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Total capitalization of Inter-American Educational Foundation, Inc.- $5,088,275
Less capitalization provided under 1945 contract authority-------- 2, 500,000
1946 cash appropriation required for partial liquidation of
CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE OTHER AMERICAN REPUBLICS
Mr. RABAUT. What other sources of funds are available to the corporation? Mr. HoLLAND. The amount to be paid to the corporation in the next fiscal year is shown in the above table. We have a contribution statement, also, which we will be glad to put in the record. Mr. RABAUT. You may put that table in the record. (The statement referred to is as follows:)
Inter-American Educational Foundation, Inc.—Relative participation of United States and foreign governments in cooperative educational programs
United Local Country States con- govern- Total tribution ment
Argentina"--------------------------------------------------------- $85,000 $40,000 $125,000 Brazil’------------------------------------------------------------- 375,000 185,000 560,000 Bolivia”------------------------------------------------------------ 300,000 225,000 525,000 Chile 3------ 180,000 147,000 327,000 Colombia 1. 225,885 128,000 353,885 Costa Rica 3 80,000 40,000 120,000 Cuba'---------------- -- 75,000 37,500 112,500 Dominican Republic *---------------------------------------------- 75,000 37,500 112,500 Fouador *------------------------------------------------------ 100,000 50,000 150,000 El Salvador a 80,000 40,000 120,000 Guatemala - 100,000 50,000 150,000 Honduras 3. 80,000 40,000 120,000 Haiti 3------ 172,000 50,000 222,000 Mexico'------------------------------------------------------------ 200,000 150,000 450,000 Nicaragua 3- 80,000 40,000 120,000 Panama 3. 50,000 25,000 75,000 Paraguay 170,000 85,000 255,000 Peru 3-... 172,000 86,000 258,000 Uruguay 3-- 75,000 37,500 112,500 Venezuela'--------------------------------------------------------- 100,000 50,000 150,000
Total program------------------------------------------------ 2,774,885 1,543,500 4,418,385
1 Cooperative agreements not yet negotiated.
Mr. RABAUT. Where are those from?
Mr. Holland. Its present commitments under cooperative agreements will run through the fiscal year 1948.
Mr. RABAUT. Is that according to its charter?
Mr. LEvy. No, it is according to commitments which at present carry through 1948.
objectives and operations
Mr. RABAUT. What are the proposed accomplishments of this corporation? Mr. Holla ND. The objectives and operations are set forth on pages 2 to 6 of the justifications, which I would like to submit for the record at this point: EDUCATION DIVISION
Objectives.—The objective of the Education Division's program is the development of cooperative educational programs in the other American Republics with emphasis on general education in the elementary, secondary, and normal schools; health and vocational education, particularly in rural areas; and the teaching of the English language. The program is being carried out through bilateral agreements providing for (1) the interchange of educators, and (2) the preparation and interchange of teaching materials, such as visual aids, textbooks, and pamphlets.
The objectives are:
1. To cement inter-American relations upon a basis of the fullest mutual understanding among all the peoples of the hemisphere, Inter-American educational programs, founded on cooperative agreements which respond both to the aspirations of the nations involved and to their educational attainments and needs, constitute an important factor in hemispheric unity and understanding.
2. To aid in the improvement of the economic and physical conditions of the national populations. Such cooperative action is of importance to the immediate war effort and also to the long-range development of the hemisphere. A risin standard of living in the Western Hemisphere is essential to the permanent an mutually beneficial economic and commercial relations among the Americas. This cooperative approach has already helped provide common standards of health, knowledge, and vocational proficiency.
3. To implement the recommendations of the Pan American Scientific Congresses, the Inter-American Conferences on Agriculture, and other inter-American conferences, at which government officials and educators alike have recommended the adoption of cooperative measures to develop and improve the educational systems of the Americas. Toward that end, the Ministers and Directors of Education of the American republics, meeting at Panama City from September 27 to October 4, 1943, resolved:
“A. To recommend that the governments of the American republics take individually, or by complementary agreements between two or more of them, appropriate steps to improve education, by providing, insofar as possible, materials, services, and funds;
“B. To recommend that to these ends there be utilized the technical aid and advice of public and private agencies in the field of education.”
