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employees of the Water Department, Fire Department, sewage, et cetera. In another case it consisted of officials of the utilities. In another case the medical people. Then those plans developed by those various committees were reviewed by General Young and additional information secured, and then the plans were revised. Finally the plans which had been developed in this way in these various fields were subjected to a week long critique by a group, wbich consisted of certain District officials and experts from the National Security Resources Board, the Atomic Energy Commission, Public Health Department, General Services, the Security Agency, and others. That over-all committee considered the plans and they pointed out any shortcomings as they saw them.

In this way we have developed plans in a number of fields, but we haven't had the top individuals who could sit down and spend all of their time on them to tie them together, and that is why we need these experts under the Director of Civil Defense. Now we have the 30 or 40 isolated plans which have not been coordinated so far.

Mr. Yates. There will be no possibility, in your opinion, of coordinating them under the existing departmental set-up?

Colonel HAYES. No, sir.
Mr. Yates. You need special personnel for that?

Colonel HAYES. Very definitely. I think that was obvious to us from the very start when we saw what our policy would be. We found we could carry it up to a certain level, but beyond it we could not go without getting some high-level people who could devote their entire time to this problem.

Mr. YATES. What would this draftsman do? Colonel Hayes. Any plan we develop is going to involve hundreds of maps and charts covering the city, supplies, routes, and lines of communication, utilities, and things like that.

Mr. YATES. How did you arrive at the need for the five top people? Do you think you could get along with less? You are asking for one Director of Civil Defense, one Deputy Director, two assistants, one administrative assistant.

Colonel Hayes. Our original idea, included in our $30,000 budget, we originally applied for a director and said that was just to develop a plan. We are going further than that. We are not only completing our plan but we are actually putting that plan into operation. We are broadening the plan at this

time to include volunteers, and we will train them and establish the various services we need. So obviously to do that we need far more than one or two men who could sit down and work out a paper plan.

General Young. More specifically, the director, the deputy director and the assistants, they would work around the clock. In other words the Deputy Director will assist the Director in aroundthe-clock operation whenever that may be necessary. I am concerned purely with the maximum efficiency in the various areas. There is the work on the plan, and then there is the implementation.

Mr. Yates. Where does the plan stop and the implementation begin?

General YOUNG. They are concurrent. Plans are something made on paper. Implementation means buying something, installing something, putting people to work, putting something into operation.

TRAVEL

Colonel HAYES. The next item is "Travel" for which we have provided $3,500. That is an allowance of $208 for streetcar passes; an automobile allowance for three men at $264 each, totaling $792; and the third item is for other travel and per diem, allowance for out-of-town meetings, training courses, and so forth, in the amount of $2,500. The last item comprehends special training courses such as those conducted by the Atomic Energy Commission at Brookhaven and other places. We have had several such courses so far. It has been rather embarrassing for the District to ask a private individual to go to Long Island, at his own expense, to take a 5 weeks' course run by AEC for NSRB; because while he is doing it for the civil defense organization, and we have sent him at NSRB's request, yet we have not been able to pay him. Thus, where we should have sent several people, we could only find one man prepared to take the course at his own expense. These courses are by the Atomic Energy Commission and being run by them under the auspices of the National Security Resources Board. They are an increasing rather than a decreasing activity.

Mr. Bates. I notice in your justification it says this measure will be necessary. Is there anything definite?

Colonel HAYES. No, sir; they have not developed the program at least to the point of publicizing it. We know there are to be classes. They will have classes, but we cannot put our fingers on one now and say, for example, that September 15 we will start a 4 weeks' course at such a place. We have been assured that they have the number of courses in mind, but we do not know when they will be, or how long they will be, or who will run them. A regular part of their program is to institute special courses to which we would send two or three people, and they would come back and train our second echelon people here, who in turn would do the wide training of large numbers of people.

Mr. BATES. You have an allowance of $208 for streetcar passes and $792 allowances of $264 for each of three men, is that the number that are covered?

Colonel Hayes. You might say that covers 15 people.

