ 1910.95—NOISE EXPOSURE
80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88.. 89. 90. 91. 92.. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99.. 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130
This Appendix is Mandatory I. Computation of Employee Noise Exposure
(1) Noise dose is computed using Table G16a as follows:
(i) When the sound level, L, is constant over the entire work shift, the noise dose, D, in percent, is given by: D=100 C/T where C is the total length of the work day, in hours, and T is the reference duration corresponding to the measured sound level, L, as given in Table G-16a or by the formula shown as a footnote to that table.
(ii) When the workshift noise exposure is composed of two or more periods of noise at different levels, the total noise dose over the work day is given by: D=100 (C./T,+C2/T2+...+ C./T.), where C, indicates the total time of exposure at a specific noise level, and T, indicates the reference duration for that level as given by Table G-16a.
(2) The eight-hour time-weighted average sound level (TWA), in decibels, may be com
8 7.0 6.1 5.3 4.6
4 3.5 3.0 2.6 2.3
2 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.1
1 0.87 0.76 0.66 0.57
0.5 0.44 0.38 0.33 0.29 0.25 0.22 0.19 0.16 0.14 0.125
0.11 0.095 0.082 0.072 0.063 0.054 0.047 0.041 0.036 0.031
In the above table the reference duration, T, is computed by
II. Conversion Between “Dose" and "8-Hour
Time-Weighted Average" Sound Level Compliance with paragraphs (c)-(r) of this regulation is determined by the amount of exposure to noise in the workplace. The amount of such exposure is usually measured with an audiodosimeter which gives a readout in terms of "dose." In order to better understand the requirements of the amendment, dosimeter readings can be converted to an “8-hour time-weighted average sound level.” (TWA).
In order to convert the reading of a dosimeter into TWA, see Table A-1, below. This table applies to dosimeters that are set by the manufacturer to calculate dose or percent exposure according to the relationships in Table G-16a. So, for example, a dose of 91 percent over an eight hour day results in a TWA of 89.3 dB, and, a dose of 50 percent corresponds to a TWA of 85 dB.
If the dose as read on the dosimeter is less than or greater than the values found in Table A-1, he TWA may be calculated by using the formula: TWA=16.61 log10 (D/ 100)+90 where TWA=8-hour time-weighted average sound level and D=accumulated dose in percent exposure.
89.2 89.2 89.3 89.4 89.5 89.6 89.6 89.7 89.8 89.9 89.9 90.0 90.1 90.1 90.2 90.3 90.4 90.4 90.5 90.6 90.6 90.7 90.8 90.8 90.9 90.9 91.1 91.1 91.1 91.2 91.3 91.3 91.6 91.9 92.2 92.4 92.7 92.9 93.2 93.4 93.6 93.8 94.0 94.2 94.4 94.6 94.8 95.0 95.4 95.7 96.0 96.3 96.6 96.9 97.2 97.4 97.7 97.9 98.2 98.4 98.6 98.8 99.0 99.2 99.4 99.6
10. 15. 20. 25. 30 35. 40. 45 50. 55 60. 65. 70 75. 80. 81. 82 83. 84. 85.
73.4 76.3 78.4 80.0 81.3 82.4 83.4 84.2 85.0 85.7 86.3 86.9 87.4 87.9 88.4 88.5 88.6 88.7 88.7 88.8 88.9 89.0 89.1