It is the feeling of this Office that the forces of education must be further united to support the program of inter-American collaboration. Such a program makes known to educators in the other American republics the personnel and methods of our public and private educational institutions. At the same time, our educators become acquainted with the educational achievements of the other Americas. Through this reciprocal educational process, enduring relationships are established.
Operations.—During the fiscal years 1944 and 1945, in negotiating agreements, certain definite procedures have been evolved for carrying out this program. First, an agreement is reached between this Office and the Department of State on the countries where the program can be developed. Second, the background of all facts regarding the educational, economic, social, and political conditions in these countries is carefully studied. Third, staff members go to the individual countries and develop tentative plans with the members of the staff of the United States Embassy and with educational leaders of the country. Fourth, detailed
plans are worked out in Washington, and after approval of the Department of state, notes are exchanged between this country and the individual country. Fifth, the field party is then selected and sent to the other country to effectuate the plans which have been developed. The care which has been taken in setting up the agreements with these countries with respect to educational needs, and funds required to meet the problems, has provided fairly accurate criteria by which to estimate allocations for the entire program. The funds allocated to particular countries have been estimated with regard to the country's needs: for assistance in training industrial manpower; itsJolio the degree of literacy in the country; its own national educational budget; and other factors. Actual experience in the other American republics where arrangements for cooperative educational programs have been compelted, and discussions with educators in all of them, indicate two important trends: First, a general recognition of the fact that if the other Americas are to achieve their desired social and economic progress in raising their living standards, and through this to become better markets for their own and for our products, cooperative educational programs, especially in the fields of general literacy, health education, and vocational training. must be undertaken. Second, that the educational system of the United States and the methods and teaching techniques that we have developed are of great interest to educators of the other Americas who have had the opportunity to become familiar with them; also, that these educators are anxious to have educational advice and assistance on a reciprocal basis from the United States. The cooperative agreements normally provide for the following types of activity: (a) Furnishing of a field staff of educational specialists requested by the local government (Ministry of Education) for service in the country in carrying out the o educational program; (b) Grants to permit educators of the country to go to the United States for specialized training, to lecture, to teach, and to interchange ideas and experience with United States educators; (c) Exploration and survey in the country of local educational needs and resources for carrying out training projects in the normal schools in the field of teacher training for rural, primary, and secondary schools, and in the fields of vocational and technical training, health education, English teaching, literacy, etc. (d) Development, adaptation, and exchange of suitable teaching materials for teachers on the primary and secondary levels. (e) Local projects needed to implement the program.
Program expense—Inter-American Educational Foundation, Inc.
The Inter-American Educational Foundation, Inc., was created under the laws of the State of Delaware on September 25, 1943, pursuant to authority contained in the National War Agencies Appropriation Act, 1944 (Public Law 139, 78th Cong., approved July łł. 1943). #. Corporation is a Government-controlled nonprofit membership corporation.
The purposes of this Corporation are the development of cooperative educational programs in the other American republics with emphasis on general education in the elementary, secondary, and normal schools; health and vocational education, particularly in rural areas; and the teaching of the English language. . The program is carried out principally through bilateral agreements providing for (1) the interchange of educators; and (2) the preparation and interchange of teaching materials, such as visual aids, textbooks, and pamphlets.
Funds for carrying out the program of the Corporation are made available to it by grants from this Office.
During the fiscal year 1944 the Office granted to the corporation the sum of $2,588,275. In the fiscal year 1945, the Office received contract authorization of $2,500,000 for the further capitalization of this corporation. In the fiscal year 1946 cash requirements for the partial liquidation of the 1945 contract authorization will be $301,423.
Mr. Holland. I have here a letter from the American Chamber of Commerce in Brazil which gives us very strong support. With your permission. I would like to read that letter. It says:
MARch 29, 1945. Mr. KENNETH Holi,AND, Director of the Educational Division of the Office of Inter-American Affairs.
DEAR SIR: At the regular meeting yesterday of the board of directors of this chamber, the excellent work of the Office of Inter-American Affairs was again brought to the attention of the board, and particularly that concerning the vocational education program between Brazil and the United States, which, we understand, is sponsored by your Office.