Mr. Bares. Is this in line with the allowances of other agencies of the District government? Are you familiar with that?

Colonel HAYES. This $264 is in line. That is the usual District practice. Providing the allowance for three out of five keymen, or rather 3 out of a total of 18, may be higher than in the average department. Rather, it is a higher percentage, but the average department is usually a great deal bigger. There is no doubt these five top-level people will be spending a high percentage of their time outside the office not only in the District, but in the metropolitan area as well.

COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES

Colonel Hayes. The next item is Communications Services, with $150 for postage, and $1,900 for telephone and telegraph.

On the latter item, I sat down with several of the officials of the Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Co. and tried to figure out what would be involved for our defense headquarters at this stage, in civil defense, and their estimate was $3,600. "We cut that from $3,600 to

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to $1,900, which seemed a more reasonable estimate from our point of view at this time, but it is just a guess.

Mr. BATEs. Why should the District bear the cost of these longdistance calls when it seems to me that actually it is a service to the States and counties outside of the District?

Colonel HAYES. In any civil defense plan, the chief function of the metropolitan area outside of the District is to be to support the District. We are going to be gaining more from them than they will be gaining from us. Coordination requires communication.

Mr. STOCKMAN. I do not understand why you need any longdistance or telegraph money. Colonel Hayes. Well

, for example, in our defense headquarters, presumably we would have four trunk lines coming in. On those trunk lines we have a certain number of free calls, but after that every call must be paid for, at a regular rate set up by the Public Utilities Commission, which is included in the Federal supply schedule.

Mr. STOCKMAN. You are talking about local calls?
Colonel Hayes. Local calls as well as other calls in the metropolitan

We must pay for any local call above 50. Mr. STOCKMAN. That has nothing to do with what I said. I said long distance and telegraph. Why do you need any money for that? I do not understand why. It looks to me as though a letter would take care of your business, anyway. I do not see why you need any money for that.

Colonel HAYES. We will have a considerable percentage of toll calls within the metropolitan area. Probably our long-distance calls will be very, very few.

Mr. STOCKMAN. For instance, why would you need any long-distance calls?

General YOUNG. You are referring to phone calls within the metropolitan area?

Colonel Hayes. Yes. But also, in any plan we have, for example, for evacuation, there would be necessary arrangements with surrounding States to provide for evacuees. A large part of that would be handled by personal meetings and by correspondence, but a certain amount of it would be handled by phone.

Mr. STOCKMAN. Why would you use the Western Union?

Colonel Hayes. Well, when you send a message out and you want to get to somebody urgently, and you cannot reach him by phone, over a week end or something like that. Or it may be cheaper and simpler to handle by telegraph than by a toll call. Mr. STOCKMAN. Ïhen this planning is of an emergency nature? Colonel HAYES. It may or may not be.

OTHER CONTRACTUAL SERVICES

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"Other contractual services," provides for maintenance and tion of this one car, $300 a year, which is probably low; and miscellaneous repairs of office equipment, and so forth, $50.

SUPPLIES, MATERIALS, AND EQUIPMENT There are supplies and materials for the office, $600.

Under "Equipment” we have included initial office furnishings, $2,500, safes and special security equipment, $1,000, and one automobile, $1,400.

Mr. BATES. Why do you need a safe in this headquarters? Do you not have plenty already in stock or scattered through the Government?

Colonel HAYES. No, sir. I have tried, for example, during the last few months to get a safe for my classified material, and there is none available in the District.

PRINTING AND REPRODUCTION

Mr. Bates. Is there anything in your request for printing and reproduction?

Colonel HAYES. Yes, sir, $2,780.
Mr. Bates. I do not see any written justification.

Colonel Hayes. There is not, sir. The chief item probably will be the special pamphlets that we print, instructions for the householder, cards to be tacked up in appropriate places in the house; and materials to be used in connection with courses or training, and instructional material of that kind.

Mr. Bates. Can you tell us how you arrive at this figure of $2,780? On what did you base that amount, or did you pull it out of the air?

