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out lending, buying, selling, storage, transportation, subsidy, and price support activities of the Department of Agriculture with respect to agricultural commodities and foods. Loans are made available to producers of basic commoditiescotton, corn, wheat, tobacco, rice, and peanuts—under the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, as amended and supplemented, and prices of certain other nonbasic commodities are supported under authority of the Act of July 1, 1941, as amended, and the charter powers of the Corporation. The Corporation buys, stores, and ships agricultural commodities and foods to meet the needs of foreign supply programs. It has an authorized paid-in capital of $100,000,000 and is authorized by the Act of March 8, 1938, as amended, to borrow not exceeding $4,750,000,000 at any one time on the credit of the United States. Working within the framework of the Production and Marketing Administration, the Commodity Credit Corporation has field offices in nine key cities that are responsible for execution of CCC programs, coordinating the work of the CCC field office with the complementary work of the Production and Marketing Administration, State and county committees, and the field offices of the PMA branches, establishing and maintaining working liaison with banks, warehousemen, vendors, carriers, and others participating in CCC programs, and rendering fiscal and accounting services for the field offices of PMA branches.
STATE AND COUNTY OFFICES AND COMMITTEES
Production and Marketing Administration State Offices and Committees assist in the formulation of policies and programs and are responsible for carrying out in the field certain programs requiring farmer participation, including: The agricultural conservation and adjustment program, farm marketing quotas, price support operations (as assigned), commodity loans, Sugar Act payments, and other programs of P.MA which require direct dealings with farmers. They determine the production and marketing needs of the State, make recommendations as a basis for formulating and modifying policies, programs, and procedures; adapt programs to State needs; assist, as directed, in coordinating all PMA programs within the State; and work with State and local officials, other Federal agencies, farm organizations, farmers, the food processing industry, and the food trade in regard to assigned PMA programs and policies and their local implications, and provide information with respect thereto.
AUDIT BRANCH Formulates the audit policies and directs the audit and examining activities of the Production and Marketing Administration, its agents and others financed with PMA funds, including preparation of reports and recommendations of its findings; and conducts cost analyses of commercial organizations or individuals contracting with PMA to provide financial data for use in renegotiation or termination of contracts.
BUDGET AND MANAGEMENT BRANCH In collaboration with other Production and Marketing Administration officials this branch is responsible for the formulation of plans and policies covering all phases of administration and management, and provides the office of the Administrator and operating units of PMA in Washington and the field with the necessary administrative management assistance, including budget, personnel, administrative services, and organization and management analysis.
COMPLIANCE AND INVESTIGATION BRANCH Investigates violations involving procurement, sales, price support, school lunch, surplus property disposal, agricultural adjustment and conservation, regulatory, and food order programs of PMA; conducts accounting investigations, and installs and services accounting systems for market administrators and others as required; and analyzes vendor's cost and profit data.
INFORMATION BRANCH Prepares and issues current releases, background statements, and other informational material; plans and conducts informational programs on PMA activities; collaborates on issuance
of technical and popular publications and plans and issues periodical publications regarding activities of PMA; arranges necessary radio coverage on PMA activities; and plans visual information work.
AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION PROGRAMS BRANCH This branch formulates and executes agricultural conservation programs concerned with all measures essential to the prevention of erosion and the maintenance and restoration of productivity of crop lands, pastures, and ranges as provided for in sections 7 to 17 of the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act and the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 as amended and supplemented, based on recommendations and determinations of the PMA State Committees.
FISCAL BRANCH Formulates policy and procedures with respect to the fiscal and related activities of PMA, CCC, its agents, and others financed with Administration funds; maintains control accounts and records, and prepares fiscal reports on financial operations; maintains detailed accounts and records of administrative and program operations of PMA and CCC as assigned; acts as Treasurer of CCC, and performs such duties as prescribed by the President, CCC.
FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAMS BRANCH Plans and directs operations under the National School Lunch Act and of the direct distribution, food preservation, and marketing programs for abundant and surplus foods; and coordinates efforts of national, State, and local officials in the improvement of nutritional standards and food' habits.
MARKETING FACILITIES BRANCH Administers the United States Warehouse Act and section 201 of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 involving adjustments in freight rates and services for farm products; plans for the conservation and more efficient use of transportation equipment; recommends methods of dealing with shortages of transportation equipment; plans and assists in improving marketing facilities and methods of physical handling of food products; and issues cold storage reports.
MARKETING RESEARCH BRANCH
This branch conducts research which cuts across commodity lines, including transportation methods and development of new techniques and equipment, packing, packaging, and processing, wholesale and retail market and distribution practices; assists the Assistant Administrator for Marketing in marketing research coordination and program development and review and in serving as PMA liaison on marketing research.
PRICE SUPPORT AND FOREIGN SUPPLY BRANCH Coordinates the development, operation, and review of Commodity Credit Corporation programs, policies, and procedures, including foreign supply programs; provides specialized economic advice and assistance on PMĂ and CCC policies and programs; establishes and maintains liaison with other agencies and claimants on supply program matters; and collaborates with other PMA branches and claimants to insure fulfillment of contractual and fiscal arrangements.