The board is well informed regarding the project of taking directors of Brazilian vocational schools to the United States for the purpose of instruction and of bringing American vocational technicians to Brazil for the purpose of assisting, in the establishment of vocational schools in Brazil. It has gone on record unanimously, in endorsing and encouraging the continuation of such activities, since it is unqualifiedly of the opinion that it will contribute greatly to the establishment of better and stronger trade and commercial relations between the two countries, as well as promoting more friendly relations. Furthermore, the United States now has an opportunity not only to counteract the influence which Germany and other countries have in the past exerted, but also to supplant it. Therefore, we believe that this program deserves the full support of this chamber and the United States.
Very truly yours
PARTIAL LIQUIDATION OF 1945 CONTRACT AUTHORIZATION
Mr. RABAUT. I remember when the request was first made it was for $5,000,000.
Mr. HIsLE. You gave us $2,588,275 for the 1944 fiscal year and a contract authorization of $2,500,000 for the 1945 fiscal year. We are asking in the fiscal year 1946 a cash appropriation for the partial liquidation of that contract authorization.
Mr. Holland. We are not asking for more funds this year. We are planning to do the job which we have outlined to you in previous years within the total funds already provided by the Congress in the form of cash appropriations and contract authorizations. When the present program has been completed it can be evaluated and a decision made as to whether additional activities in this field are justifiable.
ExPENDITURES DURING 1946
Mr. TABER. You do not tell us on page 7 of the justifications how much money you expect to spend in the fiscal year 1946.
Mr. HIsle. The third line from the bottom shows estimated cash disbursements of $1,524,489.
Mr. TABER. What are you going to spend that money for?
Mr. Holland. The funds are used to send materials on education in the United States to the other American republics. They are also used for sending a few of our representatives down to act as consultants to the ministries of education, or educational officials, to exchange ideas and work with them, so that they may have a better understanding of our educational system and we of theirs. The American republics can then adapt to their own needs and experience what they have learned. We think that our experience in this education program will be helpful to us as well as to them.
The program also provides for bringing a number of key educators from those countries to study, to work, to lecture, and to exchange ideas with our educators.
Exchange of STUDENTS
Mr. CASE. Are you doing anything in the exchange of students? Mr. Holland. That program was transferred to the Department of State. Our exchange is now in connection with ministers of education, specialists in education, and directors of normal, secondary and primary schools, with special emphasis on vocational education. Mr. CASE. The work of this particular section is more in the way of urging others to do that. And rather than an exchange of funds it is an exchange of students? Mr. Holla ND. This is a cooperative educational program. We are contributing and they are contributing funds, personnel, materials, and services. Mr. CASE. It has seemed to me that a good deal can be done in the way of an exchange of teachers and students, that that is a fertile field for a reciprocal understanding between the United States and other countries. Mr. Holla Nd. I believe that; I have just returned from 2% months in Latin America and I am convinced that this is a field that has not been really developed in our relations with the other American republics. I think we have a great possibility in this program and that it has permanent value.
OTHER EDUCATION ACTIVITIES
Mr. CASE. Do you encourage the establishment of colleges for graduates of institutions in the Latin-American countries? Mr. HoLLAND. Which types of institutions do you mean? Mr. CASE. Such as the various larger schools, like the one at La Paz. Mr. Holla ND. The program to assist private schools has been transferred to the Department of State, and they are carrying that out, particularly through an office we set up known as Inter-American School Service. This Service is carrying on that work in Latin America, helping private schools in getting personnel and materials and keeping abreast of the latest developments in education in this country. Mr. CASE. In the long run such a program would be of considerable value, but at the same time it is a type of program that costs very little? Mr. Holla ND. That is what we feel. Mr. CASE. I feel that it has very great possibilities with the right kind of educators and teachers, and that those youngsters for generations will be influenced by those teachers.
PRESS AND PUBLICATIONS DEPARTMENT
Mr. CANNoN. Continuing the hearings this morning on the items for the Office of Inter-American Affairs. For item No. 10, the Press and Publications Department, you have an estimate for 1946 of $3,086,246.
I notice that while a substantial reduction is proposed, this is one of the largest items in the Budget, and I should |. glad if you would review for us, briefly, the work of this Department, letting us know :* you have accomplished up to date and how you plan to proceed or 1946.