Colonel HAYES. To a large extent, we took the initial estimate of $5,000 which had been given us, and compared that with various departments to get their reaction to it, and what their ideas were as to the amount of funds we would need for that material, and we came up with that answer.

COMMAND NET The second project is the “Command net.” That consists essentially of two items, the "Defense headquarters," and the "Communications" necessary for the defense headquarters.

The basic plan for civil defense involves a defense headquarters where the civil defense staff will have their office and from which they will control and coordinate activities in the event of a disaster. It includes an alternate headquarters, generally identical with the first as far as communications equipment, and so forth, is concerned, to which they may move in the event that the main headquarters is destroyed. It includes certain dispersed control centers around town, whose function would be to control operations in the particular area of those headquarters.

In the event the defense headquarters was not destroyed, the alternate control headquarters would also act as a control center.

The funds we ask for provide for renovating an old District building, the Nurses' Dormitory at the Tuberculosis Hospital, which presently is vacant, and whose use in the near fuutre has not been contemplated. This building met our criteria: First, it was not now in use; and second, it was about the best of the vacant District buildings; and third it was away from the downtown area.

Our plan is to renovate that building. It needs considerable work. The heating equipment is in very bad condition, the windows are broken, and the interior decorating has not been done for many years; and the building has no insulation, so that the second floor is extremely hot in the summer and extremely cold in the winter. Our plan provides for the renovation of that building, for the installation of the necessary communications equipment therein for the control of our

civil defense organization and our civil defense operations in the event of a disaster, and also the installation of our warning net.

Mr. BATEs. Where is that building located?

Colonel Hayes. That building is out at Fourteenth and Upshur Streets. I have a map here if you would like to look at it on the map.

Mr. Bates. That is sufficient.

Mr. Fowler. You had testimony on the Tuberculosis Hospital the other day, the same hospital.

Colonel Hayes. The first item under defense headquarters is "rents and utility services.” These are a standard amount which we have gained from our experience in other similar buildings.

Under "Other contractual services," there is an item of $25,000 for the repair, alteration and renovation of this building, $150 for the removal of refuse, and $3,000 for the maintenance and operation of the radio equipment to be installed there. That $3,000 item is based also on our actual experience in the District with a similar number of similar pieces of equipment to that which will be installed there.

Also included is $400 for the supplies and materials; and there is $47,000 for radio receivers and transmitters. This equipment is the communications equipment necessary for the defense headquarters, and consists essentially of a disaster transmitter for transmitting our orders and instructions to the control centers and to the operating agencies, monitoring receivers, a tower, and dual-frequency transmitters for communication with the fire, police, highway, and water communication nets. The figure also provides some communications equipment for the control centers.

The last item under this same project is the “Dispersed control centers, $5,000," the justification for which is given therein.

Mr. Bates. I cannot find any written justification for this $83,620 request save for equipment. How did you arrive at this figure, can you tell us that, please?

Colonel HAYES. For “Rents and utilities," as I said, it is from our experience with similar buildings; and the $25,000 covering the repair, alteration and renovation of the headquarters building, was an estimate given to us by the Director of Construction from his knowledge of the state of the building, and the installations and renovations that would be necessary for it.

The big item, of course, is the radio receivers and transmitters, which is the communications system for the civil defense set-up.

Mr. Bates. In what condition is the Upshur Street building now?

Colonel HAYES. It is a fair building, the building is basically sound, but needs a lot of renovation to put it in operating shape.

Mr. BATEs. I was wondering if it would not be cheaper to use a building that could be renovated at less cost, if there is one available.

Colonel Hayes. Possibly it would, except in looking through our list of vacant buildings—and we do not have many—this was the one which seemed to offer the best solution at the least cost.

USE OF EXISTING FACILITIES

Mr. BATES. Why can you not use the police and fire radio nets instead of setting up a new system?

Colonel HAYES. Because those systems will be used, and used very extensively, but the police net will be fully required for the police

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