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APPENDIX C TO $ 1910.66, PERSONAL FALL
ARREST SYSTEM (SECTION I-MANDATORY; SECTIONS II AND III-NON-MANDATORY)
Use of the Appendix Section I of appendix C sets out the mandatory criteria for personal fall arrest systems used by all employees using powered platforms, as required by paragraph (j)(1) of this standard. Section II sets out nonmandatory test procedures which may be used to determine compliance with applicable requirements contained in section I of this appendix. Section III provides nonmandatory guidelines which are intended to assist employers in complying with these provisions.
1. Personal fall arrest systems-(a) Scope and application. This section establishes the application of and performance criteria for personal fall arrest systems which are required for use by all employees using powered platforms under paragraph 1910.66(j).
(b) Definitions. Anchorage means a secure point of attachment for lifelines, lanyards or deceleration devices, and which is independent of the means of supporting or suspending the employee.
Body belt means a strap with means both for securing it about the waist and for attaching it to a lanyard, lifeline, or deceleration device.
Body harness means a design of straps which may be secured about the employee in a manner to distribute the fall arrest forces over at least the thighs, pelvis, waist, chest and shoulders with means for attaching it to other components of a personal fall arrest system.
Buckle means any device for holding the body belt or body harness closed around the employee's body.
Competent person means a person who is capable of identifying hazardous or danger. ous conditions in the personal fall arrest system or any component thereof, as well as in their application and use with related equipment.
Connector means a device which is used to couple (connect) parts of the system togeth. er. It may be an independent component of the system (such as a carabiner), or an integral component of part of the system (such as a buckle or dee-ring sewn into a body belt or body harness, or a snap-hook spliced or sewn to a lanyard or self-retracting lanyard).
Deceleration device means any mechanism, such as a rope grab, ripstitch lanyard, specially woven lanyard, tearing or deforming lanyard, or automatic self retractinglifeline/lanyard, which serves to dissipate a substantial amount of energy during a fall arrest, or otherwise limits the energy imposed on an employee during fall arrest.
Deceleration distance means the additional vertical distance a falling employee travels, excluding lifeline elongation and free fall distance, before stopping, from the point at which the deceleration device begins to operate. It is measured as the distance between the location of an employee's body belt or body harness attachment point at the moment of activation (at the onset of fall arrest forces) of the deceleration device during a fall, and the location of that attachment point after the employee comes to a full stop.
Equivalent means alternative designs, materials or methods which the employer can demonstrate will provide an equal or greater degree of safety for employees than the methods, materials or designs specified in the standard.
Free fall means the act of falling before the personal fall arrest system begins to apply force to arrest the fall.
Free fall distance means the vertical displacement of the fall arrest attachment point on the employee's body belt or body harness between onset of the fall and just before the system begins to apply force to arrest the fall. This distance excludes deceleration distance, lifeline and lanyard elongation but includes any deceleration device slide distance or self-retracting lifeline/lanyard extension before they operate and fall arrest forces occur.
Lanyard means a flexible line of rope, wire rope, or strap which is used to secure the body belt or body harness to a deceleration device, lifeline, or anchorage.
Lifeline means a component consisting of a flexible line for connection to an anchorage at one end to hang vertically (vertical lifeline), or for connection to anchorages at both ends to stretch horizontally (horizontal lifeline), and which serves as a means for connecting other components of a personal fall arrest system to the anchorage.
Personal fall arrest system means a system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level. It consists of an anchorage, connectors, a body belt or body harness and may include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or suitable combinations of these.
Qualified person means one with a recognized degree or professional certificate and extensive knowledge and experience in the subject field who is capable of design, analysis, evaluation and specifications in the subject work, project, or product.
Rope grab means a deceleration device which travels on a lifeline and automatically frictionally engages the lifeline and locks so as to arrest the fall of an employee. A rope grab usually employs the principle of inertial locking, cam/lever locking, or both.
Self-retracting lifeline/lanyard means deceleration device which contains a drumwound line which may be slowly extracted
from, or retracted onto, the drum under slight tension during normal employee movement, and which, after onset of a fall, automatically locks the drum and arrests the fall.
