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1781. amples are never more nece"

fuch dangerous occafions;
more effectual. The general.
fequence of this, reprefented
in fuch ftriking colours, as
of the court. Greene at
conduct of the Marylan
lic) in fuch a manner.
participation of the cri
racters he faid-" O
fufficient to betray h
errors. But the gene
ryland line has nobl
of fuch as have at
he believe that fok"
whofe character is t

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their glory by an i

The gen. W Gould-" I fhe was I to be fil

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faving the frontier fettlements of both the Ca-17816
from their incurfions, while the inhabitants were
full liberty to concentrate their force against the
under lord Cornwallis. When the co-operation
Indians could be of the leaft fervice to the Bri-
forces, they were induced to break their engage-

They, with a number of disguised whitemen,
ng themselves the king's friends, made an incurfion
...the district of Ninety Six, maffacred fome fami-
and burned feveral houses. Gen. Pickens collected
arty of the American militia, and penetrated into
fettlements of the Cherokees. This he accomplish-
in fourteen days, at the head of 394 horfemen. In
at fhort space he burned 13 towns and villages, killed
ward of 40 Indians, and took a greater number pri-
ners. Not one of his party was killed, and only two were
ounded. None of the expeditions against the Chero-
es had been fo rapid and decifive as the prefent. Pickens
id not expend three pounds of ammunition, and yet
nly three Indians escaped, after having been once seen,
On this occafion a new and fuccefsful mode of fighting
The Indians was introduced. Inftead of firing, the Ame-
rican militia rushed forward on horfeback, and charged
with drawn fwords. This was the fecond time fince
the commencement of the American war, that the Che-
rokees were chaftifed in their own fettlements, in con-
fequence of their fuffering themselves to be excited by
British emiffaries to commence hoftilities against their
white neighbours. They again fued for peace, in the
most fubmiffive terms, and obtained it after promifing,
that inftead of liftening to the advice of the royalifts.
inftigating them to war, they would deliver to the autho-
VOL. IV.
N

rity

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3th had two commiffioned off-
d; eight officers (fome of
125 non-commiffioned and

on of more capital and

us Graffe to a co-operation hown on the Brinth miniitry Fowlers to Sir George Rod- count in profècuting the that to give effectual affift

Min his whole feet and

mle sth of July, and
me middle of the month,
eps of the line. In
= u on the Cape with
g iten out of danger,
Vanal for money, he directed
23 fall of the line and
Noey, defigning to return
add
upon fending Sir Samuel
the line, fume irigates, and
; and forwarded dispatches

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it to adm. Graves. Graves however failed on a cruife 1781. before Boston. When he returned on the 16th of Auguft, the propofal was renewed: but it was now become. neceffary to refit one of his fhips, and to repair others, fo that his fleet could not be ready in feafon. Mr. de Barras failed with the train and ftores from Rhode Island Aug. on the 25th; concluding from de Graffe's own dispatches, 25 that he must be then at the Chesapeak. De Barras was at liberty to have undertaken any other fervice: but though he was an older officer than de Graffe, he voluntarily chose to put himself under his command, to enfure an object, the attainment of which was of fuch immenfe confequence to the allied arms of France and America. On the day of his failing, Sir Samuel Hood arrived off the Chefapeak, where he expected to have met Graves with the fquadron from New York; but being disappointed, he fent a frigate to that commander with the news of his arrival. Had they formed a junction at this period and place, they might have fecured the Chesapeak, and have prevented de Graffe's entering it a few days after. Sir Samuel having examined the bay, proceeded to the capes of Delaware, and not feeing or hearing any thing of de Graffe, made the best of his way to Sandy Hook, where he arrived on the 28th. 28. On that day, the commanders at New York received intelligence, that Barras had failed three days before to the fouthward. Notwithstanding the hope of intercept- ; ing his fquadron before it could join de Graffe, must have been a new incentive for exertions; it was three days before Graves could be in readiness to proceed. from New York with five hips of the line and a fifty gun to the Hook, and from thence with the whole fleet · N 3 under

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1781. under his command to the fouthward. The day before he failed, de Graffe arrived in the Chesapeak. On his paffage the count fell in with and took a packet from Charlestown, having on board lord Rawdon, who was on his return to Great Britain.

The French admiral after blocking up York river, took poffeffion of James's, in order to cover the boats of the fleet, which were to convoy the marquis de St. Simon, with 3300 land forces from the West Indies, eighteen leagues up the river, to form a junction with Fayette. Graves received no intelligence of the French

fleet (nor they of his approach) till they were discovered Sept, early in the morning of September the 5th, lying at 5. anchor, to the number of 24 fail of the line, juft within

Cape Henry, and confequently the mouth of the Chesapeak. The French immediately flipped their cables, and turning out from the anchorage ground, Graffe threw out a fignal for the fhips feverally to form the line as they could come up, without regarding particular stations. The British fleet amounted to nineteen fhips of the line, and one or more of 50 guns. Through various delays the action did not commence till four o'clock, and then was partial, only the van and a part of the British centre being able to come near enough to engage with effect. De Graffe did not aim fo much at a close engagement, as at keeping poffeffion of the Chefapeak, and faving his ships for that and all its correfpondent purposes. The abfence of 1800 of his feamen, and 90 officers, employed in conveying Simons's troops up James river, confirmed him in his avoidance of a hazardous action. Drake with the rear divifion, in confequence of the laft tack, becoming the van of the

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