SHIPPING AND STORAGE BRANCH Develops and executes, or directs the execution of a comprehensive program for shipping, storing, and delivering agricultural commodities and foods in accordance with export and domestic delivery programs; develops, recommends, and oversees the application for policies for handling shipping and storage of agricultural commodities, including contractual matters, claims determinations on losses resulting from shipping and storage, inventory management, and commodity care, and serves as liaison with Federal agencies, associations of carriers and warehousemen, and other groups on transportation and warehousing matters.
COMMODITY BRANCHES Cotton Branch, Dairy Branch, Fats and Oils Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Branch, Grain Branch, Livestock Branch, Poultry Branch, Sugar Branch, Tobacco Branch
Each of the commodity branches has, with respect to the commodities over which it has jurisdiction, responsibility as assigned for (1) formulating programs,
policies, procedures and modifications thereof, for final action by the Administrator in connection with production, adjustment, marketing, loan, purchase, subsidy, diversion, export, import, price support, farm marketing quotas, processing, distribution and other programs assigned to the Production and Marketing Administration; (2) conducting marketing research, investigations, and development work including activities assigned under the Research and Marketing Act of 1946 and other statutes, to effect improvements in handling, packaging, standardization, processing, inspection, and the development of new products, processes, and uses; (3) conducting inspection, grading, market news and other programs to effect improvements in marketing of farm products; (4) administering regulatory and marketing service acts, including marketing agreement and order programs; and (5) formulating supply estimates and allocation recommendations.
RURAL ELECTRIFICATION ADMINISTRATION The Rural Electrification Administration administers a program, established by the Rural Electrification Act of 1936, of providing central station electric service for farms, residences, and other establishments in rural areas that are without such service. As the principal means of accomplishing this, Rural Electrification Administration makes loans on a self-liquidating basis to local groups, public bodies, and utilities organized under State laws, with preference accorded to farmers' cooperatives and other nonprofit organizations, to finance the construction and operation of rural power systems. These loans are made on a maximum 35-year amortization basis for financing electrical facilities. Supplementary loans also are made to system borrowers for relending to consumers to finance the wiring of premises and acquisition of certain electrical equipment.
In the execution of this program, Rural Electrification Administration renders assistance to borrowers in the organization of cooperatives and on problems involved in the design, construction, and operation of their systems in order to achieve maximum efficiency in providing adequate electric service to their communities at a reasonable cost and protect the Government funds which are secured by mortgages on the facilities. Borrowers are assisted in extending electric service to farms and other rural establishments and in helping consumers obtain maximum benefits of electricity on the farm and in the home. In connection with these Activities the Rural Electrification Administration makes studies and disseminates information concerning the progress of rural electrification.
Though the Administration does not maintain field offices, it has a field staff of engineers, auditors, and other specialists to assist borrowers on problems involved in construction, engineering, and operation of their systems.
The Rural Electrification Administration was created by Executive Order No. 7037 on May 11, 1935, as an independent agency under the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of that year. The Rural Electrification Act of 1936, approved May 20, 1936, established the present agency and made provision for a 10-year program for rural electrification loans. Under Reorganization Plan No. II the Administration became a part of the Department of Agriculture in July 1939. The Department of Agriculture Organic Act of 1944 removed the time limitation from the lending program and liberalized the loan terms.
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE The Soil Conservation Service was established by the Soil Conservation Act of 1935 as a permanent agency to combat the wastage of soil and moisture resources on the farm and grazing lands of the Nation, resulting from soil erosion. Thus, the basic purpose of the Service is to aid in bringing about physical adjustments in proper land use that will better human welfare, conserve natural resources, establish a permanent and balanced agriculture, and reduce the hazards of floods, drought, and sedimentation. Work toward this objective is carried on through a coordinated program of soil and water conservation and land use. This program involves the conservation planning of individual farms and ranches, the development of group facilities for the use and disposal of water as it affects the land, and work with soil conservation districts. It also involves research and investigations into the causes and remedies of soil erosion.
Primarily, the Soil Conservation Service furnishes technical assistance to farmers and ranchers through soil conservation districts, upon the request of the districts. These districts are local units of State government, organized and managed under State law, by landowners and operators. The technical assistance is given to help landowners and operators in districts treat each acre according to its needs and use each acre according to its individual capabilities. The com
plete conservation farm plan which the farmer and technician work out together is patterned to fit the individual problems and conditions on each acre of the entire farm, as determined by slope, soil, degree of erosion, climate, and other physical and economic factors. The plan takes into account the beneficial use to which water should be put, and the development of a sound use for each land unit or area. It must suit the economic and other needs of the individual farmer.
Under the Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act, the service administers the Land Utilization Program, which deals with the conservation and utilization of submarginal lands acquired by the Federal Government. As part of the functions authorized by the Case-Wheeler Act of 1939, the Service handles the agricultural aspects of the development of irrigation projects constructed under the authorities of this act which include acquiring and preparing project land for irrigation, selling such land in economic, family-sizė units to qualified veterans and others, and supplying technical advice and assistance to project farmers.