Snap-hook means a connector comprised of a hookshaped member with a normally closed keeper, or similar arrangement, which may be opened to permit the hook to receive an object and, when released, automatically closes to retain the object. Snaphooks are generally one of two types:
1. The locking type with a self-closing, self-locking keeper which remains closed and locked until unlocked and pressed open for connection or disconnection, or
2. The non-locking type with a self-closing keeper which remains closed until pressed open for connection or disconnection.
Tie-off means the act of an employee, wearing personal fall protection equipment, connecting directly or indirectly to an anchorage. It also means the condition of an employee being connected to an anchorage.
(c) Design for system components. (1) Connectors shall be drop forged, pressed or formed steel, or made of equivalent materials.
(2) Connectors shall have a corrosion-resistant finish, and all surfaces and edges shall be smooth to prevent damage to interfacing parts of the system.
(3) Lanyards and vertical lifelines which tie-off one employee shall have a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN).
(4) Self-retracting lifelines and lanyards which automatically limit free fall distance to two feet (0.61 m) or less shall have components capable of sustaining a minimum static tensile load of 3,000 pounds (13.3 kN) applied to the device with the lifeline or lanyard in the fully extended position.
(5) Self-retracting lifelines and lanyards which do not limit free fall distance to two feet (0.61 m) or less, ripstitch lanyards, and tearing and deforming lanyards shall be capable of sustaining a minimum tensile load of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN) applied to the device with the lifeline or lanyard in the fully extended position.
(6) Dee-rings and snap-hooks shall be capable of sustaining a minimum tensile load of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN).
(7) Dee-rings and snap-hooks shall be 100 percent proof-tested to a minimum tensile load of 3,600 pounds (16 kN) without cracking, breaking, or taking permanent deformation.
(8) Snap-hooks shall be sized to be compatible with the member to which they are connected so as to prevent unintentional disengagement of the snap-hook by depression of the snap-hook keeper by the connected member, or shall be a locking type snap-hook designed and used to prevent disengagement of the snap-hook by the con
tact of the snaphook keeper by the connect. ed member.
(9) Horizontal lifelines, where used, shall be designed, and installed as part of a complete personal fall arrest system, which maintains a safety factor of at least two, under the supervision of a qualified person.
(10) Anchorages to which personal fall arrest equipment is attached shall be capable of supporting at least 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN) per employee attached, or shall be de. signed, installed, and used as part of a complete personal fall arrest system which maintains a safety factor of at least two, under the supervision of a qualified person.
(11) Ropes and straps (webbing) used in lanyards, lifelines, and strength components of body belts and body harnesses, shall be made from synthetic fibers or wire rope.
(d) System performance criteria. (1) Per. sonal fall arrest systems shall, when stopping a fall:
(i) Limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 900 pounds (4 kN) when used with a body belt;
(ii) Limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 1,800 pounds (8 kN) when used with a body harness;
(iii) Bring an employee to a complete stop and limit maximum deceleration distance an employee travels to 3.5 feet (1.07 m); and
(iv) Shall have sufficient strength to with. stand twice the potential impact energy of an employee free falling a distance of six feet (1.8 m), or the free fall distance permitted by the system, whichever is less.
(2)(i) When used by employees having a combined person and tool weight of less than 310 pounds (140 kg), personal fall arrest systems which meet the criteria and protocols contained in paragraphs (b), (c) and (d) in section II of this appendix shall be considered as complying with the provi. sions of paragraphs (d)(1)(i) through (d)(1)(iv) above.
(ii) When used by employees having a combined tool and body weight of 310 pounds (140 kg) or more, personal fall arrest systems which meet the criteria and proto. cols contained in paragraphs (b), (c) and (d) in section II may be considered as comply. ing with the provisions of paragraphs (d)(1)(i) through (d)(1)(iv) provided that the criteria and protocols are modified appropri. ately to provide proper protection for such heavier weights.
(e) Care and use. (1) Snap-hooks, unless of a locking type designed and used to prevent disengagement from the following connections, shall not be engaged:
(i) Directly to webbing, rope or wire rope; (ii) To each other;
(iii) To a dee-ring to which another snaphook or other connector is attached;
(iv) To a horizontal lifeline; or