## Alan Turing: The EnigmaA gripping story of mathematics, science, computing, war history, cryptography, and homosexual persecution and liberation. Hodges tells how Turing's revolutionary idea of 1936-- the concept of a universal machine-- laid the foundation for the modern computer. Turing brought the idea to practical realization in 1945 with his electronic design. This work was directly related to Turing's leading role in breaking the German Enigma ciphers during World War II, a scientific triumph that was critical to Allied victory in the Atlantic. Despite his wartime service, Turing was eventually arrested, stripped of his security clearance, and forced to undergo a humiliating treatment program-- all for trying to live honestly in a society that defined homosexuality as a crime. This New York Times bestselling biography of the founder of computer science and artificial intelligence is the definitive account of an extraordinary mind and life. --Excerpted from 2014 version, published by Princeton University Press. |

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Page 171

... initial settings for the three rotors . This amounted to choosing some triplet of

intercepts , a list of these initial six -

there ...

... initial settings for the three rotors . This amounted to choosing some triplet of

**letters**, say ' WHI ' . ... Their method was to collect each day , from their radiointercepts , a list of these initial six -

**letter**sequences . They knew that in this list ,there ...

Page 172

There would be two further tables , connecting the second and fifth

the third and sixth . There were a number of ways of using this information to

derive the state of the Enigma machine from which all those six -

had ...

There would be two further tables , connecting the second and fifth

**letters**, andthe third and sixth . There were a number of ways of using this information to

derive the state of the Enigma machine from which all those six -

**letter**sequenceshad ...

Page 180

Suppose now that the

GENERAL on the full Enigma with plugboard . ... Consider just one

There are only 26 possibilities for the effect of the plugboard on A , and so we can

...

Suppose now that the

**letters**LAKNQKR are known to be the encipherment ofGENERAL on the full Enigma with plugboard . ... Consider just one

**letter**, the A .There are only 26 possibilities for the effect of the plugboard on A , and so we can

...

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able Alan Turing Alan's allowed American appeared applied asked Bletchley boys brain British calculation called Cambridge communication complete connection continued course discussion effect electronic engineering Enigma experience explained fact German give given hand homosexual human idea important instructions intelligence interest kind King's later less letter logical look machine Manchester March mathematician mathematics matter means mechanical method mind move nature never Office operations particular perhaps person physical plans play position possible practical principle probably problem quantum mechanics question reason result rules scientific showed suggested symbols taken talk theory thing thought took turn universal von Neumann wanted whole writing wrote