Under the Flood Control Acts, the Soil Conservation Service conducts preliminary examinations and surveys for the retardation of runoff and water flow and the prevention of erosion on watersheds designated by Congress and assigned to the Service by the Department of Agriculture. Watershed areas which are chiefly agricultural have been assigned to the Soil Conservation Service. The survey reports which recommend watershed treatment serve as a basis for congressional authorization to carry out works of improvement in general conformity with the recommendations contained in the reports. The Service carries out that part of flood control operations concerned primarily with the farmlands and with related water and sediment controls. These operations are carried out over a designated period of time, varying in accordance with congressional authorizations.
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
SECRETARY OF COMMERCE The Secretary directs the activities of the Department, which include population, agricultural, and other censuses; collection, analysis, and dissemination of commercial statistics; promotion of foreign and domestic commerce; coastal and geodetic surveys; establishment of commodity weights, measures, and standards; supervision of the issuance of patents and the registration of trade-marks; the establishment and maintenance of aids to air navigation, the certification of airmen, the inspection and registration of aircraft; supervision of the issuance of weather forecasts and warnings; development of inland waterway transportation; supervision of the operation of Government-owned barge lines; declassification and dissemination of scientific and technical data.
The Secretary is responsible for the direction and coordination of all the activities of the Department.
UNDER SECRETARY OF COMMERCE The Under Secretary serves as the principal deputy of the Secretary in all matters affecting the Department of Commerce and exercises general supervision over its several bureaus and offices.
ASSISTANT SECRETARIES OF COMMERCE The Assistant Secretary for Foreign and Domestic Commerce exercises immediate direction and supervision over the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com. merce. He directs the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce and performs all the duties and assumes all the responsibilities required by law in that connection.
The Assistant Secretary for Aeronautics is responsible for the immediate di. rection and supervision of the Civil Aeronautics Administration, the Coast and Geodetic Survey, and the Weather Bureau, and performs such other duties as may be prescribed by the Secretary.
EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT TO THE SECRETARY The executive assistant to the Secretary serves as general assistant to the Secretary on executive matters, and is responsible for
the over-all administrative management of the Department, including the coordination of the functions of
the several offices and bureaus, and the supervision of the Offices of Budget and Management, Personnel Administration and Administrative Services.
SOLICITOR The Solicitor is the chief law officer of the Department of Commerce. He acts as legal adviser to the Secretary, the Under Secretary, and the Assistant Secretaries and directs and supervisers all legal activities of the Department.
OFFICE OF BUDGET AND MANAGEMENT The Office of Budget and Management is responsible for advising and assisting the Secretary and other officials of the Department in developing broad manage ment and budget policies and programs necessary to achieve the various objectives, and develop the organization through which the Secretary can most effectively direct and coordinate the activities of the Department of Commerce; developing budget programs designed to assure the provision of funds necessary effectively to discharge the functions and responsibilities of the Department; developing and coordinating all administrative practices and procedures of the Department; developing systems to insure the most economical use of manpower, equipment, travel, communications, and printing services and other facilities of the Department in the performance of its essential functions; establishing accounting and auditing policies for the Department and providing fiscal services for the Office of the Secretary and Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce.
OFFICE OF PUBLICATIONS The Office of Publications serves as a medium through which information concerning the program and facilities of the Department to aid business and industry will be transmitted to the public; establishes policies for the distribution of economic, scientific, and other technical materials developed through research and analysis in the various bureaus and offices of the Department; reviews material prepared in the bureaus and offices of the Department for conformity with general policy; conducts relations with the press, and issues releases to the public.
OFFICE OF PROGRAM PLANNING The Office of Program Planning serves as a staff office to the Secretary on matters relating to the program and policy of the Department. Upon its establishment in October 1945 the Office assumed functions previously performed by the Program Committee, which was appointed by the Secretary of Commerce in April 1945 to review and make recommendations on the existing functions and policies of the Department.
OFFICE OF PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION The Office of Personnel Administration is charged with the administration of the personnel program of the Department, including recruitment, placement and appointments, classification of positions, promotion of employees, initiation and supervision of personnel training programs, maintenance of service ratings, direction of programs of personnel relations, hearing of grievances, and counseling of employees, reviewing of recommendations for disciplinary actions and dismissals, promotion and supervision of safety and health programs and other functions of a related nature.
OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES The Office of Administrative Services is responsible for directing the application of administrative service policies throughout the Department; providing the several service facilities of the Office of the Secretary and the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce; and exercising administrative supervision over the buildings occupied by the Department,
the care of all vehicles under the Office of the Secretary, the receipt, distribution, and transmission of the mail, and the custody of the Department's seal and the records and files of the Secretary's office.
OFFICE OF TECHNICAL SERVICES The Office of Technical Services promotes the foreign and domestic commerce by providing business and industry with technical information and services de